Pechersky district and its historical residential areas
Pechersk (Kiev-Pechersk, Pechersk Mountain, Pechersk Plateau, Pechersk Side) is located between Lipki, Klov, Zverinets and the Dnieper slopes.
During the time of the Russian Empire, the territory of the current Pechersk district was part of the Palace and Pechora police stations in Kiev. The name "Pechora District" was mentioned since March 1917, when, by a decision of the Kiev Committee of the RSDLP (b), the Pechora Party District was formed.
In November 1921, the Soviet Pechersky district found its clearly defined borders at that time. In the same year, the area became known as Central. In 1924-1933, the Pechersky district became part of the Leninsky district, and in 1936-1944 it was allocated as the Kirovsky district. After the war, he finally became known as Pechersky.
The most common version regarding the name connects it with caves, however, which existed here long before the appearance of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, and not only on the site occupied by it, but also around it. So the menagerie and even Kitaevo can also be considered as part of Pechersk. Another version connects the name with the character of the area. “Caves” called cliffs of the steep banks of the river. In the era of the formation of Russia, it was on Pechersk that the center fortified with defensive structures was located.
Since the 12th century, the Pechersk settlement has been growing around the Lavra. Gradually the Pechersk settlement was demolished, and ramparts were erected in its place. After the Battle of Poltava, the territory of the former Pechersky Monastery increased fivefold and turned from a small monastery surrounded by impenetrable forests into an indicative city bastion. In the first half of the 18th century, the buildings around the “forstat” were chicken huts (that is, huts without pipes), among which about ten treasury stone buildings stood out. The aristocratic appearance of Pechersk began to acquire only during the time of Nicholas I, who expanded the fortress practically to the whole of Pechersk, and also planned the Palace and Lybed parts of the city.
Historians acknowledge that Bessarabka owes its appearance on the horizon of Kiev’s life to the powerful source of water discovered here at the end of the 18th century. Later, a bazaar appeared in the area of the square. At the end of the 18th - beginning of the 19th centuries, a horse post station was also located on Bessarabka. The name of the area comes from a large number of stray people who settled in shacks near the steep descent. These people received the nickname “Bessarabs” (“Bassarabs”) from Kiev. According to another version, the name Bessarabka was given to peasants from Bessarabia (Moldova and southern Ukraine. The center of the square is occupied by the monumental building of the city indoor market with a huge glass domed roof; the market is deployed in front of Khreshchatyk. The building on 2 floors was built in 1896 according to an award-winning project by architect E. Guy in the style of English Art Nouveau with funds, partly allocated by the city, and partly donated by the heirs of L.I. Brodsky.
Berestovo is located on the territory of the current Park of Eternal Glory and in the upper part of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Once this whole place was covered with birch bark forest - hence the name. Then St. Vladimir lived in his suburban tower. The stone two-story palace building was surrounded by courtyards of the princely servants. In subsequent years, Yaroslav the Wise, Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich, Vsevolod Yaroslavovich and Vladimir Monomakh lived in the prince's village. Here was located the Hermanec Monastery, which was burned along with the prince’s court in 1091 by Khan Bonyak and rebuilt by Monomakh again in 1113. It is possible that the Church of the Savior on Berestov, first mentioned in 1072, was also part of this monastery. But as a result of numerous destructions and major reconstructions, by now it has acquired a form that differs significantly from the original.
The Kiev Pechersk Lavra is located on the territory of the current museum complex of the Kiev Pechersk Reserve. The old Pechersk fortress is located around the Lavra and is limited by earthen ramparts. Its construction was completed in 1723. During the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, the fortress was repeatedly reconstructed. Since 1711, it housed the main administrative (including the residence of the Governor General) and military institutions, the houses of the Ukrainian aristocracy, as well as arsenals where military equipment, and powder magazines were stored, manufactured and repaired. Most of the buildings of the fortress were decorated in the style of Ukrainian Baroque.
The Long Niva is located along the January Uprising Street, from the Park of Eternal Glory to the Heroes Square of Arsenal and Clova. In the days of Kievan Rus, this area was a "great forest." Over time, the forest was cut down, and in its place a field was formed, stretching along the Dnieper steeps, arable land, crops, cornfield - hence the name of the area. It belonged to the Pechersky, and since 1518 - to the Nikolsky monastery. In the middle of the XVII century, Nikolskaya Sloboda was formed here. Nicholas Monastery was one of the oldest in Russia and owned lands over the Dnieper up to Podil.
