Medication Description: Dichlothiazide (Dichlothiazidum)
DICHLOTHIAZID (Dichlothiazidum). 6-Chloro-7-sulfamoyl-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1, 2, 4-benzothiadiazin-1, 1 dioxide.
Synopsis: Hydrochloride, Hydrochloride Panurin, Unazid, Urodiazin, Vetidrex and others.
White or white with a yellowish sheen crystalline powder. Very little soluble in water, a little - in alcohol, it is easy - in solutions of caustic alkalis.
Dichlothiazide is a highly active diuretic agent, acting by oral administration. By chemical structure, it belongs to the group of benzothiadiazine derivatives, containing in the C 7 position, the sulfonamide group. The presence of this group is related to dichlothiazide with diacarb. However, as a diuretic, dichlothiazide is significantly more effective, and it inhibits carbonic anhydrase to a much lesser extent than diacarb.
The diuretic effect of dichlothiazide, as well as other diuretics of the benzothiadiazine group, is due to a decrease in the reabsorption of sodium ions and chlorine in the proximal (and partially in the distal) part of the convoluted tubules of the kidneys; reabsorption of potassium and bicarbonate is also inhibited, but to a lesser extent. Due to the strong increase in natriuresis while enhancing the excretion of chlorides, dichlothiazide is considered as an active saluretic agent; Sodium and chlorine are excreted from the body in equivalent amounts. The drug has a diuretic effect in both acidosis and alkalosis. Diuretic effect with long-term use of dichlothiazide is not reduced.
In diabetes insipidus, dichlothiazide, like other diuretics of the benzothiadiazine series, has a “paradoxical” effect, causing a decrease in polyuria. There is also a decrease in thirst. The increased osmotic pressure of blood plasma, which accompanies this disease, is greatly reduced. The mechanism of this effect is not clear enough. It is partially associated with the improvement of the concentration ability of the kidneys and the suppression of the activity of the thirst center.
Dichlothiazide also has a hypotensive effect, which is usually observed with elevated blood pressure.
Dichlothiazide is used as a diuretic (saluretic) agent in case of stagnation in the small and large circulation, associated with cardiovascular insufficiency; cirrhosis of the liver with symptoms of portal hypertension; nephrosis and nephritis (with the exception of severe progressive forms with a decrease in glomerular filtration rate); toxicosis of pregnant women (nephropathy, edema, eclampsia); premenstrual states, accompanied by stagnation.
Dichlothiazide prevents the retention of sodium ions and water in the body, accompanying the use of mineralocorticoids, so it is also prescribed for edema caused by adrenal hormones and adrenocorticotropic hormone of the pituitary gland. Dichlothiazide prevents or reduces the increase in blood pressure caused by these drugs.