Pechersk district and its historical residential areas
Pechersk (Kievo-Pechersk, Pecherskaya Gora, Pecherskoe Plateau, Pecherskaya Side) is located between Limes, Clov, Zverinets and Dnieper slopes.
In the times of the Russian Empire, the territory of the present Pechersk district was part of the Palace and Pechora police stations in the city of Kiev. The name "Pechora District" was mentioned in March 1917, when the Pechorsky Party District was established by the resolution of the Kiev Committee of the RSDLP (b).
In November 1921 the Soviet Pechersk district acquired its clearly defined borders at the time. In the same year the district became known as the Central District. In 1924-1933 the Pechersky district became part of the Leninsky district, and in 1936-1944 it was designated as the Kirov district. After the war, he finally became known as Pechersky.
The most common version of the name connects it with caves, however, existed here long before the appearance of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, not only on the place occupied by it, but also around it. So the Menagerie and even Kitaevo can also be seen as part of Pechersk. Another version connects the name with the nature of the terrain. "Pechory" was called steep cliffs on the river bank. In the era of the formation of Russia was located on Pechersk fortified fortifications center.
From the XII century around the monastery, the Pechersk settlement grows. Gradually Pechersk suburb was demolished, and in its place were built ramparts. After the Battle of Poltava, the territory of the former Caves Monastery increased fivefold and evolved from a small monastery surrounded by impenetrable forests to an exemplary city bastion. In the first half of the 18th century, the structures around the "forstat" consisted of the huts (ie, huts without pipes), among which about ten state-owned stone buildings stood out. The aristocratic view of Pechersk began to be acquired only in the times of Nicholas I, which expanded the fortress virtually to the whole of Pechersk, and also planned the Palace and Lybid parts of the city.
Historians recognize that by its appearance on the horizon of Kiev's life, Bessarabka is obliged to open a powerful water source here in the late 18th century. Later in the area of the square a bazaar arose. At the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX century, a horse post station was also stationed in Bessarabka. The name of the area comes from a large number of stray people who settled in huts near the steep descent. These people received the nickname "Bessarabs" ("bassarabs") from the people of Kiev. According to another version, the name of Bessarabka was given to the peasants from Bessarabia (Moldova and southern Ukraine.The center of the square is occupied by a monumental building of the city's covered market with a huge glass dome roof, the market is unfolded front to Khreshchatyk.The building in 2 floors was built in 1896 by the architect E.E. Guy in the style of English Art Nouveau financed by part of the city, and partly donated by the heirs of LI Brodsky.
Berestovo is located on the territory of the present park of Eternal Glory and in the upper part of Kiev Pechersk Lavra. Once the whole place was covered with a birch forest - hence the name. Here Saint Vladimir lived in his country house. A stone two-storeyed palace building was surrounded by courtyards of the prince's servants. In the following years Yaroslav the Wise, Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich, Vsevolod Yaroslavovich and Vladimir Monomakh lived in the prince's village. Here was also the monastery of Germanic, burned together with the prince's court in 1091 by Khan Bonyak and again restored by 1113 to Monomakh. It is possible that part of this monastery was the Church of the Savior on Berestov, first mentioned in 1072. But as a result of numerous destruction and major renovations to date, it has acquired a form that is significantly different from the original one.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra is located on the territory of the current museum complex of the Kiev-Pechersky Reserve. The Old Pechersk Fortress is located around the Lavra and is bounded by earthen ramparts. Its construction was completed in 1723. During the XVIIth and XIXth centuries the fortress was repeatedly reconstructed. Since 1711, it housed the main administrative (including the residence of the general governor) and military institutions, the houses of the Ukrainian aristocracy, as well as arsenals, where they stored, manufactured and repaired military equipment, and gunpowder. Most of the fortress buildings were decorated in the style of Ukrainian baroque.
Long Niva is located along the street of the January Uprising, from the park of Eternal Glory to the Heroes' Square of Arsenal and Klova. In the times of Kievan Rus this area was a "great boron". Over time, the forest was cut down, and in its place a field appeared that stretched along the Dnieper hills, arable land, crops, field - hence the name of the area. It belonged to Pechersky, and from 1518 - to Nikolsky Monastery. In the middle of the 17th century Nikolskaya Sloboda was formed here. Nikolsky Monastery was one of the oldest in Russia and owned lands over the Dnieper up to Podol.
