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Signs of acute conditions and the need for timely treatment

Crayfish. Diabetes. Lung diseases. Heart diseases. Stroke. These non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of death in the world. They claim 7 out of 10 lives.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, usually have a prolonged course and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioral factors.

NCDs are disproportionately large in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for more than three-quarters of NCD deaths worldwide (32 million).

Prevention of noncommunicable diseases
Prevention of noncommunicable diseases
Prevention of noncommunicable diseases

Prevention of hypertension

Arterial hypertension (hypertension) is the main cause of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, life turns into a real flour: pressure jumps provoke persistent headaches, dizziness, etc. Meanwhile, most patients do not even know about real indicators of their blood pressure and about the troubles associated with hypertension, and this is a more dangerous disease than hypotension.

Arterial pressure

The pressure exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels is called arterial pressure. A special device, the tonometer, is used to measure it. Two values ​​are subject to measurement:

  • systolic blood pressure, indicating the blood pressure in the arteries, after a heartbeat, according to this indicator it is possible to judge the strength with which the heart pushes blood;
  • diastolic blood pressure, indicating blood pressure at the time of relaxation (diastole) of the heart muscle. This is the minimum pressure in the arteries, it reflects the resistance of peripheral vessels.

Blood pressure is judged by these two indicators.

The pressure is a fairly dynamic value and its figure varies depending on the time of day, the psychological situation, the type of activity, age and other reasons. Normal is the pressure of 120/80 mm. Hg, but the deviation from this value in 10-15% also fit into the norm.

The boundary value of pressure is the numbers 140/90, with frequent and prolonged exceeding of these limits, we are talking about the so-called "mild hypertension", when the symptoms are hardly noticeable or can be interpreted as overwork, passing after a rest. It is important not to miss this period, while the pressure did not loosen the blood vessels and cause other ills in the body, because it is always more difficult to cure a running disease. In the future, with each increase of 20 mm. Hg Art., hypertension is becoming more complex form and exceeding the value of 200 mm. speaks of the onset of severe arterial hypertension.

Consequences of hypertension

In itself, an increase in pressure is not a disease, but an adaptive response of an organism to changing conditions, such as an increase in temperature or a change in blood composition, but a persistent increase in it (Arterial hypertension) is one of the main factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases (stroke, ischemic disease heart, heart attack,) annually killing thousands of people and making people with disabilities, as well as brain diseases (intellectual disabilities, memory disorders), other organs (eyes, kidneys) are targets.

Hypertension is called the "silent killer." So as he acquires a tonometer and a person begins to follow his pressure, as a rule, when the pressure goes up beyond 180, he simply does not know about raising it. Hypertension can cause hiccups (one of many).

Causes of hypertension

The causes of high blood pressure can be the culprit: kidneys (local ischemia), brain (dysregulation), spinal curvature, hypercholesterolemia (elevated blood lipids), a sedentary lifestyle aggravates any cause. More precisely, it can be diagnosed only after a comprehensive examination .

Preventive measures

Compliance with the principles of a healthy lifestyle can significantly reduce the risk of developing hypertension and its consequences.

One of the main factors contributing to the increase in pressure is overweight. Indeed, in people with overweight, the heart is forced to work with a vengeance, this cannot but affect its work and over time, failures begin to occur. Every 5 kg of excess weight increases the pressure by an average of 5-5.5 mm Hg. Art., Excessive content in the diet of animal fat and cholesterol thickens blood and contributes to the deposition of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels.

Proper nutrition for the heart is imperative.

For preventive purposes, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are needed. They are abundantly present in fish oil, vegetable oil (especially in olive oil). On the day a person needs about two tablespoons of vegetable oil. If you can not afford to eat oily fish 3 times a week, then take fish oil (in capsules) about 5 g per day.

Ordinary salt, or rather the sodium contained in it, causes water retention in the body, this causes the tissues to swell, and the vessels under their pressure narrow. Pushing blood through a narrowed vessel becomes harder and the heart is forced to shrink more intensely, which causes an increase in blood pressure. Salt is needed by the body, but in an amount of not more than 5 grams per day.

