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Signs of acute conditions and the need for timely medical attention

Cancer. Diabetes. Lung diseases. Heart diseases. Stroke. These noncommunicable diseases are the leading causes of death in the world. They take 7 out of 10 human lives.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to have a prolonged course and result from exposure to a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors.

NCDs are disproportionately high in low- and middle-income countries, which account for more than three quarters of deaths from NCDs worldwide (32 million).

Noncommunicable Disease Prevention
Noncommunicable Disease Prevention
Noncommunicable Disease Prevention

Hypertension Prevention

Arterial hypertension (hypertension) is the main reason for the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, life turns into a real flour: pressure surges provoke constant headaches, dizziness, etc. .. Meanwhile, most patients are not even aware of the real indicators of their blood pressure and about the troubles associated with hypertension, and this is a more dangerous disease than hypotension.

Arterial pressure

The pressure exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels is called blood pressure. To measure it, a special device is used - a tonometer. Two quantities are subject to measurement:

  • systolic blood pressure, showing blood pressure in the arteries, after a heart beat, this indicator can be used to judge the force with which the heart pushes blood;
  • diastolic blood pressure showing blood pressure at the time of relaxation (diastole) of the heart muscle. This is the minimum pressure in the arteries, it reflects the resistance of peripheral vessels.

By these two indicators and judge blood pressure.

Pressure, a fairly dynamic value and its figure varies depending on the time of day, on the psychological situation, on the type of activity, age and other reasons. A pressure of 120/80 mm is considered normal. Hg, but a deviation from this value of 10-15% also fits into the norm.

The limit value of pressure is the numbers 140/90, with frequent and prolonged exceeding of these limits, we are talking about the so-called "mild hypertension", when the symptoms are subtle or can be interpreted as overwork that occurs after rest. It is important not to miss this period until the pressure has loosened the vessels and caused other ills in the body, because it is always more difficult to treat an advanced disease. In the future, with each increase of 20 mm. Hg, hypertension is becoming an increasingly complex form and an excess of 200 mm. speaks of the onset of severe arterial hypertension.

The consequences of hypertension

In itself, an increase in pressure is not a disease, but an adaptive reaction of the body to changing conditions, such as an increase in temperature or a change in blood composition, but its persistent increase (Arterial hypertension) is one of the main factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases (stroke, coronary disease heart, heart attack,) annually taking away lives and making thousands of people with disabilities, as well as brain diseases (impaired intelligence, memory disorders), other organs (eyes, kidneys) are targets.

Hypertension was called the “silent killer.” Since it gets a blood pressure monitor and monitors its pressure, a person usually starts when the pressure rises above 180, before that he was simply not aware of its increase. Hypertension can cause hiccups (one of many).

Causes of Hypertension

There are many reasons for the increase in pressure, the culprit may be: kidneys (local ischemia), brain (dysregulation), spinal curvature, hypercholesterolemia (elevated blood lipids), any cause worsens a sedentary lifestyle. More precisely, it can be diagnosed only after a thorough examination .

Preventive measures

Compliance with the principles of a healthy lifestyle can significantly reduce the risk of developing hypertension and its consequences.

One of the main factors contributing to the increase in pressure is overweight. Indeed, in people with excess body weight, the heart is forced to work with a vengeance, this cannot but affect its work and over time, failures begin to occur. Every 5 kg of excess weight increases the pressure by an average of 5-5.5 mm RT. Art., the excessive content of animal fats and cholesterol in food thickens the blood and contributes to the deposition of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels.

Proper nutrition for the heart is essential.

For prophylactic purposes, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are needed. They are abundant in fish oil, vegetable oil (especially in olive). A day, a person needs about two tablespoons of vegetable oil. If you cannot afford to eat fatty fish 3 times a week, then take fish oil (in capsules) per day for about 5 g.

Ordinary salt, or rather the sodium contained in it, becomes the cause of water retention in the body, from this the tissue swells, and the vessels under their pressure narrow. It is becoming more difficult to push blood through a narrowed vessel and the heart is forced to contract more intensively, which causes an increase in blood pressure. The body needs salt, but in an amount of not more than 5 g per day.