Askold's grave (Ugorsky tract, Kozlovka, Provalye) is located between Dolga Niva, Embankment Highway, the park of Eternal Glory and the Mariinsky Park and includes part of the Dnieper slopes. It originated in the place of the tract of Ugor, nicknamed so because of the steepness of the Dnieper shore ("ugor", "eel"). Due to the numerous sharp changes in the terrain, the area was also called Provalem. However, this does not exclude the fact that in the year 898, the Ugric nomads could camp here. This place is sacred. It is stained with the blood of the first Kiev prince Christian Askold (in the baptism of Nicholas) and is covered with legends. This same area is known under the name of Kozlovka - by the surname of the local landowners Kozlovsky. Their estate in the end of the XIX century stretched in the area of the present Park road from the staircase to the Mariinsky Palace to the stairs to Arsenalnaya Square. In addition, in 1915 physician Kozlovsky built a hospital for children suffering from polio in the territory of his patrimonial possessions.
Lypki (Palace Part, Klovskoe Tract, Grafskaya Gora, German Gora) are located between the streets of Mikhail Grushevsky, Khreshchatyk, Institutskaya, Silkovichnaya, Academician Bogomolets, alleys of Grape and Serf. The name comes from the fragrant gardens that covered this open hill in the XVIIІ and the beginning of the XIX century, and then increasingly began to be replaced by aristocratic mansions and institutions. Since the terrain on one side was adjacent to the Imperial (Mariinsky), and on the other - to the Klovskoy Palace, it was also called the Palace Part. Another of her names is Grafskaya Gora - in honor of the hereditary higher nobility who lived here. The present Lipki and the German Mountain were called, since there was a vast German colony here. The Germans Protestants created a whole "brilliant European" era in the development of the city. They founded pharmacies, factories here, were the first professors of the university, actors, typographers, architects and administrators.
Evseikova Dolina is located along Khreshchatyk, between Vladimirsky Descent and Independence Square. It was first mentioned in 1523. Who Yevseik (Evsei) was and how he is connected with the valley of his name, it is hardly possible to establish now. In place of the current "Ukrainian House" in 18061851 was the first Kiev city theater.
Mikhailovskaya (Mikhailova) Gora (Vladimir Gorka) is located between the Independence Square, the streets of Sofia, Vladimirskaya, Pochtovaya Square, the European Square and the Naberezhniy Shosse. The area was built in the beginning of the XI century. Here stood the St. Michael's Golden-domed Cathedral, which gave it its name. As for the park, its laying, ordering and planning of the slopes began in the 3040s of the XIX century. In 1853, it erected a monument to the prince - the baptizer of Rus Vladimir, hence the second name of the mountain - Vladimir Gorka. Until 1711, it represented a solid massif until the site of the continuation of the Khreshchatytsky Yar was cut by a descent (now - Vladimirsky descent). It is interesting that in this way people began to walk and ride in the place where the Khreshchatyk stream flowed and from which Vladimir began to baptize the people of Kiev, after christening their children in the stream.
Klov (Klovski Yar, Dog Trail, Yama) is located on the slope of the Pechersky Mountain and below the Lipki, in the area of the Klovski Descent, the streets of Mechnikov and Maryanenko, and between these descent and the streets, on the one hand, and the streets of Shelkovichnaya and Akademika Bogomolets . The name is known since the times of Kievan Rus and comes from streams that flowed along the steep slopes of this area. "Clov" is a stormy, bubbling, foaming water. And also - "Crib": the so-called local ponds and lakes, in which in the bottom they hammered the pegs to hold the fish. The area and its environs belonged to the Kiev Pechersk Lavra. In 1078, the Lavra Hegumen Stephen, who for some reason did not get along with the monks, but at the same time did not want to be far from the holy place, built on the opposite side of the Pechersky Mountain the monastery of Stefanich, which was also called Klovsky by the location. In 17521756, not far from this place appeared Klovsky Palace. Clov was also called the Dog Trail, because the area was swamped, and people made their way through narrow ("dog") trails. In connection with the steep terrain, the terrain was also called Yama, or Yamki.
