Here is the story of each vegetable on your table. You will not believe where the cucumbers!
Vegetables are a culinary term for the edible part (for example, fruit or tuber) of some plants, as well as any solid vegetable food, with the exception of fruits, cereals, mushrooms, nuts and edible algae. The culinary term “vegetable” can be applied to edible fruits, which are berries in terms of botany.
In the old Russian language, the fruits of any edible plant were called vegetables or ovoshtami, the word “fruit” did not exist, it appears only in 1705, this borrowing through Polish. frukt from lat. fructus. From this time begins the separation of fruits into vegetables and fruits, etc.
According to V. I. Dal, vegetables are “a garden, an edible tops and roots: onions, cabbage, carrots, turnips, beets with tops, etc., as well as garden fruits, like cucumbers, watermelons, and as a rule, and fruit, garden , also boiled and sugared: spicy and compound vegetables ". The encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron meant by vegetables “all garden plants that are used for human food”. According to T. F. Efremova, these are “garden fruits and greens used as food.”
Vegetables are an important part of the human diet. Vegetable growing is engaged in vegetable growing.
The history of vegetables begins at the dawn of modern humanity, when hunter-gatherers left Africa and began to colonize the entire planet, writes The Plant Guide .
Man began to cultivate useful plants for a very long time, back in the Stone Age. At first, people collected what nature gave and what could be eaten - fruits, leaves, seeds.
Then they began to preserve certain types of trees, shrubs, herbs that gave them food. Then came primitive farming, when people began to scatter the seeds of useful plants and harvest.
Involuntarily, the ancient farmers also became elemental breeders - after all, they selected plants with tasty fruits, high yields and other useful properties. In general, all vegetable plants have their centuries-old history.
Potatoes, or tuberous pasan (Latin Solánum tuberósum) , is a type of perennial tuberiferous herbaceous plants of the genus Solanum of the Solanaceae family (Solanaceae). Potato tubers are an important food product. The fruits are poisonous, due to the content of solanine in them.
Potatoes appeared in Europe relatively recently - in 1565. He was brought from South America by Spanish sailors.
Long was the path of this culture to our table. At first it was grown in gardens as an ornamental plant, then they boiled jam from green berries, and only then they began to eat tubers. But even in 1800 in Europe, potatoes were still so rare that they were given to each other on holidays.
The first attempt to spread a new culture was unsuccessful. The peasants did not know the potato's ability to form tubers and used seed berries for food, which led to mass poisoning. Therefore, even in the 1830s and 1840s, "potato riots" occurred - the peasants were forced to plant potatoes, which they called "damn apple."
Gradually, the potato conquered new areas, and now it is grown even in the Arctic Circle!
Tomato, or tomato (lat. Solánum lycopérsicum) is an annual or perennial herb, a species of the genus Solanum of the family Solanaceae (Solanaceae). Cultivated as a vegetable.
Homeland tomatoes - the same South America. Wild forms of this plant are still found in Peru, on the Canary and Philippine Islands.
It is believed that tomatoes were brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the middle of the XVI century. For a long time in European countries, tomatoes were considered an ornamental plant. In Germany, rooms decorated with pots with tomatoes, gazebos in France, in England and Russia they were grown in greenhouses among rare flowers.
Until the beginning of the XIX century, tomatoes in Europe were considered inedible. In America, tomatoes were considered deadly poisonous. There is a case when they wanted to poison General George Washington with tomatoes, who after “poisoning” lived for many more years and became the first president of the United States.
But by the middle of the XIX century, tomato became a popular and widespread vegetable.
Carrot (Latin. Daucus carota subsp. Sativus) is a biennial plant, a subspecies of the wild carrot species. Usually in everyday life the word "carrot" means the widespread root crop of this particular plant.
Carrots are the oldest root crop that humanity has been using for 4 thousand years. Carrots were known to the ancient Greeks and ancient Romans.
Cultivation of carrots continued in the Middle Ages. She was an honorable dish at the court of the Emperor Charlemagne. But until the XVI century was considered a delicacy.
