Description of the medicine: Dichlothiazide (Dichlothiazidum)
Dichlothiazide (Dichlothiazidum). 6-Chloro-7-sulfamoyl-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1, 2, 4-benzothiadiazin-1, 1 dioxide.
Synonyms: Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Hypothiazide, Dihydrochlorothiazide, Nephrix, Dichlotride, Dihydran, Dihydrochlorthiazid, Disalunil, Esidrex, Esidrix, Hidrosaluretil, Hydreiurideuridridriidridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridiridrider Panurin, Unazid, Urodiazin, Vetidrex, etc.
Crystalline powder, white or white with a yellowish tint. Very little soluble in water, little in alcohol, easy in solutions of caustic alkalis.
Dichlothiazide is a highly active diuretic that is effective when taken orally. By chemical structure, it belongs to the group of benzothiadiazine derivatives containing in the C 7 position a sulfonamide group. The presence of this group is related dichlothiazide with diacarb. However, as a diuretic, dichlothiazide is much more effective, and carbonic anhydrase inhibits it to a much lesser extent than diacarb.
The diuretic effect of dichlothiazide, as well as other diuretics of the benzothiadiazine group, is due to a decrease in the reabsorption of sodium and chlorine ions in the proximal (and partially in the distal) part of the convoluted tubules of the kidneys; reabsorption of potassium and bicarbonates is also inhibited, but to a lesser extent. Due to the strong increase in natriuresis while enhancing the excretion of chlorides, dichlothiazide is considered an active saluretic; sodium and chlorine are excreted in an equivalent amount. The drug has a diuretic effect both in acidosis and in alkalosis. The diuretic effect with prolonged use of dichlothiazide does not decrease.
In diabetes insipidus, dichlothiazide, like other diuretics of the benzothiadiazine series, has a "paradoxical" effect, causing a decrease in polyuria. There is also a decrease in thirst. The increased osmotic pressure of the blood plasma that accompanies this disease is greatly reduced. The mechanism of this effect is not clear enough. It is partially associated with an improvement in the concentration ability of the kidneys and inhibition of the activity of the center of thirst.
Dichlothiazide also has a hypotensive effect, which is usually observed with high blood pressure.
Dichlothiazide is used as a diuretic (saluretic) agent for congestion in the pulmonary circulation and the pulmonary circulation, associated with cardiovascular failure; cirrhosis of the liver with the phenomena of portal hypertension; nephrosis and nephritis (with the exception of severe progressive forms with a decrease in glomerular filtration rate); toxicosis of pregnant women (nephropathy, edema, eclampsia); premenstrual conditions accompanied by congestion.
Dichlothiazide prevents the retention of sodium and water ions in the body that accompanies the use of mineralocorticoids, so it is also prescribed for edema caused by hormones of the adrenal cortex and adrenocorticotropic hormone of the pituitary gland. Dichlothiazide prevents or reduces the increase in blood pressure caused by these drugs.