Description of the medicine: Oxytocin (Oxytocinum)
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone (octapeptide) of the posterior pituitary gland. It consists of a pentapeptide cycle and a side chain of three amino acid residues. The cycle is formed in such a way that two groups of cysteine (in position 1 and 6), closing, create a disulfide bridge.
Oxytocin is currently synthesized.
Synonyms: Sintocinon, Ipofamin, Ocytocin, Orasthin, Oxystin, Oxytocin, Partocon, Pitocin, Pitupartin, Synpitan, Syntocinon, Utedrin, Uteracon, etc.
The main pharmacological property of oxytocin is the ability to cause strong contractions of the muscles of the uterus, especially pregnant. This action is associated with the effect of oxytocin on the membranes of myometrial cells; he does not have a direct effect on the contractile elements of myoplasma. Under the influence of oxytocin, the membrane permeability to potassium ions increases, its potential decreases and excitability increases. Oxytocin also increases the secretion of milk, enhancing the production of lactogenic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland (prolactin). In addition, it can cause the rapid release (ejection) of milk from the mammary gland due to the effect on its contractile elements. In terms of the effect on the uterus, synthetic oxytocin is similar to natural preparations of the posterior pituitary gland (pituitrin, hyphotocin).
Due to the fact that oxytocin is free of other hormones, it has a more selective effect, gives only a weak antidiuretic effect; does not significantly affect blood pressure or slightly increases it. Since the drug is free of proteins, peptides and other by-products, it can be administered intravenously without the danger of anaphylactic and pyrogenic effects.
Used to induce and stimulate labor. The drug is most effective for premature discharge of amniotic fluid. It is also prescribed for weak labor, associated with uterine atony, and hypotonic uterine bleeding. It can be used for artificial induction of labor (with pregnancy complications).
Enter intravenously or intramuscularly. Intravenous administration causes a rapid (after 1/2 - 1 min) intensification of contractions; sluggish contractions become stronger, and in the absence of contractions, they usually appear quickly. Intramuscular administration has a less dramatic effect.
To initiate labor, 0.5 - 2, 0 IU (= 0.5 - 2, 0 IU) of oxytocin is injected intramuscularly: if necessary, injections are repeated every 30 to 60 minutes.
For intravenous administration, 1 ml of synthetic oxytocin (5 PIECES) is diluted in 500 ml of a 5% glucose solution and infused dropwise starting from 5-8 drops per minute, then the number of drops is gradually increased (every 5-10 minutes by 5 drops, but not more 40 drops per minute) until vigorous labor is established. Drip administration is continued throughout the birth act, and the amount of solution administered can be reduced to a minimum that supports good labor activity.