Orientation (lat. Rising; meaning the rising sun and generally east) determining its location relative to the elements of the surrounding space. Orienteering on the terrain includes determining one's position relative to the sides of the horizon and distinguished objects of the terrain (landmarks), maintaining a given or chosen direction of movement, and clarifying the position of the terrain on landmarks, lines, and other objects.
When performing many combat missions, the actions of the commanders are inevitably connected with the orientation of the terrain. The ability to navigate is necessary, for example, on the march, in battle, in reconnaissance to maintain the direction of movement, target designation, drawing on the map (terrain map) of landmarks, targets and other objects, control of the subunit and fire. Knowledge and skills in orientation guided by experience help to perform combat missions more confidently and successfully in various combat conditions and in unfamiliar terrain.
Orientation on the terrain - it means to determine your location and direction on the side of the horizon relative to the surrounding local objects and landforms, find the specified direction of movement and precisely maintain it on the way. When orienting in a combat situation, they also determine the location of the unit relative to its troops and enemy troops, the location of landmarks, the direction and depth of actions.
The essence of orientation - orientation on the ground can be general and detailed.
General orientation consists in an approximate determination of its location, direction of movement and time required to reach the final point of movement. This orientation is most often used on the march, when the crew of the vehicle does not have a map, but uses only a predefined map or list of settlements and other landmarks along the route. To maintain the direction of movement in this case, it is necessary to constantly monitor the time of movement, the distance traveled, determined by the machine’s speedometer, and to monitor the passage (schedule) of settlements and other landmarks.
Detailed orientation is the exact definition of its location and direction of movement. It is used for orientation on a map, aerial photographs, ground navigation instruments, when moving in azimuth, mapping or diagram of explored objects and targets, when determining the reached milestones and in other cases.
When orienteering, the simplest methods of orienteering are widely used: by compass, heavenly bodies and signs of local objects, as well as a more complex method — map orientation.
To navigate the terrain, it means to find directions to the cardinal points (north, south, east and west) and determine your location. To find directions to the cardinal points, first determine the direction of north-south; after that, becoming face to the north, the defining will be to the right - east, to the left - west. The sides of the world are usually found on a compass, and in the absence of it - on the Sun, the Moon, the stars and according to some signs of local objects.
According to the sun and the clock
Determining the sides of the horizon by the Sun and hours, up to 13 hours and after 13 hours
In the horizontal position, the clock is set so that the hour hand points to the sun. The angle between the hour hand and the direction on the number 1 on the clock face is divided in half by a straight line, which indicates the direction to the south. Before noon, it is necessary to divide in half that arc (angle), which the arrow must pass before 13.00, and in the afternoon, that arc, which it passed after 13.00.
On the Polar Star
Determining the sides of the horizon by the Polar Star
The polestar is always in the north. To find the Polar Star, you must first find the Big Dipper constellation, resembling a bucket made up of seven fairly bright stars, then, through the two extreme right stars of the Big Dipper, mentally draw a line on which to set off five times the distance between these extreme stars, and then at the end of this lines we find the Polar Star, which, in turn, is located at the tail of another constellation, called the Little Bear. Facing the Polar Star, we will get north.
Across the moon
Determination of the horizon by the moon and the clock.
For approximate orientation, you need to know that in the summer the first quarter of the Moon is at 19 o'clock in the south, at 1 am - in the west, in the last quarter - in the east, at 7 am in the south.
Over full moon
Under a full moon at night, the sides of the horizon are determined in the same way as by the Sun and the clock, and the Moon is taken for the Sun. The full moon confronts the sun in the sky, so in the south it can be exactly at midnight. The difference on the dial at 12 o'clock is not visible, and the determination of the sides of the horizon can be carried out in the same way as in the case of the Sun. A full moon does not appear often in the sky, but an incomplete moon can help determine the sides of the horizon, although this is difficult. First you need to notice the time on the clock. Then mentally divide the diameter of the moon into 12 parts and estimate how many such parts are contained across the visible crescent of the moon. If it arrives (the right half of the disk is visible), then the resulting number must be subtracted from the hour of observation. If the moon decreases (the left half of the disk is visible), then add. The sum or difference will show the hour when the Sun will be in the direction of the Moon. We direct to the crescent of the moon that place on the dial that corresponds to the newly received time, and, mentally replacing the moon with the sun, we find the direction north-south. So you can determine the rising and setting of the sun. In mid-latitudes in summer, the sun rises to the northeast and sets to the southwest. Only on March 21 and September 23 — on the days of equinoxes, the sun exactly rises in the east and sets in the west.
