Independence Square (Independence Square) - the central square of Kiev through the years ...
Independence Square (Ukrainian Independence Square, translated as Independence Square) - the central square of Kiev. It is located between Khreshchatyk, the streets of Boris Grinchenko, Sofievskaya, Malaya Zhitomirskaya, Mikhailovskaya, Kostelnaya, Institutskaya, Gorodetsky Architect and Taras Shevchenko Lane.
- 1869-1876 - Khreschatytska Square,
- 1876-1919 - Duma Square,
- 1919-1935 - Soviet Square,
- 1935-1941 - Kalinin Square,
- 1941-1943 - September 19,
- 1943-1977 - Kalinin Square,
- 1977-1991 - October Revolution Square
Until the X century, the area in the area of the current Maidan was called Pereveschest or Goat swamp and was a swamp. Where Sofievskaya Street now begins, Lyadsky Gate was located, which led to the upper city.
At the end of the 18th - beginning of the 19th centuries, there was a wasteland with the remains of defensive ramparts on the site of the future square. "Description of Kiev" in 1868, compiled by Nikolai Zakrevsky, mentions a market square in the middle of Khreshchatyk, "from time immemorial called Goat Swamp." Zakrevsky notes that the bazaar is located "near the tract called the Goat Swamp." On the historical plan of 1803, the city architect Andrei Melensky shows the place of an abandoned body of water, designated "Goat Swamp", it is located directly under the inner slope of the ramparts, between the current Shevchenko Lane, Malopodvalnaya and Patorzhinsky streets. Shevchenko Lane has long been called Koziebolotnaya Street or just Kozinka.
The area as such was formed in the 1830s, when the remains of the defensive ramparts were demolished. Then she got the name Khreshchatitskaya - from the name of the street to which she directly adjoined. In 1876, the City Duma building was built on the square, and it was named Duma. In 1913, a monument to Stolypin was unveiled in front of the City Council, demolished immediately after the February Revolution.
In 1919, the area was renamed Sovetskaya, and in 1935 - in Kalinin Square. In 1941, the building of the Duma (after the revolution it housed the Regional Committee of the Communist Party (b) of Ukraine) burned down, and the territory of the square increased significantly due to the destroyed odd side of Khreshchatyk.
In 1944, a competition was announced for the best project for the restoration of Khreshchatyk, adjacent streets and squares. In these projects of Kalinin Square, now located on both sides of Khreshchatyk, the main square of the city was assigned. The modern development of the square is formed by buildings of the 1950s - 1970s. In 1961 the building of the hotel "Ukraine" was erected (until 2001 - "Moscow"). In subsequent years, the area was repeatedly rebuilt and reconstructed.
In 1977, it was renamed the October Revolution Square. A monument of the October Revolution and an ensemble of fountains were built on it. The current name of the square was given after the declaration of independence of Ukraine in 1991. The metro station Independence Square, opened in 1976, changed its name simultaneously with the square.
In 2001, a major reconstruction of the square was undertaken: many new monuments, sculptures and fountains appeared. In the center of the square is a tall white column, which is crowned by the figure of a girl (Beregini) with a viburnum branch in her hands, symbolizing the independence of Ukraine. At a place close to the discovered remains of the ancient Lyadsky Gate, a monument was erected in the form of a gate with the figure of the patron saint of the city of Archangel Michael at the top. A large shopping center was built under the square. In 2015, another reconstruction was carried out to replace the paving stones. This was caused by damage to her during the "revolution of dignity." In 2017, fountains were reconstructed. The latest equipment is installed. Now they are considered musical.