Description of the medicine: Furosemide (Furosemidum)
FUROSEMID (Furosemidum). 4-Chloro-M- (2-furylmethyl) -5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid.
Synonyms: Lasix, Furantril, Afsamid, Arasemide, Diusemide, Diuzol, Dryptal, Edefrusex, Errolon, Franyl, Frugex, Frusemide, Frusolon, Furanthril, Furantral, Furfan, Furomex, Furosan, Furosemide, Lasix, Fusid Nicorol, Profemin, Protargen, Rasisemid, Renex, Salix, Seguril, Trofurit, Uritol, Urosemid, etc.
White crystalline powder. Insoluble in water.
The chemical structure (the presence of a chlorine atom and sulfanamide group with the phenyl core) has elements of similarity with dichlothiazide and related compounds.
Furosemide is a strong diuretic (saluretic) drug. Effective for oral and parenteral use. The diuretic effect is associated with inhibition of the reabsorption of N and Cl ions, and this inhibition is observed not only in the proximal, but also in the distal convoluted tubules, and in the region of the ascending part of the Henle loop. Potassium reabsorption is also inhibited, but to a much lesser extent. Not noticeable inhibition of carbonic anhydrase does not cause. The drug is equally effective in conditions of acidosis and alkalosis. The diuretic effect is most pronounced during the first 2 days of taking the drug, but does not disappear even with prolonged treatment.
The drug acts quickly. After intravenous administration, the diuretic effect begins in a few minutes, after ingestion - during the first hour. The duration of action after a single intravenous administration of 1, 5 - 3 hours, after oral administration - 4 hours or more. The rapid effect with intravenous administration makes it possible to use furosemide in emergency cases (pulmonary, brain edema, etc.).
Furosemide is used as a diuretic for congestion in the pulmonary circulation and large circulation caused by heart failure, with cirrhosis of the liver with symptoms of portal hypertension, chronic and acute renal failure, pulmonary and brain edema, poisoning with barbiturates, eclampsia.
Unlike thiazides, furosemide does not reduce glomerular filtration, and it is used in connection with chronic renal failure (if there are indications for the use of diuretics).
In some cases, furosemide has a diuretic effect with the lack of effectiveness of other drugs.
The effectiveness of furosemide in the treatment of patients with circulatory failure is associated not only with a diuretic effect, but also with a direct expanding effect on peripheral vessels. The first (early) phase that develops in the first 30 minutes after the injection of the drug depends on its effect on the peripheral vessels, and the second (late) phase that develops 1 to 2 hours after the injection is associated with a diuretic effect.
Furosemide also has an antihypertensive effect.
The drug is effective in various forms of hypertension, including in severe forms in which other saluretics are ineffective. The mechanism of antihypertensive action is basically the same as with thiazide diuretics.
Furosemide is also used to stop severe hypertensive crises.