The use of foods rich in sodium antagonists - potassium and magnesium, promotes the removal of water and sodium from the body and soothes the nervous system, the degree of excitation of which also increases pressure.

Give up bad habits. Smoking is the main enemy of the cardiovascular system, increasing the risk of ischemia, even with normal pressure. A glass of alcohol provokes an instantaneous increase in pressure by 5-10 mm.

"Movement is life" - this motto should be the main for you, working muscles facilitate the work of the heart pushing blood, besides cholesterol will be involved for its intended purpose - to build cells, and will not be deposited in the vessels. Prefer aerobic exercise (riding a stationary bike, brisk walking, swimming).

With a persistent increase in blood pressure, the appearance of headaches, dizziness, general malaise, do not self-medicate. Urgently consult a general practitioner for a complete examination and appointment of the correct treatment.

Common signs and symptoms of cancer

It is important to know about some common (non-specific) signs and symptoms of cancer. These include:

  • unexplained weight loss;
  • high temperature;
  • fatigue;
  • pain;
  • skin changes.

Of course, it must be remembered that the presence of some of them does not necessarily mean the presence of a tumor. There are many other conditions that may also be accompanied by similar signs and symptoms.

Unexplained weight loss

Most people with cancer experience weight loss during a certain period of the disease. Unexplained weight loss of 4–5 kg may be the first sign of cancer, especially pancreatic, stomach, esophagus, or lung cancer.

Temperature increase (fever)

An increase in temperature is often observed in cancer and most often in a common process. Almost all cancer patients have a fever at any stage of the disease, especially if the treatment affects the immune system and increases susceptibility to infections. Less commonly, an increase in temperature may be an early sign of cancer, for example, in Hodgkin's disease (lymphogranulomatosis).

Increased fatigue

Fatigue may be an important symptom as the disease progresses. However, fatigue, weakness can occur at an early stage, especially if the cancer causes chronic blood loss, which is found in colon or stomach cancer.

Pain

Pain may be an early sign of several tumors, such as bones or testicles. Most often, however, pain is a symptom of a common process.

Skin changes

In addition to skin tumors, some types of cancer of the internal organs can cause visible skin signs such as darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation), yellowing (jaundice), redness (erythema), itching, or excessive hair growth.

Specific signs and symptoms of cancer

In addition to the above common symptoms, it is necessary to know other common symptoms that can be observed with cancer. It is necessary to point out that these signs and symptoms do not necessarily speak in favor of cancer, as they are found in other diseases. However, the onset of signs and symptoms must be told to the doctor in order to make a decision on the examination.

Impaired stool or bladder function

- chronic constipation, diarrhea, or a change in the amount of feces may indicate the presence of colon cancer.

Pain when urinating, the presence of blood in the urine, or a change in bladder function (more frequent or less frequent urination) may be associated with cancer of the bladder or prostate gland. These changes should be urgently reported to the doctor.

Non healing wound or ulcer

- Malignant skin tumors can bleed and resemble a wound or an ulcer.

A long-standing oral ulcer can be oral cancer, especially among those who smoke, chew tobacco, or drink alcohol frequently. Penile or vaginal ulcers can be both signs of infection and early cancer and therefore should be examined.

Unusual bleeding or discharge

- Unusual bleeding may appear on the background of early or advanced cancer.

Blood in the sputum may be a sign of lung cancer. Blood in the feces (or the presence of dark or black feces) may be a sign of colon or rectal cancer. Cancer of the cervix or the uterus itself can lead to bleeding from the vagina. Blood in the urine is a sign of possible bladder or kidney cancer. Isolation of blood from the nipple can be a sign of breast cancer.

Compaction or tumor formation in the breast or other parts of the body

- tumors can be felt through the skin, especially in the breast, testicles, lymph nodes and soft tissues of the body.

Compaction or tumor formation may be the first signs of early or advanced cancer. Any such finding must be reported to the doctor, especially if it is just discovered or the tumor (compaction) began to grow in size.

Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

Although these symptoms may occur in various conditions, they may at the same time indicate the presence of cancer of the esophagus, stomach or pharynx.

Change of warts or moles

- Any changes regarding the color, shape, borders or size of these formations should be immediately reported to the doctor.

