Description of the medicine: Retinol (Retinolum)
Vitamin A (Vitaminum A). trans-9, 13-Dimethyl-7- (1, 1, 5-trimethylcyclohexen-5-yl-6) nonatetraen-7, 9, 11, 1Z-ol.
Synonyms: Axeroftol, Afaxin, Alphalin, Alphasterol, Anavit, Avital, Axerol, Axerophtholum, Primavit, Viadenin, Vitaplex A, Vogan, Xerophthol, etc.
By the chemical nature, retinol belongs to the group of retinoids (see below), since it is a derivative of retinoic acid.
Vitamin A (retinol) is found in animal products. Sources of vitamin A are butter, egg yolk, and liver. Especially a lot of vitamin A is found in the liver of some fish (cod, sea bass, etc.), in marine animals (whale, walrus, seal).
Vitamin A, as such, is not found in plant foods. Many of them (carrots, spinach, lettuce, parsley, green onions, sorrel, red pepper, blackcurrant, blueberries, gooseberries, peaches, apricots, etc.) contain carotene, which is provitamin A. Vitamin A is formed from carotene. B currently synthesized vitamin A.
In medical practice, drugs containing vitamin A, of natural origin and synthetic drugs: retinol acetate and retinol palmitate are used.
Vitamin A preparations are used in prophylactic and therapeutic doses. Preventive doses are established based on the daily needs of the human body for vitamins. The daily requirement for vitamin A is 1, 5 mg, or 5000 IU for an adult (1 mg of vitamin A corresponds to ЗЗ00 IU, or IE (international or international, units of action; 1 IU = 0.3 mcg); for pregnant women - 2 mg, or 6600 IU; for lactating women - 2.5 mg, or 8250 IU; for children under 1 year old - 0.5 mg, or 1650 IU; from 1 year to 6 years - 1 mg, or 3-300 IU; from 7 years and older, as well as for boys and girls - 1, 5 mg, or 5000 IU. For medical reasons, these doses may be increased.
In the Far North, doses for pregnant and lactating women are increased by 50%; doses for children also increase.
The main indications for the therapeutic use of vitamin A are hypo- and vitamin deficiency A, some eye diseases (retinitis pigmentosa, xerophthalmia, hemeralopia, keratomalacia, eczema lesions of the eyelids), skin lesions and diseases (frostbite, burns, wounds, ichthyosis, follicular dyskeratosis, senile keratosis , some forms of eczema and other inflammatory and degenerative pathological processes) Special drugs have been created for the treatment of certain skin diseases (psoriasis, acne) (see Etretinate, Isotretinoin, etc.), near ue to the structure of retinol. Also used in the treatment of rickets, malnutrition, acute respiratory diseases, chronic bronchopulmonary diseases, inflammatory and erosive-ulcerative lesions of the intestine, chronic gastritis, cirrhosis; for the prevention of the formation of calculi in the gastric and urinary tract, etc.
Vitamin A preparations are prescribed orally, intramuscularly and externally (topically). For preventive purposes, it is usually used orally (10 to 15 minutes after eating).