Askold's Grave (Ugorsky tract, Kozlovka, Proval) is located between Dolgaya Niva, Naberezhnoye Shosse, Eternal Glory Park and Mariinsky Park and includes part of the Dnieper slopes. It arose on the site of the tract Ugorsky, so called because of the steepness of the Dnieper coast ("Ugor", "Eel"). Due to the numerous sharp changes in relief, the area was also called Failure. However, this does not exclude the possibility that in 898, ugry nomads could camp here. The place is sacred. It is stained with the blood of the first Kiev princesChristian Askold (in the baptism of Nicholas) and is covered in legends. The same area is known as Kozlovka - by the name of the local Kozlovsky homeowner. Their estate at the end of the 19th century extended in the area of the present Park Road from the stairs to the Mariinsky Palace to the stairs to Arsenalnaya Square. In addition, in 1915, doctor Kozlovsky built a hospital for children with poliomyelitis on the territory of his patrimonial possessions.
Lipki (Palace Part, Klovskoye Urochishche, Grafskaya Gora, Deutsche Hora) are located between the streets of Mikhail Grushevsky, Khreshchatyk, Institutskaya, Shelkovichnaya, Academician Bogomolets, Vinogradnoy and Krepostniy lanes. The name comes from fragrant gardens that covered this open hill in the 17th and early 19th centuries, and then began to be replaced more and more by aristocratic mansions and institutions. Since the area on one side was adjacent to the imperial (Mariinsky), and on the other, to the Klovsky palace, it was also called the Palace Part. Her other name is the Count's Mountain in honor of the hereditary higher nobility that lived here. The current Lipki was also called the German Mountain, since there was an extensive German colony. The Germans protestants created a whole "brilliantly European" era in the development of the city. They founded pharmacies, factories here, were the first university professors, actors, printers, architects and administrators.
Evseikova Valley is located along Khreshchatyk, between Vladimir Descent and Independence Square. First mentioned in 1523. Who was Yevseyka (Yevsey) and how he is connected with the valley of his name, it is now unlikely to be established. In 18061851, the first Kiev city theater was located on the site of the current “Ukrainian House”.
Mikhailovskaya (Mikhailova) Gora (Vladimirskaya Gorka) is located between Independence Square, Sofiyskaya, Vladimirskaya, Pochtovaya Ploshchad, Evropeiskaya Ploshchad and Naberezhnoye Shosse. The area was built up at the beginning of the XI century. Here stood the St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral, which gave it a name. As for the park, its laying, ordering and planning of the slopes began in the 3040s of the XIX century. In 1853, a monument was erected in it to the prince - the baptist of Russia Vladimir, hence the second name of the mountain - Vladimir Gorka. Until 1711, it was a solid massif, while at the site of the continuation of the Kreshchatitsky Yar, it was cut through by a descent (now Vladimir Descent). It is interesting that in this way, people began to walk and ride around the place where the Khreshchatyk stream flowed and from which Vladimir began to baptize Kiev, christening his children in the stream.
Klov (Klovsky Yar, Dog Trail, Pit) is located on the slopes of the Pechersk Mountain and below Lipok, in the Klovsky Descent, Mechnikov and Maryanenko streets, and between these slopes and the streets, on the one hand, and Shelkovichnaya and Akademika Bogomolets streets, on the other . The name is known from the time of Kievan Rus and comes from streams that flowed along the steep slopes of this area. “Clove” is stormy, bubbling, foaming water. And also - “kolovy”: that was the name of the local ponds and lakes, in which stakes were driven into the bottom in order to detain the fish. The area and its surroundings belonged to the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. In 1078, the Lavra hegumen Stefan, who for some reason did not get along with the monks, but did not want to be far from the holy place, organized the Stefanich monastery on the opposite side of the Pechersk mountain, which was also called Klovsky by location. In 17521756, the Klovsky Palace appeared near this place. Clove was also called the Dog Trail, since the area was swampy, and people made their way along narrow ("dog") paths. Due to the steep terrain, the area was also called the Pit, or Pits.
