Here is the story of every vegetable on your table. You won’t believe where the cucumbers come from!
Vegetables is a culinary term for the edible part (for example, fruit or tuber) of certain plants, as well as any solid plant food, with the exception of fruits, cereals, mushrooms, nuts and edible algae. The culinary term “vegetable” can be applied to edible fruits, which from a botanical point of view are berries.
In Old Russian, the fruits of any edible plant were called vegetables or ovoshts, the word "fruit" did not exist, it appears only in 1705, this is a borrowing through Polish. frukt from lat. fructus. Starting from this time, the division of fruits into vegetables and fruits, etc. begins.
According to V.I. Dahl, vegetables are “a garden garden, eatable tops and roots: onions, cabbage, carrots, turnips, beets with tops, etc., also garden fruits, like cucumbers, watermelons, and old, and tree, garden fruits , also boiled and sugared: spicy and compound vegetables. " The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary meant vegetables "all generally garden plants that go to human food." According to T. F. Efremova, these are “garden fruits and greens that are eaten”.
Vegetables are an important part of the human diet. Vegetables are grown by vegetables.
The history of vegetables begins at the dawn of modern mankind, when hunter-gatherers left Africa and began to populate the entire planet, writes The Plant Guide .
Man began to grow useful plants a very long time ago, back in the Stone Age. At first, people collected what nature gave and what could be eaten - fruits, leaves, seeds.
Then they began to preserve certain types of trees, shrubs, herbs that gave them food. Then primitive farming arose, when people began to scatter the seeds of useful plants and harvest.
Involuntarily, the ancient farmers also became elemental breeders - after all, they selected plants with tasty fruits, high yields and other useful properties. In general, all vegetable plants have their centuries-old stories.
Potato, or Tuberous Solanum (Latin: Solánum tuberósum) , is a species of perennial tuberous herbaceous plants from the genus Solanum of the Solanaceae family. Potato tubers are an important food product. The fruits are poisonous due to the content of solanine in them.
Potato appeared in Europe relatively recently - in 1565. He was brought from South America by Spanish sailors.
Dolog was the path of this culture to our table. At first it was grown in gardens as an ornamental plant, then they made jam from green berries and only then they began to eat tubers. But even in 1800 in Europe, potatoes were still so rare that they were presented to each other on holidays.
The first attempt to spread a new culture was unsuccessful. Peasants did not know the ability of potatoes to form tubers and used seed berries for food, which led to mass poisoning. Therefore, even in the 1830-1840s there were "potato riots" - peasants were forcibly forced to plant potatoes, which they called the "devil's apple".
Gradually, potatoes conquered new areas, and now they are grown even beyond the Arctic Circle!
Tomato, or tomato (Latin: Solánum lycopérsicum) is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant, a species of the genus Solanum of the Solanaceae family. Cultivated as a vegetable crop.
The homeland of tomatoes is the same South America. Wild forms of this plant are still found in Peru, in the Canary and Philippine Islands.
It is believed that tomatoes were brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the middle of the 16th century. For a long time in European countries, tomatoes were considered an ornamental plant. In Germany, rooms were decorated with pots of tomatoes, arbors in France, in England and Russia they were grown in greenhouses among rare flowers.
Until the beginning of the XIX century, tomatoes in Europe were considered inedible. In America, tomatoes were considered deadly poisonous. There is a known case when tomatoes wanted to poison General George Washington, who after "poisoning" lived for many more years and became the first president of the United States.
But by the middle of the 19th century, tomato had become a popular and widespread vegetable.
Sowing carrots (Latin: Daucus carota subsp. Sativus) is a biennial plant, a subspecies of the species is wild carrot. Usually in everyday life, the word "carrot" refers to the widespread root crop of this particular plant.
Carrots are the oldest root crop that humanity has been using for 4 thousand years. Carrots were known to the ancient Greeks and ancient Romans.
The cultivation of carrots continued in the Middle Ages. She was an honorable dish at the court of Emperor Charlemagne. But up to the 16th century it was considered a delicacy.