Only in the XVII century, Europeans began to plant carrots everywhere, and at the same time one of its best varieties was bred - carrot. At the same time, carrot sauces appeared, which to this day are considered delicacies of the Germans and French.
Garlic (lat. Állium satívum) is a perennial herb; a species of the genus Onions of the family Amaryllisaceae (Amaryllidaceae) of the subfamily Onion (Allioideae), previously housed in the independent now abolished Onion family (Alliaceae). Popular vegetable culture in many nations around the world, due to the sharp taste and characteristic odor associated with the presence in the plant organic sulphides (thioesters). The onion slices (“cloves”) are used as a seed, eaten (raw or cooked, as a seasoning). Leaves, arrows and flower stalks are also edible and are used mainly in young plants. Garlic is widely used in medicine due to its antiseptic effect.
Garlic, as well as onions, was used in ancient Egypt, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the pyramid of Cheops: they were fed by the builders who erected this pyramid. Since time immemorial, garlic has been cultivated in China. In the Chinese alphabet, the sign for garlic is one of the most ancient.
In ancient Greece, garlic was readily grown, but it was not included in the daily ration, since the garlic smell was considered extremely unpleasant, insulting the feelings of the gods.
In ancient Rome, free citizens, who are ranked among the poor, used garlic. From the Romans, garlic passed into medieval Europe. Simple people, deprived of good nutrition, saw in garlic a source of health.
Onion (Latin Állium cépa) - a perennial herb, a species of the genus Onion (Allium) of the Onion family (Alliaceae), a widespread vegetable crop.
From time immemorial the Egyptians, in whom he enjoyed universal love, cultivated the bow. In ancient Greece, onions were considered a sacred plant: the onion was perceived as a symbol of the structure of the universe.
At the festivities in honor of the god Pan - the protector of forests and fields - his sculptural images showered with onions. However, eminent townspeople in ancient Greece considered it indecent to eat onions because of the persistent strong odor.
The ancient Romans borrowed onions from the Greeks. In Rome, it was consumed by people of all ranks and classes, daily eating a portion of onions. In order to avoid unpleasant smell, onions were seized with parsley leaves and walnuts.
From the Romans, the onions passed on to the ancient Germans, who, wanting to praise or exalt a person, compared him with a bow. Onion flowers decorated the heroes distinguished in battles. In Spain and Portugal, onion still constitutes an essential component of the daily diet.
Haricot beans (lat. Phaséolus) is a typical genus of plants of the legume family (Fabaceae), uniting about 97 species in warmer areas of both hemispheres. Diluted because of fruits and seeds - and some species also because of flowers (called "Turkish beans"). Of the cultivated species, the first place is occupied by the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with many varieties and varieties, some of which are climbing, the others are bush. The homeland of this species is Latin America. Another type of bean - Phaseolus coccineus, with red flowers, is often bred as an ornamental plant. Some species, commonly referred to as "beans", belong to other genera of legumes, for example, the genus Vigna. Popular food plant beans are ordinary, horse or Russian (Vicia faba) belong to the genus Vic, or Polka dots.
The first mention of the beans found in ancient Chinese chronicles, dating back to 2800 BC. In those days, the Chinese cooked beans with rice, as they now do in India, Japan, Korea and the Philippine Islands.
The beans were also known to the ancient Romans. From it was prepared the famous at that time cosmetic, replacing the Romans with powder. In their opinion, it perfectly refreshed the skin and smoothed wrinkles.
In America, Indians from ancient times grew beans and used it for food. After the discovery of America, bean dishes began to be prepared in Europe.
From America came to Europe and ornamental types of beans, the fruits of which are quite edible. Ornamental beans are bred in the gardens as a beautifully flowering, bizarrely climbing plant.
Common cucumber or Cucumber seed (lat. Cucumis sativus) is an annual herb, a species of the Cucumber (Cucumis) of the Pumpkin family (Cucurbitaceae), a vegetable crop.
India is considered the birthplace of cucumber, where one of its wild species is still found. In India, cucumber came into use at least 3000 years BC.