The skin lesion may turn out to be melanoma, which, if diagnosed early, responds well to treatment.

Annoying cough or hoarseness

- A prolonged, persistent cough can be a sign of lung cancer.

Hoarseness is a possible sign of cancer of the larynx or thyroid gland.

When the above symptoms do not panic.

Consult a doctor, go through the necessary examination, specify the diagnosis.

The result of the treatment of early forms of cancer is about 100%.

Take care of yourself and your loved ones!

Cervical cancer

Cancer diseases and the fight against them in our time remains one of the priorities of medical science. In the structure of the incidence of malignant tumors of the population occupy a significant place neoplasms of the female genital organs. Cervical cancer among them constantly ranks first, and in terms of mortality - the second.

Doctors still can not explain why some women have cervical cancer, while others do not. However, risk factors are known that increase the likelihood of this pathology. These factors can add up and thus increase the risk.

The risk factors for cervical cancer are as follows:

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV). Today, HPV is considered the main risk factor for cervical cancer. HPV refers to a group of viruses that infect the cervical epithelium. Human papillomavirus is a fairly common virus, it is he who leads to the development of skin tumors, and can cause changes in the cervical epithelium. Preventive transformation of these changes in cancer can be timely treatment. Most people are infected with this virus. Research on the presence of HPV in a woman can be carried out even in the absence of warts or any other symptoms. HPV can be present in a woman’s body without showing any symptoms. Most often, HPV is found in young women, less often in women older than 30 years. Transferring it from person to person most often occurs through sexual contact. Condoms cannot provide 100% protection against infection or transmission of the papillomavirus.
  • Rare smear tests. Cervical cancer is more often diagnosed in women who do not attach particular importance to regular visits to the gynecologist and cytological examination of a cervical smear. The fact is that this fairly simple method allows you to identify precancerous conditions on the part of epithelial cells of the cervix uterus and begin timely treatment.
  • Weakened immune system. The risk of developing cervical cancer is higher in women with weakened immune systems infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), as well as among those taking immunosuppressants - drugs that suppress the function of the immune system. These drugs are used in the treatment of many oncological diseases, as well as collagenoses - diseases of the connective tissue.
  • Age. The risk of developing cervical cancer is higher in women older than 40 years.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners. Women who frequently change their sexual partners have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. And also in women who have a relationship with a man who often changes sexual partners.
  • Smoking tobacco. In smokers of women infected with HPV, the risk of developing cervical cancer is twice as high as in non-smokers. Tobacco products are absorbed into the blood from the lungs and spread throughout the body. This is confirmed by the fact that these substances are found in the mucus of the cervix.
  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives. Long-term oral contraceptive use (more than 5 years) by women infected with HPV increases the risk of developing cervical cancer. One study found that this risk increases 4 times higher.
  • Frequent birth. In women who often have given birth, the risk of developing cervical cancer is several times higher. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown to the end, but this fact is confirmed by numerous studies. According to one theory, frequent labor contributes to a greater susceptibility of the genital organs to human papillomavirus infection.
  • Overweight and diet. It is believed that obese women, as well as women whose diet is poor in fruits and vegetables, are more likely to develop cervical cancer.
  • Low socio-economic status. Low socioeconomic status can also be a reason for the increased risk of cervical cancer in women, as in such groups there is an extremely low degree of regular smear examination.
  • Transferred chlamydial infection. Chlamydia is a bacterium that can be sexually transmitted like viruses, this type of bacteria develops in epithelial cells. Studies have shown that a chlamydia infection that has been or is currently available increases the risk of cervical cancer. The reason for this has not yet been clarified.

If you find that you are involved in at least one risk factor for developing cervical cancer, then this is a reason for immediate access to a gynecologist.

It is necessary to know and remember that cervical cancer is a type of cancer for the detection of a tumor or a precancerous state of which there is no need to apply expensive research methods. It is enough to determine precancerous pathology using colposcopy, confirming the diagnosis by cytological examination. For the prevention of cervical cancer can be attributed vaccination against human papillomavirus. Despite the fact that carrying out these preventive vaccinations is only beginning to be widely used in Russia, the vaccine has worked well throughout the world. Vaccination should be carried out at the age of a woman from 11 to 26 years old, before the onset of sexual activity, when HPV infection has not yet occurred.