The crosses are located between Klov, Dolgaya Niva, the Old Pechersk fortress and the boulevard of Lesia Ukrainka. Crosses were called crossroads, which in this area were many. Here are known the homonymous tract and settlement, which later merged with the Pechersky place. In the XVIII century, there was a Cross street, now known as the street of Nikolai Gaitsan. In this area there was also a racetrack (Suvorova Street, 9), which at the dawn of pre-revolutionary Kiev aviation was used as an airfield. On the Crosses the building of the ХІХ - the beginning of the XX centuries is well preserved.
Cherepanova Gora is located between the streets of Esplanadna, Ivan Kudri, Lesya Ukrainka Boulevard and the south-western borders of the Pechersky District. The area includes the Vasilkovskie and Hospital fortifications of the Novopechersk fortress, as well as part of a wide pre-emplaced esplanade strip. The name "Cherepanova Gora" arose after 1815, when the Kiev civil governor was Pavel Cherepanov: his estate was located on the mountain.
Black Mountain is located between the Friendship of Peoples Boulevard, the Railway Highway and Kikvidze Street. The name comes from the black earth soil of this area and has nothing to do with negative energy.
Zverinets (Vydubychi, Navodnichi, Nevodnichi) is located between Kikvidze Street, Railway and Naddnipryansky Highway. Perhaps the name of the area is dictated by the fact that they hunted a wild beast here. At the Zverinets there are also Vydubychi. They say that it was here that Perun's idol was "ripped out" (ie, emerged); may be so. There is a legend that it was not a wooden block, but a kind of "snake" ("beast"), which in these parts had their own "holes" (caves). There were fishing settlements with drying nets, and ferries to the left bank of the Dnieper, which existed before the appearance of Kievan Rus. Hence - another name: Navodnichi, or Nevodnichi. Finally, there was also the country palace of the great princes of Kiev - the Red Court. From ancient times on the Zverinets were built and various fortifications. At the beginning of the twentieth century, its territory was densely built up with small houses and manors, but in June 1918, as a result of explosions of zoo artillery warehouses, almost all of the local housing stock was destroyed. New housing development is particularly widespread in these parts after the war.
Buslovitsa (Busovitsa, Telichka (Upper and Lower), Telyachev) is partially located on the Zverinets, from the extreme parts of the streets Timiryazevskaya and Kikvidze to Bald Mountain. Busova Mountain is located between the streets of Timiryazevskaya and Kikvidze, and Busovo Field - between the Railway Highway, the streets of Kikvidze and Saperno Sloboda. The creek of the same name (now in the collector) flowed through the field and flowed into the Lybid River. It is believed that the name of the area comes from the name of Bus (Bozh) - that was the name of the leader of one of the Ants tribes, whose fortifications on the shore of Lybidi, always significant for the ancient defense, were located right here. This area is also called Telichka (Telyachev) - with the Upper Telichka on the hill and Lower Telicka - in the lowland. The construction of the area began in the second half of the XIX century in the form of a narrow strip along the railway. As part of Kiev, it is located since 1923. In the 50s of the XX century, the construction of one of the largest industrial zones of the capital began here.
Bald Mountain lies between Buslovka, Sapernaya Slobodka and Bagrinova Gora. A legendary and mysterious place. Its name is due to the scarcity of high tree vegetation. In the second half of the XIX century, the Lysogorsky fortifications of the Novo Pechersky fortress were built here. In 1897 Lysaya Gora became a suburban settlement, and since 1923 it entered the city line as a forest park.
Bagrinova Gora (Bagrinov) is located between the Prospect of Science, Saperna Slobodka, Bald Mountain, Mousetrap and Nadnepryansky Highway. It is a hill between the Bald Mountain and the Chinatown. Hence the name, likening the nature of the relief of the bagra. In addition, the name of the area may be associated with the scarlet color of the vegetation in the fall. For the first time the locality is mentioned in 1070 - exactly then the prince of Kiev, Vsevolod Yaroslavovich, presented to the Vydubitsky monastery, the Bagrinov, specially guarded by him. In 1949 the construction of the village began with two-story houses with personal plots. The main local streets are Lysogorskaya, Raketnaya and Panoramic. In 1956-1957, the village was called Khrushchev (after the name of the then head of the Soviet state), and from 1957 - Zhovtnev.
Sapernoe Field is located between the streets of Shchors, Henri Barbusse, Kovpak and the southeastern border of the district. The name of the area was given by a sapper battalion, whose barracks were located here from the mid-19th century to 1924.
author Victor Kovalenko