Pechersk district and its historic residential areas
Pechersk (Kiev-Pechersk, Pechersk mountain, Pechersk plateau, Pechersk side) is located between Lipki, Klov, Zveritsa and Dnieper slopes.
During the Russian Empire, the territory of the present Pechersk district was part of the Palace and Pechora police stations of the city of Kiev. The name “Pechora District” has been mentioned since March 1917, when, by order of the Kiev Committee of the RSDLP (B), the Pechora Party District was formed.
In November 1921, the Soviet Pechersk district acquired its clearly defined borders at that time. In the same year, the district became known as Central. In 1924-1933, the Pechersk district became a part of the Leninsky district, and in 1936-1944 it was designated as the Kirov district. After the war, he finally became known as Pechersk.
The most common version regarding the name connects it with caves, however, that existed here long before the appearance of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, not only in the place occupied by it, but also around it. So the Menagerie and even Kitaevo can also be considered as part of Pechersk. Another version associates the name with the nature of the area. "Pechera" called steep cliffs on the river bank. In the epoch of the formation of Russia, it was Pechersk that housed a center fortified with fortifications.
Since the 12th century, the Pechersk settlement has grown around the monastery. Gradually, the Pechersk settlement was demolished, and in its place, shafts were erected. After the Battle of Poltava, the territory of the former Pechersk monastery increased fivefold and turned from a small hermitage, surrounded by impassable forests, into an indicative city bastion. In the first half of the 18th century, the buildings around the “forstat” were chicken huts (that is, huts without pipes), among which there were about ten state-made stone buildings. Pechersk began to acquire an aristocratic appearance only at the time of Nicholas I, who expanded the fortress to virtually all of Pechersk, and also planned the Palace and Lybed part of the city.
Historians recognize that Besarabka owes its appearance on the horizon of Kiev life to a powerful source of water discovered here at the end of the 18th century. Later, a bazaar appeared in the area of the square. At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, a horse-drawn mail station was also located on Bessarabka. The name of the locality comes from a large number of stray people who settled in shacks near Krutoy Descent. These people received the nickname “Bessarabs” (“bassarabs”) from Kiev. According to another version, the name Bessarabka was given by peasants from Bessarabia (Moldova and southern Ukraine. The center of the square is occupied by a monumental building of a city covered market with a huge glass dome roof; the market is deployed front to Kreshatik. The building in 2 floors was built in 1896 according to the award-winning project of architect E. Guy in the style of English modernism with funds, partly allotted by the city, and partly donated by the heirs of L.I. Brodsky.
Berestovo is located on the territory of the present park of Eternal Glory and in the upper part of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Once all this place was covered with birch wood - hence the name. Here St. Vladimir lived in his country house. The stone two-story palace was surrounded by the courtyards of the princely servants. In the following years, Yaroslav the Wise, Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich, Vsevolod Yaroslavovich and Vladimir Monomakh lived in the princely village. Here was also located the Germanek monastery, burned together with the princely court in 1091 by Khan Bonyak and again restored by 1113 by Monomakh. It is possible that the Church of the Savior on Berestove, first mentioned in 1072, was also part of this monastery. But as a result of numerous destructions and major reconstructions, by now it has acquired a form that differs significantly from the original one.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra is located on the territory of the current museum complex of Kiev-Pechersk Reserve. The old Pechersk fortress is located around the Lavra and is confined to earthen ramparts. Its construction was completed in 1723. During the seventeenth centuries the fortress was repeatedly reconstructed. Since 1711, it housed the main administrative (including the residence of the Governor-General) and military institutions, houses of the Ukrainian aristocracy, as well as arsenals, where they stored, manufactured and repaired military equipment, and gunpowder cellars. Most of the buildings of the fortress were decorated in the style of Ukrainian Baroque.
The Long Niva is located along the streets of the January Uprising, from the Park of Eternal Glory to the Heroes' Square of Arsenal and Klov. At the time of Kievan Rus, this area was a “great boron”. Over time, the forest was cut down, and in its place formed a field that stretched along the Dnieper steep, arable land, crops, field - hence the name of the area. It belonged to Pechersk, and from 1518 to Nikolsky Monastery. In the middle of the XVII century Nikolskaya Sloboda was formed here. Nikolsky Monastery was one of the most ancient in Russia and owned lands over the Dnieper up to Podil.
