Independence Square (Maidan Nezalezhnosti) - the central square of Kiev through the year ...
Independence Square (Ukrainian Maidan Nezalezhnosti, in translation Independence Square) - the central square of Kiev. Located between Kreschatik, Boris Grinchenko, Sofievskaya, Malaya Zhitomirskaya, Mikhailovskaya, Kostyolnaya, Institutskaya, Architect Gorodetsky streets and Taras Shevchenko street.
- 1869–1876 - Khreschatitskaya Square,
- 1876-1919 - Dumskaya Square,
- 1919-1935 - Soviet Square,
- 1935-1941 - Kalinin Square,
- 1941–1943 - the area of September 19,
- 1943-1977 - Kalinin Square,
- 1977-1991 - October Revolution Square
Until the X century, the area in the area of the current Maidan was called Pereisischem or Goat Swamp and was a swamp. Where Sofievskaya Street now begins, the Lyadsky Gate, which led to the upper town, was located.
At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, on the site of the future square there was a wasteland with remnants of defensive walls facing it. The Description of Kiev, dated 1868, compiled by Nikolai Zakrevsky, mentions a market square in the middle of Khreshchatyk, “from the old days called Goat Swamp”. Zakrevsky notes that the bazaar is located “near the natural boundary called Goat swamp”. On the historical plan of 1803, city architect Andrei Melensky shows the place of an abandoned reservoir, designated “Goat Marsh”, it is located directly below the inner slope of the ramparts, between the current Shevchenko lane, Malopovalnaya and Patorzhinsky streets. Shevchenko Lane was called Goatbolotnaya Street for a long time or just Kozinka.
The area as such was formed in the 1830s, when the remnants of defensive walls were demolished. Then she received the name Kreshchatitskaya - from the name of the street to which she was directly adjacent. In 1876, the City Duma building was built on the square, and it was named Dumskaya. In 1913, a monument to Stolypin was opened in front of the City Duma, demolished immediately after the February Revolution.
In 1919, the square was renamed Soviet, and in 1935 - to Kalinin Square. In 1941, the building of the Duma (after the revolution it housed the Regional Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine) burned down, and the territory of the square greatly increased due to the destroyed odd side of Kreshchatik.
In 1944, a competition was announced for the best project for the restoration of Khreshchatyk, adjacent streets and squares. In these projects, Kalinin Square, now located on both sides of Khreshchatyk, was assigned the role of the main square of the city. Modern building area formed by the buildings of the 1950s - 1970s. In 1961, the building of the hotel "Ukraine" was built (until 2001 - "Moscow"). In subsequent years, the area was repeatedly rebuilt and reconstructed.
In 1977, it was renamed the October Revolution Square. It was built on the monument of the October Revolution and the ensemble of fountains. The current name of the square was given after the declaration of independence of Ukraine in 1991. The metro station “Independence Square”, opened in 1976, changed its name simultaneously with the square.
In 2001, a major overhaul of the square was undertaken: many new monuments, sculptures and fountains appeared. In the center of the square there is a tall white column crowned by the figure of a girl (Beregini) with a viburnum branch in her hands, symbolizing the independence of Ukraine. On the site close to the discovered remains of the ancient Lyadsky gate, a monument was erected in the form of a gate with the figure of the patron saint of the city of Archangel Michael above. Under the area built a large shopping center. In 2015, another reconstruction took place to replace paving stones. This was caused by damage to her during the "revolution of dignity." In 2017, reconstructed fountains. Installed the latest equipment. Now they are considered musical.