The use of foods rich in sodium antagonists - potassium and magnesium, helps to remove water and sodium from the body and soothe the nervous system, the increase in pressure also depends on the degree of excitation.

Give up bad habits. Smoking is the main enemy of the cardiovascular system, increasing the risk of developing ischemia, even under normal pressure. A glass of alcohol provokes an instant increase in pressure by 5-10 mm.

“Life movement” - this motto should be the main one for you, working muscles facilitate the work of the heart by pushing blood, moreover, cholesterol will be used for its intended purpose - to build cells, and will not be deposited in the vessels. Give preference to aerobic exercises (riding a stationary bike, brisk walking, swimming).

With a persistent increase in blood pressure, the appearance of headaches, dizziness, general malaise, do not self-medicate. Urgently consult a general practitioner for a complete examination and prescribe the correct treatment.

Common signs and symptoms of cancer

It is important to know about some common (non-specific) signs and symptoms of cancer. They include:

  • inexplicable weight loss;
  • elevated temperature;
  • fatigue
  • pain;
  • skin changes.

Of course, it must be remembered that the presence of some of them does not necessarily mean the presence of a tumor. There are many other conditions that may also be accompanied by similar signs and symptoms.

Inexplicable weight loss

Most people with cancer experience weight loss during a certain period of the disease. Inexplicable weight loss of 4-5 kg ​​may be the first sign of cancer, especially cancer of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus or lung.

Fever (fever)

An increase in temperature is often observed in cancer and most often in a common process. Almost all cancer patients have a fever at some stage of the disease, especially if the treatment affects the immune system and increases susceptibility to infections. Less commonly, fever may be an early sign of cancer, for example, with Hodgkin's disease (lymphogranulomatosis).

Fatigue

Fatigue can be an important symptom as the disease progresses. However, fatigue, weakness can occur at an early stage, especially if the cancer causes chronic loss of blood, which occurs with cancer of the colon or stomach.

Pain

Pain may be an early sign of several tumors, such as bones or testicles. Most often, however, pain is a symptom of a common process.

Skin changes

In addition to skin tumors, some types of cancer of the internal organs can cause visible skin symptoms in the form of darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation), yellowing (jaundice), redness (erythema), itching or excessive hair growth.

Specific signs and symptoms of cancer

In addition to the above general symptoms, it is necessary to know other general symptoms that can occur with cancer. It should be pointed out that these signs and symptoms do not necessarily speak in favor of cancer, as they are also found in other diseases. Nevertheless, it is necessary to tell the doctor about the signs and symptoms that appear in order to make a decision on the examination.

Impaired stool or bladder function

- chronic constipation, diarrhea, or a change in the amount of feces may indicate the presence of colon cancer.

Pain during urination, the presence of blood in the urine, or a change in the function of the bladder (more frequent or rarer urination) may be associated with cancer of the bladder or prostate gland. These changes must be urgently reported to the doctor.

Non-healing wound or ulcer

- malignant skin tumors can bleed and resemble a wound or ulcer.

A long-standing oral ulcer can be oral cancer, especially for those who smoke, chew tobacco, or drink alcohol frequently. Penile or vaginal ulcers can be both signs of infection and early cancer, and therefore should be examined.

Unusual bleeding or discharge

- Unusual bleeding can occur against the background of early or advanced cancer.

Blood in sputum can be a sign of lung cancer. Blood in the stool (or the presence of dark or black stool) may be a sign of colon or rectal cancer. Cancer of the cervix or the uterus itself can lead to bleeding from the vagina. Blood in the urine is a sign of possible cancer of the bladder or kidney. Isolation of blood from the nipple can be a sign of breast cancer.

Lump or tumor in the mammary gland or other parts of the body

- Tumors can be felt through the skin, especially in the mammary gland, testicles, lymph nodes and soft tissues of the body.

Densification or tumor formation may be the first signs of early or advanced cancer. Any such find must be reported to the doctor, especially if it has just been discovered or the tumor (densification) has begun to increase in size.

Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

Although these symptoms can occur in various conditions, at the same time they may indicate cancer of the esophagus, stomach or pharynx.

Change in a wart or mole

- Any changes regarding the color, shape, borders or sizes of these formations should be immediately reported to the doctor.

