Description of the medicine: Nicotinic acid (Acidum nicotinicum)
NICOTIC ACID (Acidum nicotinicum). VITAMIN PP.
Synonyms: Vitamin B 3 , Apelagrin, Induracin, Liplyt, Niacin, Nicodan, Nicodon, Niconacid, Nicotene, Nicovit, Pellagramin, Pelonin, Peviton, Vitaplex N.
White crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in cold water (1:70), better in hot (1:15), it is difficult to dissolve in alcohol. Solutions are sterilized at +100 ° C for 30 minutes.
In structure, nicotinic acid is close to nicotinamide.
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are found in animal organs (liver, kidneys, muscles, etc.), in milk, fish, yeast, vegetables, fruits, buckwheat and other products.
Niacin and its amide play a significant role in the life of the body; they are prosthetic groups of enzymes - codehydrase I (diphosphopyridine nucleotide - NAD) and codehydrase II (triphosphopyridine nucleotide - NADP), which are hydrogen carriers and carry out redox processes. Codedehydrase II is also involved in phosphate transport.
The daily need for nicotinic acid (and nicotinamide) is about 20 mg for an adult, about 25 mg for heavy physical labor, 6 mg for children from 6 months to 1 year, 9 mg for 1 year to 1, 5 years, from 1, 5 to 2 years old - 10 mg, from 3 to 4 years old - 12 mg, from 5 to 6 years old - 13 mg, from 7 to 10 years old - 15 mg, from 11 to 13 years old - 19 mg, for young men 14 - 17 years old - 21 mg, for girls 14 - 17 years old - 18 mg.
Vitamin PP deficiency in humans leads to the development of pellagra.
Nicotinic acid and its amide are specific antipellagric agents, and therefore they are designated as vitamin PP (From "Rellgra-Preventive" - warning pellagra.). Their use, especially in the early stages of the disease, leads to the disappearance of the phenomena of pellagra.
Niacin has not only anti-pellagric properties; it improves carbohydrate metabolism, has a positive effect on mild forms of diabetes, diseases of the liver, heart, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer and enterocolitis, sluggishly healing wounds and ulcers. It also has a vasodilating effect.
Niacin has lipoproteinemic activity. (See Hypolipoproteinemic (anti-atherosclerotic) drugs. At high doses (3-4 g per day) it lowers the content of triglycerides and β-lipoproteins in the blood. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, the ratio of cholesterol / phospholipids in low density lipoproteins decreases under its influence.
Assign as a specific tool for the prevention and treatment of pellagra. In addition, they are used for gastrointestinal diseases (especially gastritis with low acidity), liver diseases (acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis), spasms of limb vessels, kidneys, brain (see Nikoverin, Nikoshpan, Xanthinol nicotinate), and neuritis facial nerve, atherosclerosis, non-healing wounds and ulcers, infectious and other diseases.
Apply nicotinic acid inside (after eating) and parenterally. For prophylactic purposes, it is prescribed inside adults at 0.015-0.025 g; children of 0.005 - 0.02 g per day.