Be healthy oncologic vigilance! A regular, regular visit to the gynecologist and delivery of a smear for cytological analysis will save you from the disease. Cervical cancer is not a death sentence. Even at later stages, cervical cancer can be cured, but the treatment will be extremely long.

Your health is in your hands!

Skin cancer

Cancers are in second place after cardiovascular diseases among all the diseases of mankind. According to forecasts of the World Health Organization (WHO), by 2020. The prevalence of cancer in the world will increase to 20 million. In Russia, the incidence of cancer is also steadily increasing, about 400-500 thousand new cancer patients are detected every year.

One of the most common forms of cancer in humans is skin cancer. In the last 10 years in the overall structure of cancer incidence of men, skin tumors amounted to 8.6% and took 3rd place after lung and stomach cancer; women - 12.7% and 2nd place after breast cancer. Every year from 40 to 53 thousand new cases of malignant skin tumors were recorded in the Russian Federation, and in the world from 2 to 3 million cases.

Skin cancer is one of those rare cases of cancer where not only the main cause causing it is well known, but also measures to avoid it. The relationship between the spread of skin cancer and the intensity and duration of exposure to sunlight is well established.

In the Volgograd region, increased insolation is a risk factor for skin cancer. The summer in our area is hot and dry; solar hot days prevail, in which the air warms up to 34-36 °, and the absolute plus maximum is 41-45 °. According to the abundance of light, the number of clear days, the intensity of solar radiation at the surface of the earth, the region is not much inferior to the subtropics of Crimea.

The behavior of people is the main cause of the increase in the incidence of skin cancer in recent decades. Many consider intensive sunbathing to be normal and, unfortunately, even many children and their parents are convinced that tanning is a symbol of attractiveness and health. In fact, tanning is simply a sign of ultraviolet damage to the skin and reflects a protective reaction aimed at preventing its further damage. Increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes burns and skin cancer, possible malignancy of moles and pigment spots, accelerates its aging, can lead to inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye, cause or accelerate the development of cataracts, reduce the activity of the human immune system, and, consequently, increase the risk infection and reduce the effectiveness of immunization against them.

On the other hand, the lack of solar radiation has a negative effect on human life: the body reduces vitamin D production, disrupts calcium-phosphorus metabolism, loses the former bone hardness, decreases immunity, decreases mental and physical performance, etc. In short, without the sun, too, it’s not just bad, its rays are vital to us, as well as to nature, as a whole.

It is obvious that for each person it is necessary to determine the critical duration of exposure to sunlight.

Test to determine your photo type

With the help of the test, you can determine your photo type, that is, the ability of the skin to tan without risk to health. Answer the questions and add points.

1. The color of your skin:

  1. very white (3 points);
  2. bright (2 points);
  3. dark (1 point);
  4. very dark (0 points).

2. The color of your eyes:

  1. blue, light green (3 points);
  2. gray, blue, green (2 points);
  3. dark gray, dark green, dark blue (1 point);
  4. brown, dark brown (0 points);

3. The color of your hair (natural):

  1. blond, red, light blond (3 points);
  2. blond, dark blond (2 points);
  3. brown, chestnut (1 point);
  4. brunet (0 points).

4. Do you have on face and body:

  1. freckles (3 points);
  2. birthmarks (2 points);
  3. very little of one or the other (1 point);
  4. no (0 points).

5. On the beach you:

  1. burn in 20 minutes (3 points);
  2. burn for a couple of hours (2 points);
  3. burn rarely (1 point);
  4. sunbathe smoothly, without burns (0 points).

results

From 0 to 4 points: 4th phototype, good susceptibility to ultraviolet, natural protection lasts 40 minutes. and more. You can sunbathe using protective equipment with an index of 10-20.

From 5 to 8 points: 3rd phototype, normal susceptibility to sunbathing, natural protection lasts up to 30 minutes, use protection with an index of 25-30.