Askold's Grave (Ugorsky natural boundary, Kozlovka, Provalye) is located between Dolgaya Niva, Naberezhniy Highway, Park of Eternal Glory and Mariinsky Park and includes part of the Dnieper slopes. It arose at the site of the Ugorsky tract, called so because of the steepness of the Dnieper shore (“eel”, “eel”). Thanks to the numerous sharp reliefs, the terrain was also called Proval. However, this does not exclude the possibility that in the year 898 the Ugrak tribesmen could camp here. The place is sacred. It is stained with the blood of the first Kiev princes, the Christian Askold (at the baptism of Nicholas) and covered with legends. The same area is known under the name Kozlovka - by the name of the local Kozlovsky homeowners. Their estate at the end of the 19th century stretched in the area of the present Park Road from the stairs to the Mariinsky Palace to the stairs to Arsenal Square. In addition, in 1915, the doctor Kozlovsky built a hospital for children with polio on the territory of his family estate.
Lipki (Palace Section, Klovskoye Tract, Grafskaya Gora, German Mountain) are located between the streets of Mikhail Grushevsky, Khreshchatyk, Institutskaya, Shelkovichna, Academician Bogomolets, Grape Alley and Fortress. The name comes from the fragrant gardens, which covered this open hill in the XVIIІ and at the beginning of the XIX century, and then more and more began to be replaced by aristocratic mansions and institutions. Since the terrain was on the one hand adjacent to the imperial (Mariinsky), and on the other - to the Klovsky Palace, it was also called the Palace Part. Her other name is Grafskaya Gora, in honor of the hereditary highest nobility who lived here. They called the current Lipki and the German Mountain, because there was a vast German colony. The German Protestants created a whole "brilliant European" era in the development of the city. They founded pharmacies and factories here, were the first university professors, actors, typographers, architects and administrators.
Evseykova Dolina is located along Kreshchatik, between Vladimir descent and Independence Square. First mentioned in 1523. Who was Evseika (Yevsei) and how he is connected with the valley of his name, is unlikely to be established now. In place of the current "Ukrainian House" in 18061851, the first Kiev city theater was located.
Mikhaylovskaya (Mikhailova) Gora (Vladimirskaya Gorka) is located between Independence Maidan, Sophiyskaya, Vladimirskaya streets, Pochtovaya Square, Evropeyskaya Square and Naberezhnaya Highway. The area was built at the beginning of the XI century. Here stood the St. Michael's Golden-domed Cathedral, which gave it its name. As for the park, its laying, ordering and planning of the slopes began in the 3040s of the XIX century. In 1853 a monument was erected in it to the prince - the baptist of Russia Vladimir, hence the second name of the mountain - Vladimirskaya Gorka. Until 1711, it was a solid array, until at the place where Kreschatytskyi Yar continued, it was not cut down (now Vladimirsky descent). Interestingly, in this way, people began to walk and ride around the place where the Khreshchatyk creek flowed and from which Vladimir began to baptize the people of Kiev, having christened their children in the creek.
Klov (Klovsky Yar, Dog Trail, Yama) is located on the slope of the Pechersk mountain and below Lipok, in the area of Klovsky descent, Mechnikov and Maryanenko streets, and between these descent and streets, on the one hand, and Shelkovichny and Academician Bogomolts streets - on the other . The name is known from the time of Kievan Rus and comes from streams that flowed down the steep slopes of this area. “Clover” is a turbulent, bubbling, foaming water. And also - “kolovye”: this was the name of the local ponds and lakes, in which stakes were driven into the bottom to hold the fish. The area and its surroundings belonged to the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. In 1078, Lavra Abbot Stefan, who for some reason did not get along with the monks, but did not want to be far from the holy place, arranged on the opposite side of the Pechersk Hill a monastery called Stephanic, which was also called Klovsky by location. In 17521756, the Klovsky Palace appeared not far from this place. Klov was also called the Dog Trail, since the terrain was marshy, and people made their way along narrow (“dog”) trails. In connection with the steep terrain, the area was also called Yama, or Pits.