|Side of the world||First quarter (visible, the right half of the disk of the moon)||Full Moon (see the entire disk of the Moon)||Last quarter (visible left half of the Moon disk)|
|In the east||-||19 hours||01 hour (nights)|
|On South||19 hours||01 hour (nights)||07 hours (mornings)|
|In the West||01 hour (nights)||07 hours (mornings)|
According to the sun
The places of sunrise and sunset are different in different seasons: in winter, the sun rises in the southeast and sets in the southwest; in summer, the sun rises in the northeast and sets in the northwest; in spring and autumn the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. At noon, the sun is always in the direction of the south. The shortest shadow from local objects is at 13 o'clock, and the direction of the shadow from vertically positioned local objects at this time will point north.
Annual rings are wider on the south side.
On the anthill
At the anthill southern slope more gentle.
By a separate tree
Such a tree has a shorter branch on the north side, and there may be a lichen on the trunk.
According to the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor
In the constellation Ursa Minor is a bright North Star. It can be seen only in the Northern Hemisphere. She always points north.
On the trunk of pines
After the rain, the trunks of the pines usually turn black on the north side, as a thin secondary crust begins to develop there, turning black from water. In dry and hot weather, more resin is released from the southern side of the pine trunks. These signs should be used carefully. It would be nice if the direction was confirmed by other signs.
In the northern outskirts of the field, the grass is more dense in spring than in the south. Vegetation characteristic of southern latitudes will occur on the southern slopes of ravines.
Along the forest paths
They are usually hacked north-south or west-east.
By religious buildings
The altars and chapels of Orthodox and Lutheran churches are facing east, and the belltowers are west. Catholic altars are facing west. Buddhist pagodas and monasteries face to the south.
If you get lost, you must stop and listen. Some sounds will help you: the noise of the car, the movement of the electric train, the horn of the ship. Audibility may deteriorate in hot sunny weather, especially when the head wind, 1 in the forest, on the sand, on loose fresh snow. Many sounds are inaudible behind an obstacle: behind a mountain, a hill.
It is known that the south side of objects heats up more than the north, respectively, and the snow melting from this side occurs faster. This can be clearly seen in early spring and during thaws in winter on the slopes of ravines, holes near trees, snow stuck to stones.
At noon, the direction of the shadow (it will be the shortest) points to the north. Without waiting for the shortest shadow, you can navigate in the following way. Stick a stick about 1 meter long into the ground. Mark the end of the shadow. Wait 10-15 minutes and repeat the procedure. Draw a line from the first position of the shadow to the second and extend a step beyond the second mark. Become the tip of your left foot against the first mark, and the right foot at the end of the line you drew. You are now facing north.
In local subjects
Identification of the horizon on the basis of local items.
It is known that the resin is more prominent on the southern half of the trunk of a coniferous tree; ants arrange their homes on the southern side of a tree or shrub and make the southern slope of an anthill more gentle than the northern one. The bark of birch and pine on the north side is darker than on the south, and the trunks of trees, stones, and ledges of rocks are thicker covered with moss and lichen. In large tracts of a cultivated forest, the sides of the horizon can be identified by glades, which, as a rule, are cut strictly along the north-south and east-west lines, as well as by the inscriptions of the block numbers on the posts installed at the intersections of the glades. On each such pillar in the upper part and on each of the four faces there are numbers - the numbering of the opposite forest quarters; the edge between the two faces with the smallest figures shows the direction to the north (the numbering of forest areas in the CIS goes from west to east and further to the south).
Buildings that are rather strictly oriented on the sides of the horizon include churches, mosques, and synagogues. The altars and chapels of Christian and Lutheran churches are facing east, the belltowers to the west. The lowered edge of the lower crossbar on the dome of the Orthodox Church faces south, elevated to the north. Altars of Catholic churches are located on the western side. The doors of the Jewish synagogues and Muslim mosques are turned approximately to the north, their opposite sides are directed: the mosques to Mecca in Arabia, which lies on the meridian of Voronezh, and the synagogues to Jerusalem in Palestine, which lies on the meridian of Dnipropetrovsk. Kumirni, pagodas, Buddhist monasteries facades facing south. The exit from the yurt is usually made to the south. In rural houses, more windows in residential areas are cut open on the south side, and the paint on the walls of the buildings on the south side fades more and has a withered color.