The skin lesion may turn out to be melanoma, which, with early diagnosis, responds well to treatment.

Annoying cough or hoarseness

- A prolonged, persistent cough may be a sign of lung cancer.

Hoarseness is a possible sign of cancer of the larynx or thyroid gland.

When the above symptoms appear, you should not panic.

Consult a doctor, undergo the necessary examination, clarify the diagnosis.

The result of treatment for early forms of cancer is about 100%.

Take care of yourself and your loved ones!

Cervical cancer

Oncological diseases and the fight against them in our time remains one of the priority tasks of medical science. In the structure of the incidence of malignant tumors of the population, a significant place is occupied by neoplasms of the female genital organs. Cervical cancer among them constantly takes the first place, and in terms of mortality - the second.

Doctors still cannot explain why some women develop cervical cancer, while others do not. However, risk factors are known that increase the likelihood of this pathology. These factors can add up and thereby increase the risk.

Risk factors for developing cervical cancer are as follows:

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV). Today, HPV is considered the main risk factor for cervical cancer. HPV belongs to a group of viruses that infect the cervical epithelium. The human papillomavirus is a fairly common virus, it is he who leads to the development of skin neoplasms, can cause changes on the part of the cervical epithelium. It is possible to prevent the transformation of these changes into cancer by timely treatment. Most people are infected with this virus. A test for the presence of HPV in a woman can be carried out even in the absence of genital warts or any other symptoms. HPV can be present in a woman’s body without showing any symptoms. Most often, HPV is found in young women, less often in women older than 30 years. Its transmission from person to person most often occurs through sexual contact. Condoms cannot provide 100% protection against infection or transmission of papillomavirus.
  • Rare smear studies. Cervical cancer is more often diagnosed in women who do not attach much importance to regular visits to a gynecologist and cytological examination of a smear from the cervix. The fact is that this fairly simple method allows you to identify precancerous conditions on the part of cervical epithelial cells and begin timely treatment.
  • Weakened immune system. The risk of developing cervical cancer is higher in women with a weakened immune system infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), as well as in those taking immunosuppressants - drugs that suppress the function of the immune system. These drugs are used in the treatment of many oncological diseases, as well as collagenoses - diseases of the connective tissue.
  • Age. The risk of developing cervical cancer is higher in women older than 40 years.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners. Women who frequently change sexual partners have a higher than average risk of developing cervical cancer. As well as in women who have relationships with men, often changing sexual partners.
  • Smoking tobacco. Smoking women infected with HPV have a twice as high risk of developing cervical cancer as those who do not smoke. Tobacco products are absorbed into the blood from the lungs and spread throughout the body. This is confirmed by the fact that these substances are found in the mucus of the cervix.
  • Long-term oral oral contraceptives. Prolonged use of oral contraceptives (over 5 years) by women infected with HPV increases the risk of cervical cancer. One study found that such a risk increases 4 times higher.
  • Frequent birth. In women who have often given birth, the risk of developing cervical cancer is several times higher. The reason for this phenomenon is not known until the end, but this fact is confirmed by numerous studies. According to one theory, frequent births contribute to a greater exposure of the genitals to human papilloma virus infection.
  • Overweight and diet. It is believed that obese women, as well as women whose diet is poor in fruits and vegetables, are at greater risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • Low socio-economic status. Low socioeconomic status can also be the reason for the increased risk of detecting cervical cancer in women, since in such groups there is an extremely low degree of regular smear testing.
  • Chlamydial infection. Chlamydia is a bacterium that can be sexually transmitted like viruses, this type of bacteria develops in the cells of the epithelium. Studies have shown that a previous or existing chlamydial infection increases the risk of cervical cancer. The reason for this has not yet been clarified.

If you find that you are involved in at least one risk factor for developing cervical cancer, then this is a reason for immediately contacting a gynecologist.

It is necessary to know and remember that cervical cancer is a type of cancer for which it is not necessary to use expensive research methods to detect a tumor or a pre-tumor state. Using colposcopy, it is enough to determine the precancerous pathology, confirming the diagnosis with a cytological examination. The prevention of cervical cancer can be attributed to vaccination against human papillomavirus. Despite the fact that carrying out these preventive vaccinations is only beginning to be widely used in Russia, the vaccine has established itself well throughout the world. Vaccination should be carried out at the age of a woman from 11 to 26 years old, before the onset of sexual activity, when HPV infection has not yet occurred.