Images of cucumber on the sacrificial tables, found on the monuments of the ancient Egyptians, prove that they knew and loved this vegetable. In the Dahirel-Bars temple, green-colored cucumbers are depicted together with grapes. And in Greece at the time of Homer even existed the city of Sikyon - “the city of cucumbers”.
The ancient Romans grew cucumbers all year round in greenhouses and salted them in tubs. Already in ancient times, cucumber juice has established itself as an indispensable cosmetic that cleanses and protects the skin. Pounded cucumber seeds were mixed into the powder, and the spread cucumber was used to smooth out wrinkles.
Perhaps the first of the peoples who communicated with Byzantium, the Slavs began to breed cucumbers. And from them the cucumber fell to the Germans.
Red hot peppers (chili peppers, bitter peppers) - fresh or dried fruits of certain varieties of the tropical shrub Capsicum annuum (syn. Capsicum frutescens); spiciness having a hot taste. The name of the pepper in Russian is consonant with the name of the country of Chile, however, it comes from "chilli" from Nauatl (modern Mexico) from the Astek languages and is translated as "red".
Tropical part of America is considered to be the birthplace of red pepper. In Peru in ancient tombs found the fruits of this plant. Perhaps the Indians revered pepper as a sacred plant.
Still in the zone of tropical forests of South America, red (Chilean) pepper grows wild.
The first European to get acquainted with the hot pepper was Columbus. Judging by the records that he made in his diary, it happened on January 15, 1493 in Haiti, where he tasted the hot sauce from local fruits.
Pepper was brought by Columbus to Spain along with beans, tobacco and other exotic vegetables. At first it was grown as a medicinal plant, but soon the original exotic vegetable got into the kitchen and began to be used as a spice.
Cabbage (lat. Brássica olerácea) - biennial plant, agricultural crop; species of the genus Cabbage (lat. Brassica) of the cabbage family (Cruciferous).
Cabbage - one of the oldest vegetable crops grown in the Mediterranean and Southern Europe for more than 4.5 thousand years.
According to one of the legends, the thunderer Jupiter, while working on the explanation of two contradictory oracles of the oracle, was drenched from terrible overstrain. Several large drops rolled down from the forehead of the father of the gods to the ground. It was from these drops that the cabbage grew.
The peasants of ancient Rome especially liked cabbage with corned beef and beans. And the ancient Greek naturalist and philosopher, one of the first botanists of antiquity, Theophrast in the famous work “Studies on Plants” described in some detail three varieties of cabbage that the Athenians cultivated in those times.
The ancient Greeks and Romans in general attached great importance to cabbage, considering it to be a medicine that cures almost all diseases. And in the Middle Ages, interest in cabbage in Europe only increased: the famous scientist, philosopher and doctor Ibn Sina (Avicenna) took cabbage quite a lot of space in his encyclopedia of theoretical and clinical medicine “The Canon of Medicine”.
Radish and radish
Radish (lat. Ráphanus) is a small genus of one- and perennial herbaceous plants of the Cabbage family (Brassicaceae). In the wild form grows in Europe and the temperate zone of Asia. Radish sowing (Raphanus sativus) in the wild is not found.
Radishes are annual or biennial plants of the Radish family of the Cabbage family. Radish in terms of classification - a group of species of the species Radish sowing (Raphanus sativus).
The homeland of radish is considered Egypt and China. On the cultivation of radish in ancient Egypt, say the inscriptions on the pyramid of Cheops. From radish seeds in Egypt, a widespread vegetable oil was used in the ancient world, which was also produced by the ancient Chinese.
From Egypt, radish came to ancient Greece and, thus, to Europe. In the days of the festivities dedicated to Apollo, the Greeks brought as a gift to his altar the image of the three main, in their understanding, root crops - radishes, beets and carrots.
Radish is the closest relative of the radish, but its origin is more recent. It is believed that the radish appeared in the Middle Ages as a result of the selection of radish.
Spinach (lat. Spinacia) is a genus of herbaceous plants of the Amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), in the modern classification it is placed in the subfamily Muddy (Chenopodioideae), previously considered as an independent family of Chenopodiaceae. The most famous representative of the genus is garden spinach (Spinacia oleracea), widely represented in culture, used in cooking, used in the preparation of salads, and as an integral part of various dishes.