From 9 to 12 points: the 2nd phototype, the average susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation, natural protection lasts 10-20 minutes, in the summer sunbathe only in the morning and evening hours, apply creams with an index from 40 to 50.

From 13 to 15 points: 1st photo type, natural protection lasts 5-10 minutes, poor susceptibility to ultraviolet, it is not recommended to sunbathe at all, it is better to take air baths in the shade. Sun protection with an index of 60.

A brief description of phototypes indicates which sunscreens can be used. Many experts consider it preferable to use light cotton-cloths, hats and sunglasses for protection from the sun. Protective creams, on the other hand, should be used when there are no other possibilities to protect themselves from the sun, but it should be remembered that substances that are formed from the components of the cream as a result of exposure to sunlight and their biological properties are not always known.

Especially careful should be future mothers. Hormonal restructuring in their bodies - and it always happens during pregnancy - sometimes entails serious changes in the skin cells. For any changes in the area of ​​moles and pigment spots during pregnancy, as well as for injuries in this area, it is necessary to consult with the oncodermatologist.

Children whose skin is particularly vulnerable are at much greater risk than adults: sunburn during childhood can dramatically increase the risk of melanoma and other types of skin cancer in more mature age.

Every person should show healthy oncological alertness. Unfortunately, people sometimes have little idea of ​​the danger, which for the time being can hide under the guise of a normal mole or pigment spot. If a mole is located in a “convenient place” where it is not injured, not exposed to the sun, etc., only observation is required. However, if a mole is constantly injured by clothing, a razor, or is exposed to any other influences, then it may begin to degenerate into a malignant form.

Signs of incipient rebirth:

  • a sharp change in pigmentation - to black or, conversely, a decrease in the intensity of color;
  • the appearance of uneven pigmentation;
  • peeling;
  • violation and / or complete absence of skin pattern;
  • the appearance of inflammatory halos around;
  • increase in size and compaction;
  • the appearance of cracks, ulcerations, bleeding.

Each of these signs should seriously alert and make immediately contact a specialist. Procrastination is literally death. In the early stages, skin cancer is treatable, sometimes even without surgery.

All of the above does not mean that it is necessary to abandon all trips to the south, from swimming in the sea, staying on the beach, just from sunbathing. But you need a reasonable attitude to the sun.

Doctors have long ago developed recommendations to avoid the undesirable effects of sun exposure:

  1. Dosed use of sunbathing, starting from 10-15 minutes in the morning or evening, gradually increasing their duration, daytime from 11 to 15 hours is considered unsuitable for tanning, 30-40 minutes a day is enough to get a good tan, avoiding undesirable effects .
  2. It is not recommended to sunbathe on an empty stomach or immediately after a meal.
  3. The use of protection from ultraviolet rays, as well as high-quality sunscreen.
  4. Children, pregnant women, people with photo types 1 and 2, as well as those who have a lot of toys on their bodies should be especially careful in the sun.
  5. Attention: for oncological patients and people who have undergone treatment for cancer, it is strongly not recommended to have a long stay in the sun.
  6. Carefully sunbathe those whose relatives had cancer.

In recent years, visiting solariums has become very fashionable. However, it should be remembered that without the advice of specialists, no tanning beds can be recommended.

Moderate exposure to the sun's rays is useful, but abuse of them is fraught with the occurrence of numerous disorders in the body.

Sunbathe on health!

Breast Cancer Prevention "DON'T BE AFRAID TO TAKE A DOCTOR!"

If you look at the statistics a decade ago, in Volgograd and the region there were about 650 newly detected cases of breast cancer per year; in 2008 - already 960. The urgency of the problem is obvious. Despite the increase in the incidence, people sometimes continue to neglect their own health. Almost 40% of patients with breast cancer are turning to oncologists for the first time, already having stage III-IV disease, which significantly complicates treatment. What is the reason for this attitude? With the reluctance to apply to a cancer institution? With the fear of finding out the diagnosis?

D.L. Speransky, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Oncology with a course of Oncology of the Fumavaya Sovetrovsk, Volgograd State Medical University, spoke about the main causes of this serious disease, treatment and prevention.