Show healthy oncological alertness! A planned, regular visit to the gynecologist and a smear for cytological analysis will save you from the disease. Cervical cancer is not a death sentence. Even in subsequent stages, cervical oncology can be cured, but the treatment will be extremely long.

Your health is in your hands!

Skin cancer

Oncological diseases are in second place after cardiovascular diseases among all diseases of mankind. According to forecasts of the World Health Organization (WHO), by 2020 the prevalence of cancer in the world will increase to 20 million. In Russia, cancer incidence is also growing steadily, about 400-500 thousand new cancer patients are detected every year.

One of the most common forms of cancer in humans is skin cancer. Over the past 10 years, skin tumors accounted for 8.6% of the overall structure of male cancer incidence and took 3rd place after lung and stomach cancer; women - 12.7% and 2nd place after breast cancer. Annually in the Russian Federation from 40 to 53 thousand new cases of malignant neoplasms of the skin were registered, and in the world from 2 to 3 million cases.

Skin cancer is one of those rare cases of cancer, when not only the main cause that causes it is well known, but also measures to avoid it. Reliably established a relationship between the spread of skin cancer and the intensity and duration of exposure to sunlight.

In the Volgograd region, increased insolation is a risk factor for skin cancer. Summer in our area is hot and dry; sunny sultry days prevail, in which the air warms up to 34–36 °, and the absolute plus maximum is 41–45 °. By the abundance of light, the number of clear days, the intensity of solar radiation at the surface of the earth, the region is slightly inferior to the subtropics of Crimea.

Human behavior is the main reason for the increase in the incidence of skin cancer in recent decades. Many people consider intensive sunbathing to be normal and, unfortunately, even many children and their parents are convinced that tanning is a symbol of attractiveness and health. In fact, a tan is just a sign of ultraviolet damage to the skin and reflects a protective reaction aimed at preventing its further damage. The increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes a burn and skin cancer, the possible malignancy of moles and age spots, accelerates its aging, can lead to inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye, cause or accelerate the development of cataracts, reduce the activity of the human immune system, and therefore increase the risk the development of infections and reduce the effectiveness of immunization against them.

On the other hand, the lack of solar radiation negatively affects human activity: the production of vitamin D is reduced in the body, phosphorus-calcium metabolism is disrupted, bone strength is lost, immunity is reduced, mental and physical performance decreases, etc. In a word, without the sun is also not just bad, its rays to us, like nature, as a whole, are vital.

Obviously, for each person it is necessary to determine the critical duration of exposure to sunlight.

Test for determining your phototype

Using the test, you can determine your phototype, that is, the ability of the skin to sunbathe without a risk to health. Answer questions and add points.

1. Your skin color:

  1. very white (3 points);
  2. light (2 points);
  3. dark (1 point);
  4. very dark (0 points).

2. The color of your eyes:

  1. blue, light green (3 points);
  2. gray, blue, green (2 points);
  3. dark gray, dark green, dark blue (1 point);
  4. brown, dark brown (0 points);

3. The color of your hair (natural):

  1. blond, red, light blond (3 points);
  2. light brown, dark blond (2 points);
  3. brown, chestnut (1 point);
  4. brunette (0 points).

4. Do you have on your face and body:

  1. freckles (3 points);
  2. moles (2 points);
  3. very little of one or the other (1 point);
  4. no (0 points).

5. On the beach you:

  1. scorch in 20 minutes (3 points);
  2. scorch in a couple of hours (2 points);
  3. rarely scorch (1 point);
  4. sunbathe evenly, without burns (0 points).

results

From 0 to 4 points: 4th phototype, good susceptibility to ultraviolet, natural defense lasts 40 minutes. and more. You can sunbathe using protective equipment with an index of 10-20.

From 5 to 8 points: 3rd phototype, normal susceptibility to tanning, natural protection lasts up to 30 minutes, apply protection with an index of 25-30.