Only in the XVII century, Europeans began to breed carrots everywhere, and at the same time one of its best varieties - carrot - was bred. At the same time, carrot sauces appeared, which to this day are considered delicious among the Germans and French.
Garlic (Latin Állium satívum) is a perennial herb; a species of the genus Onion of the Amaryllidaceae family of the Onion subfamily (Allioideae), previously placed in the independent now abolished Onion family (Alliaceae). A popular vegetable culture among many peoples around the world, due to the sharp taste and characteristic smell associated with the presence of organic sulfides (thioesters) in the plant. Onion slices (“cloves”) are used as seed, used as food (in raw or cooked form, as seasoning). Leaves, arrows and peduncles are also edible and are used mainly in young plants. Garlic is widely used in medicine due to its antiseptic effect.
Garlic, as well as onions, was used even in Ancient Egypt, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the pyramid of Cheops: they were fed the builders who erected this pyramid. Since time immemorial, garlic has been cultivated in China. In the Chinese alphabet, the sign for garlic is one of the oldest.
In ancient Greece, garlic was willingly grown, but was not included in the daily diet, since the garlic smell was considered extremely unpleasant, insulting the feelings of the gods.
In ancient Rome, free citizens, reckoned among the poor, used garlic. From the Romans, garlic passed into medieval Europe. Ordinary people, deprived of good nutrition, saw a source of health in garlic.
Onion (Latin Állium cépa) is a perennial herbaceous plant, a species of the genus Onion (Allium) of the Onion family (Alliaceae), a widespread vegetable crop.
From time immemorial, the onions were cultivated by the Egyptians, in whom he enjoyed universal love. In ancient Greece, onions were considered a sacred plant: the bulb was perceived as a symbol of the structure of the universe.
At festivities in honor of the god Pan, the protector of forests and fields, his sculptural images were showered with onions. However, eminent citizens in ancient Greece considered it indecent to eat onions because of the persistent pungent odor.
The ancient Romans borrowed onions from the Greeks. In Rome, people of all ranks and estates consumed it, daily eating a portion of onions. To avoid unpleasant odors, the onions were jammed with parsley leaves and walnuts.
From the Romans, the bow passed to the ancient Germans, who, wishing to praise or exalt the man, compared him with a bow. Onion flowers adorned heroes who distinguished themselves in battles. In Spain and Portugal, onions are still an essential component of the daily diet.
Beans (Latin Phaséolus) - a typical genus of plants of the legume family (Fabaceae), combining about 97 species in the warmer regions of both hemispheres. They are bred because of fruits and seeds - and some species also because of flowers (called "Turkish beans"). Of the cultivated species, the first place is occupied by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with many varieties and varieties, some of which are curly, others are bush. The native land of this species is Latin America. Another type of bean, Phaseolus coccineus, with red flowers, is often bred as an ornamental plant. Some species, colloquially called "beans", belong to other genera of legumes, for example to the genus Vigna (Vigna). A popular food plant, ordinary, horse or Russian beans (Vicia faba) belong to the genus Vika, or Peas.
The first mention of beans is found in ancient Chinese chronicles dating back to 2800 BC. In those days, the Chinese cooked beans with rice, as is now done in India, Japan, Korea, and the Philippine Islands.
Beans were also known to the ancient Romans. A cosmetic product famous at that time was prepared from it, replacing the powder with the Romans. In their opinion, it perfectly refreshed the skin and smoothed wrinkles.
In America, the Indians from ancient times grew beans and used it for food. After the discovery of America, bean dishes began to be prepared in Europe.
From America came to Europe and decorative types of beans, the fruits of which are quite edible. Decorative beans are bred in the gardens as a beautifully flowering, curiously curly plant.
Common cucumber, or plant cucumber (lat. Cucumis sativus) is an annual herbaceous plant, a species of the genus Cucumber (Cucumis) of the family Pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae), vegetable culture.
India is considered the birthplace of the cucumber, where one of its wild species is still found. In India, cucumber came into use at least 3,000 years before our era.