Sometimes women resort to alternative medicine, which at first glance seems to them a much simpler and more attractive way of healing. Moreover, alternative medicine often beckons with the promise of an absolute result, says Dmitry Leonidovich. - But do not be afraid of doctors. Without their intervention, cancer cannot be cured. You need to love yourself, respond to changes in your own body and spare no effort, time to take care of your health.

- The mammary gland is a hormone-dependent organ. The main hormones responsible for the vital activity, growth, formation, and functioning of the mammary gland: estrogens, progesterone, prolactin. The imbalance of these hormones can lead to the development of precancerous diseases, benign and malignant tumors.

- What factors can lead to an imbalance of hormones?

- In the first place among such factors are stressful situations. The more emotionally a woman reacts to life's troubles, the greater the risk of getting sick. The statistics confirms that more often people whose work is associated with frequent stresses, with constant moral stress, are faced with problems in this area: teachers, medical workers, women working in large offices, hypermarkets. Women in the working professions are much more pronounced protective anti-stress reactions, respectively, they are less likely to suffer from breast cancer.

The second factor is such a delicate sphere as sex life. It is believed that 80% of patients with any pretumor diseases have problems in sexual life.

Reproduction. The earlier the woman begins the reproductive period and the later the menopause begins, and the fewer pregnancies during this period, the higher the risk of breast cancer. And vice versa: the later it begins and the earlier the reproductive period ends and the more pregnancies that have taken place during this time, the lower the risk, respectively. So, breast cancer leads in the structure of morbidity among women of working age in developed countries of the European type, where there are usually one or two children in a family. In countries such as Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, where there are much more children in families, breast cancer is not at the top of the list of diseases. But this is a double-edged sword: numerous frequent births are the cause of other diseases.

The next risk factor is various gynecological pathologies, primarily inflammation. The inflammatory process in the ovaries leads to a significant increase in estrogen.

Endocrine and metabolic disorders are also affected. It is noted that hypofunction of the thyroid gland 4 times increases the risk of tumors in the breast. Long-lasting diabetes mellitus sometimes also becomes a factor in the development of precancerous and neoplastic diseases. Disorders in the liver (the main organ where estrogen metabolism occurs) entail changes in the amount of hormones.

It is impossible not to take into account the hereditary predisposition. The genes responsible for the occurrence of breast cancer BRCA1 and BRCA2 are discovered. Their presence does not indicate the inevitable development of the disease, but under certain conditions, these genes can actually transform and lead to the emergence of this serious disease.

Adverse factors include obesity. Specific importance have nutritional characteristics. Preferring fatty foods, baking, eating sweets in large quantities and having overweight are at risk.

Adverse factor - the presence of bad habits.

Each of these reasons is not an absolute factor in the occurrence of a tumor. But several of them together significantly increase the risk and are an indication for a thorough examination.

Rules to reduce the likelihood of developing breast cancer:

1. Every woman of reproductive age should periodically (preferably once a month) in the first phase of the menstrual cycle (two to four days after the end of menstruation) conduct a breast self-examination. If any suspicious moments appear (protrusions, skin or nipples pulled in, redness, formation of seals, discharge from the nipple), you should immediately contact an oncologist.

These symptoms may indicate a benign tumor, but such formation in the mammary gland must also be removed. If it is a small tumor, its removal will hardly be noticeable externally. If hesitates with the operation, the tumor will grow, and its removal will leave scars and deformities. Talking about aesthetics in this situation is no longer necessary. Rarely (but this cannot be ruled out) a benign tumor can transform into a malignant one.

2. Once a year (more often if necessary), it is necessary to undergo prophylactic examination in a specialized clinic. If changes in the mammary gland are detected, the doctor will prescribe appropriate diagnostic measures in the particular case. We emphasize once again: do not be afraid to turn to an oncologist, because the earlier the disease is detected, the greater the chances of recovery. You can not pull and trust the colorful promises of Internet sites, psychics. It is impossible to cure cancer with unconventional methods.

Breast cancer, unlike some other localizations, is sensitive to all known methods of treatment, used individually or in combination. There is a rich global, European experience, in accordance with which patients are treated. When choosing a method, an impressive range of parameters is always taken into account so that the treatment is as effective as possible.

Via who.int & polyclinic30.rf