In the wild, spinach grows in Asia Minor. Its cultivation began, as is commonly believed, in Persia. On the Great Silk Road, it was brought to China, where in the middle of the 7th century it received the name "Persian vegetable".
In the Mediterranean region, the first information on the cultivation of spinach is found in three Arabic writings of the 11th century. Spinach was one of the most popular vegetables in the Arab world, to which special treatises were dedicated.
Residents of Christian Europe (originally Sicily and Spain), this vegetable became known no later than the XIII century. In the Middle Ages, the form of spinach with pointy seeds was cultivated, almost forgotten by now. In Italy, the XV century, this vegetable was considered as spring greens, perfectly suitable for use during Lent.
At the French royal court, the Italian Catherine de Medici introduced the fashion for eating spinach. She demanded that spinach be served at the time of each meal. It was in the middle of the XVI century that modern-type spinach became widespread in Europe - without bitterness, with wide leaves and round seeds.
Beet ordinary (not beet; lat. Béta vulgáris) - annual, biennial or perennial herb; a species of the Beet family of the Amarante family (previously, the genus belonged to the Marevy family). Cultivated on large areas everywhere. In the south-western regions of Russia, in Belarus and in Ukraine, the plant is called burak, or buriak.
Wild beet is still found in Iran, on the shores of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, as well as in India and China.
2 thousand years before our era, beetroot was known, but unloved in ancient Persia, where it was considered a symbol of quarrels and gossip and was mainly used as a medicinal plant. Only 800 years before our era, in the mountainous regions of the anterior Asia, beetroot was grown as a root vegetable.
Bred it in ancient Greece. The beetroot was also considered the symbol of quarrels by the ancient Romans, but this did not prevent them from including it among their favorite foods. They ate not only the roots, but also the leaves.
The Roman emperor Tiberius ordered that the ancient Germans conquered by Rome deliver tribute in the form of beets, which contributed to the wide spread of this vegetable on the Rhine.
Squash (reduced from Ukrainian tavern, "pumpkin", from Turkic languages) is a variety of ordinary pumpkin with oblong fruits, without whips. Fruits can be green, yellow, black or white. The flesh is tender and quick-cooking, it is also used raw (in salads).
Zucchini comes from northern Mexico (Oaxaca Valley), where originally only its seeds were consumed.
In Europe, the zucchini came in the XVI century, along with other "curiosities" from the New World. Initially, zucchini was grown in botanical gardens.
In the 18th century, Italians were the first to use unripe squash for food.
And now it is widely used in its kitchen by many nations. For example, zucchini is often found in Mediterranean cuisine. And the people of Provence love stuffed zucchini flowers.
Ginger (lat. Zíngiber) is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants from the Ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Ginger - spice, raw or processed rhizomes of ginger pharmacy.
Ginger comes from South Asian countries. Today, this fragrant root is grown in China, India, Indonesia, Australia, West Africa, Jamaica, Barbados.
In the Middle Ages, ginger was introduced to Europe, where it was used as a spice and medicine. In particular, ginger was considered one of the main means for the prevention of plague. The merchants said that ginger grows on the edge of the world in the country of troglodytes, who keep a watchful eye on it, which raised even more the rather big price for a miraculous root.
At the beginning of the 16th century, ginger was one of the first to be introduced to America, and quickly spread there. It is still used not only in cooking, but also in medicine and even cosmetics.
Artichoke (lat. Cȳnara) - genus of plants of the family Asteraceae (Asteraceae).
Artichoke was introduced to the culture long before our era. The artichoke is considered the birthplace of the Mediterranean.
Cultivated variety of artichokes began to breed with the XVI century in Italy and France. It is currently widely distributed in Western European countries, especially in Italy, France, Greece, Germany, Great Britain, and to a lesser extent in the USA, Canada and Latin America.
The artichoke became especially popular in France, where over 10 thousand hectares of it is planted annually. The French have for several centuries demonstrated a commitment to this plant. In this country, bred and its best varieties.
What is your favorite vegetable?