Crosses are located between Clov, the Long Niva, the Old Pechersk Fortress and Lesia Ukrainka Boulevard. Crosses were called crossroads, of which there were many in the area. Here the same name tract and settlement are known, which later merged with the Pechersk small town. In the 18th century, the Cross Lane, now known as Nikolai Gaitsan Street, appeared here. In this area there was also a hippodrome (ul. Suvorov, 9), which at the dawn of pre-revolutionary Kiev aviation was used as an airfield. On the Crosses, the buildings of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are well preserved.
Cherepanova Gora is located between the Esplanade Street, Ivan Kudri, Lesia Ukrainka Boulevard and the south-western borders of the Pechersk district. The area includes Vasilkovsky and Hospital fortifications of Novopecherskaya fortress, as well as part of a wide pre-fortress esplanade strip. The name “Cherepanova Gora” appeared after 1815, when the Kiev civil governor was Pavel Cherepanov: his estate was located on the mountain.
Black Mountain is located between Druzhby Narodov Boulevard, Zheleznodorozhny Highway and Kikvidze Street. The name comes from the chernozem soil of this area and is in no way associated with negative energy.
The menagerie (Vydubychi, Navodnichi, Nevodnichi) is located between Kikvidze Street, Zheleznodorozhny and Naddnipryanskoe Highways. Perhaps the name of the area is dictated by the fact that they hunted a wild beast here. At the menagerie are Vydubichi. It is said that it was here that the idol of Perun “pulled out” (i.e., emerged); may be so. There is a legend that it was not a wooden block, but a certain “serpent” (“beast”), which had its “holes” (caves) in these parts. There were fishing villages with dried seines, and ferries to the left bank of the Dnieper, which existed before the emergence of Kievan Rus. From here - one more name: Navodnichi, or Nevodnichi. Finally, the country palace of the great princes of Kiev, the Krasny Dvor, was also located here. Since ancient times, various fortifications have been built at the Menagerie. At the beginning of the 20th century, its territory was densely built up with small houses and manors, but in June 1918, as a result of the explosions of the zoo artillery depots, almost all of the local housing stock was destroyed. New housing development has developed especially widely in these parts after the war.
Buslovka (Busovitsa, Telichka (Upper and Lower), Telyachev) is partially located on the menagerie, from the outer parts of the Timiryazevskaya and Kikvidze streets to Lysaya Gora. Busova Gora is located between the streets of Timiryazevskaya and Kikvidze, and Busovo Pole is located between Zheleznodorozhny highway, Kikvidze and SapernoSlobodskaya streets. The stream of the same name (now in the collector) flowed through the field and flowed into the Lybed river. It is believed that the name of the area comes from the name of Bus (Bozh) - that was the name of the leader of one of the Ants tribes, whose fortifications on the shore of Lybid, always significant for ancient defense, were located here. This area is also called Telichka (Telyachev) - with Upper Telichka on a hill and Lower Telichka - in a valley. The development of the area began in the second half of the XIX century in the form of a narrow strip along the railway. It has been part of Kiev since 1923. In the 50s of the 20th century, the construction of one of the largest industrial zones of the capital began here.
Bald Mountain is located between Buslovka, Saperna Slobodka and Bagrinova Gora. Legendary and mysterious place. Its name is due to the scarcity of high woody vegetation. In the second half of the XIX century, Lysogorsk fortifications of the Novopechersk fortress were built here. In 1897, Lysaya Gora became a suburban settlement, and from 1923 entered the city limits as a forest park.
Bagrinova Gora (Bagrinov) is located between Science Avenue, Sapernaya Slobodka, Bald Mountain, Mousetrap and Naddnipryansky highway. It represents the holmperemychku between Lysa Gora and Kitaev. Hence the name, likening the nature of the relief of Bagru. In addition, the name of the area may be associated with the crimson color of vegetation in the fall. For the first time, the locality was mentioned in 1070 - it was then that the Kiev Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavovich presented to Vydubytsky monastery Bagrinov, which was given special care to him. In 1949, the construction of the village began with two-story houses with personal plots. The main local streets are Lysogorskaya, Rocket and Panoramic. In 19561957, the village was called Khrushchev (by the name of the then head of the Soviet state), and from 1957, Zhovtnev.
Sapernoye Pole is located between Shchors, Henri Barbusse, Kovpak and Southeastern borders of the district. The name of the area was given by the sapper battalion, whose barracks were located here from the middle of the 19th century to 1924.
author Victor Kovalenko