Images of cucumber on the sacrificial tables, found on the monuments of the ancient Egyptians, prove that they also knew and loved this vegetable. In the temple of Dahirel-Bars, green-colored cucumbers are depicted with grapes. And in Greece, during the time of Homer, the city of Sikion even existed - the "city of cucumbers."
The ancient Romans cultivated cucumbers in greenhouses all year round and salted them in tubs. Already in ancient times, cucumber juice has established itself as an indispensable cosmetic product that cleanses and protects the skin. The crushed cucumber seeds were mixed with the powder, the crushed cucumber was used to smooth wrinkles.
Perhaps the first of the peoples who communicated with Byzantium, the Slavs began to breed cucumbers. And from them the cucumber came to the Germans.
Red hot pepper (chili pepper, hot pepper) - fresh or dried fruits of certain varieties of tropical shrubs Capsicum annuum (syn. Capsicum frutescens); spicy flavor. The name of pepper in Russian is consonant with the name of the country of Chile, however it comes from “chilli” from the Astekian languages Nahuatl (modern Mexico) and translates as “red”.
The homeland of red pepper is considered to be the tropical part of America. In Peru, in ancient burials, the fruits of this plant were discovered. Perhaps the Indians revered pepper as a sacred plant.
Still in the zone of tropical forests of South America, red (Chilean) pepper grows in the wild.
The first European to meet hot peppers was Columbus. Judging by the entries that he made in his diary, this happened on January 15, 1493 in Haiti, where he tasted a burning sauce from local fruits.
Pepper was brought to Spain by Columbus along with beans, tobacco and other exotic vegetables. At first it was grown as a medicinal plant, but soon the original exotic vegetable got into the kitchen and began to be used as a spice.
Garden cabbage (lat. Brássica olerácea) - biennial plant, agricultural crop; a species of the genus Cabbage (lat. Brassica) of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous).
Cabbage is one of the oldest vegetable crops grown in the Mediterranean and Southern Europe for more than 4.5 thousand years.
According to one of the legends, the thunderer Jupiter, while working on an explanation of two conflicting sayings of the oracle, swept from a terrible overstrain. Several large drops rolled down from the forehead of the father of the gods to the ground. It was from these drops that cabbage grew.
The peasants of ancient Rome especially loved cabbage with corned bean and beans. And the ancient Greek naturalist and philosopher, one of the first botanists of antiquity, Theophrastus, in the famous work "Studies on Plants," described in sufficient detail three varieties of cabbage that were cultivated by the Athenians in those days.
The ancient Greeks and Romans generally attached great importance to cabbage, considering it a medicine that cures almost all diseases. And in the Middle Ages, interest in cabbage in Europe only increased: the famous scientist, philosopher and doctor Ibn Sina (Avicenna) allocated a lot of space to cabbage in his canon of theoretical and clinical medicine, “The Canon of Medicine”.
Radish and radish
Radish (lat. Ráphanus) is a small genus of one- and perennial herbaceous plants of the Brassicaceae family. It grows wild in Europe and the temperate zone of Asia. Sowing radish (Raphanus sativus) does not occur in the wild.
Radish - annual or biennial plants from the genus Radish of the Cabbage family. Radish from the point of view of classification is a group of varieties of the species Radish sowing (Raphanus sativus).
The homeland of the radish is Egypt and China. About the cultivation of radishes in ancient Egypt say the inscriptions on the pyramid of Cheops. From the seeds of radish in Egypt, vegetable oil, widely distributed in the ancient world, was prepared, which was also produced by the ancient Chinese.
From Egypt, the radish came to Ancient Greece and, thus, to Europe. In the days of festivities dedicated to Apollo, the Greeks donated to his altar an image of the three main, in their terms, root crops - radishes, beets and carrots.
Radish is the closest relative of the radish, but its origin is later. It is believed that radish appeared in the Middle Ages as a result of the selection of radish.
Spinach (Latin: Spinacia) is a genus of herbaceous plants of the Amaranthaceae family, in the modern classification, is placed in the Chenopodioideae subfamily, previously considered as an independent Chenopodiaceae family. The most famous representative of the genus - garden spinach (Spinacia oleracea), widely represented in the culture, is used in cooking, is used both in the preparation of salads, and as an integral part of various dishes.