From 9 to 12 points: 2nd phototype, average sensitivity to ultraviolet, natural protection lasts 10-20 minutes, sunbathe only in the morning and evening hours in summer, apply creams with an index of 40 to 50.

From 13 to 15 points: 1st phototype, natural protection lasts 5-10 minutes, poor susceptibility to ultraviolet, sunbathing is generally not recommended, it is better to take air baths in the shade. Sun protection index 60.

A brief description of phototypes indicates which sunscreens can be used. Many experts consider it preferable to use light cotton-cotton fabrics, hats and sunglasses to protect from sunlight. Protective creams should be used when there is no other way to protect yourself from the sun, however, it should be remembered that the substances formed from the components of the cream as a result of exposure to sunlight and their biological properties are not always known.

Future mothers should be especially careful. Hormonal restructuring in their body - and it necessarily occurs during pregnancy - sometimes entails serious changes in the skin cells. For any changes in the area of ​​moles and age spots during pregnancy, as well as for injuries in this area, it is necessary to consult an oncodermatologist.

Children whose skin is particularly vulnerable are at much greater risk than adults: sunburn during childhood can dramatically increase the risk of melanoma and other skin cancers in adulthood.

Everyone should show healthy oncological alertness. Unfortunately, people sometimes have a poor idea of ​​the danger, which for the time being may be hidden under the guise of an ordinary mole or age spots. If the mole is located in a "convenient place" where it is not injured, is not exposed to the sun, etc., only observation is required. However, if the mole is constantly injured by clothing, a razor or is subjected to any other influences, then its transformation into a malignant form may begin.

Signs of a beginning rebirth:

  • a sharp change in pigmentation - to black or, conversely, a decrease in the color intensity;
  • the appearance of uneven pigmentation;
  • peeling;
  • violation and / or complete absence of skin pattern;
  • the appearance of inflammatory ghosting around;
  • increase in size and compaction;
  • the appearance of cracks, ulcerations, bleeding.

Each of these signs should seriously alert and force to immediately consult a specialist. Procrastination is literally like death. In the early stages, skin cancer is treatable, sometimes even without surgery.

All of the above does not mean that you need to completely abandon trips to the south, from swimming in the sea, staying on the beach, just from sunbathing. But you need a reasonable attitude to the sun.

Doctors have long developed recommendations to avoid the undesirable effects of exposure to the sun, these are:

  1. The dosed use of sunbathing, starting from 10-15 minutes in the morning or evening, gradually increasing their duration, daytime from 11 to 15 hours is considered unsuitable for tanning, 30-40 minutes a day is enough to get a good tan, avoiding undesirable consequences .
  2. It is not recommended to sunbathe on an empty stomach or immediately after a meal.
  3. Application of protection against ultraviolet rays, as well as high-quality sunscreens.
  4. Particularly careful in the sun should be children, pregnant women, people with 1 and 2 phototype, as well as those who have a lot of moles on the body.
  5. Attention: for cancer patients and people who have undergone treatment for cancer, it is strongly not recommended that prolonged exposure to the sun.
  6. With care, sunbathe those with relatives who have cancer.

Recently it has become very fashionable to visit tanning salons. However, it should be remembered that without consulting specialists, no tanning beds can be recommended.

Moderate exposure to sunlight is beneficial, abuse of it is fraught with the occurrence of numerous disorders in the body.

Sunbathe on your health!

Breast Cancer Prevention “DO NOT BE AFRAID TO ASK A DOCTOR!”

If you look at the statistics of a decade ago, about 650 newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer per year were recorded in Volgograd and the region; in 2008 - already 960. The urgency of the problem is obvious. Despite the increase in morbidity, people sometimes continue to be inattentive to their own health. Almost 40% of patients with breast cancer first go to oncologists, already having stage III-IV of the disease, which greatly complicates the treatment. What is the reason for this attitude? With reluctance to contact a cancer institution? With fear to know the diagnosis?

Doctor of Medical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Oncology with a course of oncology at the Department of Oncology of Volgograd State Medical University D.L. Speransky spoke about the main causes of this serious disease, treatment and prevention.