Crosses are located between Clova, Dolgaya Niva, Old Pechersk Fortress and Lesya Ukrainka Boulevard. Crosses were called crossroads, of which there were many in this area. Here, the tract of the same name and the settlement are known, which subsequently merged with the Pechersky place. In the XVIII century there appeared Krestovy Lane, now known as Nikolai Gaitsan Street. In this area there was also a hippodrome (9 Suvorova St.), which at the dawn of pre-revolutionary Kiev aviation was used as an airfield. On the Crosses, the buildings of the 19th - early 20th centuries were well preserved.
Cherepanova Gora is located between the streets of Esplanadnaya, Ivan Kudri, Lesya Ukrainka Boulevard and the southwestern borders of the Pechersky District. The area includes the Vasilkovsky and Hospital fortifications of the Novopechersky fortress, as well as part of a wide pre-fortress esplanade strip. The name "Cherepanova Gora" arose after 1815, when Pavel Cherepanov was the Kiev civil governor: his estate was located on the mountain.
Black Mountain is located between Druzhby Narodov Boulevard, Railway Highway and Kikvidze Street. The name comes from the black soil of this area and is in no way associated with negative energy.
The menagerie (Vydubychi, Navodnichi, Nevodnichi) is located between Kikvidze street, Railway and Naddnipryansky highway. Perhaps the name of the area is dictated by the fact that they hunted a wild beast here. At the Menagerie are Vydubychi. They say that it was here that the “idol” (that is, emerged) of the idol of Perun; may be so. There is a legend that this was not a wooden block, but a kind of “serpent” (“beast”), which had its own “holes” (caves) in these parts. There were fishing villages with drying seines, and crossings to the left bank of the Dnieper, which existed before the advent of Kievan Rus. From here - one more name: Navodnichi, or Nevodnichi. Finally, there was also a suburban palace of the great Kiev princes - the Red Court. From ancient times, various fortifications were built at Zverinets. At the beginning of the 20th century, its territory was densely built up with small houses and estates, but in June 1918, as a result of explosions of menagerie artillery depots, almost the entire local housing stock was destroyed. New housing development was especially widespread in these parts after the war.
Buslovka (Busovitsa, Telichka (Upper and Lower), Telyachev) is partially located on Zverinets, from the extreme parts of Timiryazevskaya and Kikvidze Streets to Lysaya Gora. Busova Gora is located between Timiryazevskaya and Kikvidze Streets, and Busovo Field is between Zheleznodorozhny Highway, Kikvidze and Saperno Slobodskaya Streets. The creek of the same name (now in the collector) flowed through the field and flowed into the Lybed River. It is believed that the name of the area comes from the name of Bus (Bozh) - that was the name of the leader of one of the Antian tribes, whose fortifications on the shore of Lybed, always significant for ancient defense, were located here. This area is also called Telichka (Telyachev) - with Upper Telichka on a hill and Lower Telichka - in a lowland. Terrain development began in the second half of the 19th century in the form of a narrow strip along the railway. It has been a part of Kiev since 1923. In the 1950s, the construction of one of the largest industrial zones of the capital began here.
Bald Mountain is located between Buslovka, Minesweeper Slobodka and Bagrinova Mountain. A legendary and mysterious place. Its name is due to the scarcity of high woody vegetation. In the second half of the XIX century, Lysogorsk fortifications of the Novopechersky fortress were built here. In 1897, Lysaya Gora became a suburban village, and since 1923 entered the city limits as a forest park.
Bagrinova Gora (Bagrinov) is located between Nauki Avenue, Sapernaya Slobodka, Lysa Gora, Mousetrap and the Naddnipryansky highway. It is a holder bridge between Lysa Gora and Kitaev. Hence the name likening the nature of the relief to the crimson. In addition, the name of the area may be associated with the crimson color of vegetation in the fall. For the first time the area was mentioned in 1070 - it was then that the Prince of Kiev, Vsevolod Yaroslavovich, presented Bagrinov to the Vydubytsky Monastery, who was especially guarded by him. In 1949, the development of the village began with two-story houses with personal plots. The main local streets are Lysogorskaya, Rocket and Panoramic. In 19561957, the village was called Khrushchev (by the name of the then head of the Soviet state), and since 1957 - Zhovtnev.
Sappernoe Pole is located between the streets of Shchors, Henri Barbyus, Kovpak and the southeastern border of the district. The name of the area was given by the sapper battalion, whose barracks were here from the middle of the 19th century to 1924.
author Victor Kovalenko