In the wild, spinach grows in Asia Minor. Its cultivation began, as is commonly believed, in Persia. Along the Great Silk Road, he was brought to China, where in the middle of the 7th century he received the name “Persian vegetable”.
In the Mediterranean region, the first information about growing spinach is found in three 11th-century Arabic writings. Spinach was one of the most popular vegetables in the Arab world, which was dedicated to special treatises.
Residents of Christian Europe (originally Sicily and Spain) this vegetable became known no later than the XIII century. In the Middle Ages, the shape of spinach with pointed seeds was cultivated, which is now almost forgotten. In Italy of the XV century, this vegetable was considered as spring greens, perfectly suitable for consumption during Lent.
At the French royal court, Italian Catherine de Medici introduced the fashion for spinach. She demanded that spinach be served at the table during each meal. It was in the middle of the 16th century that spinach of the modern type became widespread in Europe - without bitterness, with wide leaves and round seeds.
Common beets (not beets; Latin: Béta vulgáris) - annual, biennial or perennial herbaceous plant; a species of the genus Beets of the Amaranth family (previously the genus belonged to the Marevaya family). It is cultivated on large areas everywhere. In the southwestern regions of Russia, in Belarus and Ukraine, the plant is called beetroot, or beetwort.
Wild beets are still found in Iran, on the shores of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, as well as in India and China.
For 2 thousand years BC, beets were known, but unloved in Ancient Persia, where they considered it a symbol of quarrels and gossip and were mainly used as a medicinal plant. Only 800 years before our era in the mountainous regions of front Asia began to grow beets as root vegetables.
They bred it in ancient Greece. The ancient Romans also considered beets to be a symbol of quarrels, but this did not stop them from including them in their favorite foods. They ate not only roots, but also leaves.
The Roman emperor Tiberius ordered that the ancient Germans conquered by Rome pay tribute in the form of beets, which contributed to the wide distribution of this vegetable on the Rhine.
Zucchini (diminished from Ukrainian tavern, “pumpkin”, from the Turkic languages) is a bush variety of pumpkin ordinary with oblong fruits, without lashes. Fruits can be green, yellow, black or white. The pulp is tender and quick-cooking; it is also used raw (in salads).
Zucchini comes from northern Mexico (Oaxaca Valley), where initially only its seeds were consumed.
Zucchini came to Europe in the 16th century along with other “wonders” from the New World. Initially, vegetable marrows were grown in botanical gardens.
In the XVIII century, Italians were the first to use unripened zucchini for food.
And now it is widely used in their kitchen by many peoples. For example, zucchini is often found in Mediterranean cuisine. And the people of Provence love stuffed zucchini flowers.
Ginger (Latin: Zíngiber) is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants from the Ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Ginger - Spice, raw or processed rhizomes of ginger pharmacy.
Ginger comes from the countries of South Asia. Today, this fragrant root is grown in China, India, Indonesia, Australia, West Africa, Jamaica, Barbados.
In the Middle Ages, ginger was introduced to Europe, where it was used as a spice and medicine. In particular, ginger was considered one of the main means for the prevention of plague. Merchants said that ginger grows at the ends of the world in the country of troglodytes, who vigilantly guard it, the more they raised the already rather big price for the miraculous root.
At the beginning of the 16th century, ginger was one of the first to be brought to America, and quickly spread there. It is still used not only in cooking, but also in medicine and even cosmetics.
Artichoke (lat. Cȳnara) is a genus of plants of the Asteraceae family.
The artichoke was introduced into the culture long before our era. The homeland of the artichoke is considered the Mediterranean.
The cultivated variety of artichoke began to be bred from the XVI century in Italy and France. Currently, it is widely distributed in Western Europe, especially in Italy, France, Greece, Germany, Great Britain, to a lesser extent in the USA, Canada and Latin America.
The artichoke became especially popular in France, where its crops annually occupy more than 10 thousand hectares. The French have for several centuries been demonstrating a commitment to this plant. In this country, its best varieties are also bred.
What is your favorite vegetable?