Sometimes women resort to alternative medicine, which at first glance seems to them a much simpler and more attractive way of healing. Moreover, alternative medicine often beckons with a promise of one hundred percent result, ”says Dmitry Leonidovich. - But do not be afraid of doctors. Without their intervention, cancer cannot be cured. You need to love yourself, to respond to changes in your own body and not to spare energy, time to take care of your health.

- The mammary gland is a hormone-dependent organ. The main hormones responsible for vital functions, growth, formation, and functioning of the mammary gland: estrogens, progesterone, prolactin. An imbalance of these hormones can lead to the development of precancerous diseases, benign and malignant tumors.

- What factors can lead to an imbalance of hormones?

- In the first place among these factors are stressful situations. The more emotionally a woman responds to life's turmoil, the greater the risk of getting sick. Statistics confirm that more often the problems in this area are encountered just by people whose work is associated with frequent stresses and constant moral stress: teachers, medical workers, women working in large offices, hypermarkets. Women of working professions have much more pronounced protective anti-stress reactions, respectively, they are less likely to suffer from breast cancer.

The second factor is such a delicate sphere as sex life. It is believed that 80% of patients with any pre-tumor diseases have problems in sexual life.

Reproduction. The earlier the woman begins the reproductive period and the later the menopause begins, and the less pregnancies that have taken place during this period, the higher the risk of breast cancer. And vice versa: the later begins and the earlier the reproductive period ends and the more pregnancies that have taken place during this time, the correspondingly, the risk is less. So, breast cancer is the leader in the structure of the incidence rate among women of working age in developed European countries, where the family usually has one or two children. In countries such as Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, where there are significantly more children in families, breast cancer is far from the first place in the list of diseases. But this is a double-edged sword: numerous frequent births are the cause of other diseases.

The next risk factor is various gynecological pathologies, primarily inflammation. The inflammatory process in the ovaries leads to a significant increase in estrogen.

Endocrine and metabolic disorders also affect. It is noted that hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland 4 times increases the risk of tumors in the mammary gland. Long-term diabetes mellitus sometimes also becomes a factor in the development of pre-tumor and tumor diseases. Disturbances in the liver (the main organ where estrogen metabolism occurs) entail changes in the amount of hormones.

One cannot ignore the hereditary predisposition. The genes responsible for the occurrence of breast cancer BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been discovered. Their presence does not indicate the inevitable development of the disease, but under certain conditions, these genes can indeed transform and lead to the emergence of this serious disease.

Adverse factors include obesity. Of particular importance are the features of nutrition. Preferring fatty foods, pastries, consuming sugary sweets in large quantities and having excess body weight are at risk.

An adverse factor is the presence of bad habits.

Each of these causes is not an unconditional factor in the occurrence of a tumor. But several of them together significantly increase the risk and are an indication for a thorough examination.

Rules to reduce the likelihood of developing breast cancer:

1. Each woman of reproductive age should periodically (preferably once a month) in the first phase of the menstrual cycle (two to four days after the end of menstruation) conduct a self-examination of the breast. If any suspicious moments appear (protrusion, retracted skin or nipples, redness, tightening, discharge from the nipple), you should immediately contact an oncologist.

These symptoms may indicate a benign tumor, but such a formation in the mammary gland should also be removed. If this is a small tumor, its removal will be practically not noticeable externally. If you delay the operation, the tumor will grow, and its removal will leave scars, deformations. Talking about aesthetics in this state of affairs is no longer necessary. Rarely (but it cannot be ruled out), a benign tumor can transform into a malignant one.

2. Once a year (if necessary more often) you need to undergo a preventive examination in a specialized clinic. If changes in the mammary gland are detected, the doctor will prescribe appropriate diagnostic measures in the particular case. We emphasize once again: do not be afraid to contact an oncologist, because the earlier the disease is detected, the greater the chance of recovery. You can not pull and trust the colorful promises of Internet sites, psychics. It is impossible to cure cancer by unconventional methods.

Breast cancer, unlike some other localizations, is sensitive to all known treatment methods used individually or in combination. There is a wealth of global, European experience, according to which patients are treated. When choosing a method, an impressive number of parameters are always taken into account so that the treatment is as effective as possible.

Via who.int & clinic30.rf