- the bark of most trees is coarser and darker on the north side, thinner and more elastic (lighter in birch) on the south;
- in the pine, the secondary (brown, cracked) bark on the north side of the trunk rises higher than on the south;
- on coniferous trees, resin is more abundantly accumulated on the south side;
- annual rings on fresh tree stumps are thicker on the north side;
- on the north side, trees, stones, wooden, tiled and slate roofs are earlier and more abundantly covered with lichens, fungi;
- anthills are located on the south side of trees, stumps and bushes, in addition, the southern slope of anthills is flat, the northern one is steep;
- berries and fruits redden (turn yellow) from the south side earlier;
- in summer, the soil around large stones, buildings, trees and bushes is drier from the south side, which can be determined by touch;
- for isolated trees, crowns are lush and thick on the south side;
- snow thaws faster on the southern slopes, as a result of thawing on the snow jags (spikes) are formed, directed to the south;
- the altars of Orthodox churches, chapels and Lutheran picks are facing east, and the main entrances are located on the west side;
- the raised end of the lower crossbar of the churches facing north
Determining directions to the horizon by compass
Determining the sides of the horizon by compass
With the help of a compass, you can most easily and quickly determine the north, south, west and east. To do this, you need to give the compass a horizontal position, release the arrow from the clamp, let it calm down. Then the arrowed end of the arrow will be directed north.
To determine the accuracy of the deviation of the direction of movement from the direction to the north or to determine the position of the points of the terrain relative to the direction to the north and reference them, there are divisions on the compass, of which the lower ones are marked in degree measures (the division price is 3 °) in dozens of "thousandths." Degrees are counted clockwise from 0 to 360 °, and graduations of the protractor are counterclockwise from 0 to 600 °. Zero division is located at the letter "C" (north), there is also a triangle glowing in the dark, replacing the letter "C" in some compasses.
Under the letters "B" (east), "U" (south), "3" (west) luminous dots are plotted. On the mobile cover of the compass there is a sight device (sight and front sight), against which luminous signs are attached, which serve to indicate the direction of movement at night. In the army, the most common are the Andrianov’s compass and the artillery compass.
When working with a compass, you should always remember that strong electromagnetic fields or closely spaced metal objects deflect an arrow from its correct position. Therefore, when determining directions using a compass, it is necessary to move 40-50 meters from power lines, railroad tracks, combat vehicles and other large metal objects.
The mutual position of the horizon.
Determining the directions to the horizon by compass is as follows. The sight of the sighting device is put on the zero division of the scale, and the compass - in a horizontal position. Then they release the brake of the magnetic needle and turn the compass so that its northern end coincides with zero count. After that, without changing the position of the compass, with a sight through the rear sight and a fly we notice a distant reference point, which is used to indicate the direction to the north.
The directions to the horizon are interconnected, and if at least one of them is known, the others can be identified.
In the opposite direction to the north will be south, right-east, and left - west.
Determination of magnetic compass azimuth
Determination of the magnetic azimuth of the direction to a separate tree
The magnetic azimuth of the direction is determined using a compass.
At the same time they release the brake of the magnetic needle and turn the compass in the horizontal plane until the northern end of the arrow is set against the zero division of the scale.
Then, without changing the position of the compass, install the sighting device so that the line of sight through the rear sight and the fly coincides with the direction of the object. The scale reading against the fly corresponds to the magnitude of the determined magnetic azimuth of the direction to a local object.
The azimuth of the direction from the point of standing on a local object is called direct magnetic azimuth. In some cases, for example, to find the way back, use the reverse magnetic azimuth, which differs from the direct one by 180 °. To determine the inverse azimuth, you need to add 180 ° to the direct azimuth, if it is less than 180 °, or subtract 180 ° if it is more than 180 °.
Determining horizontal compass angles
First, the fly of the sight device of the compass is set at zero scale. Then, by turning the compass in the horizontal plane, the line of sight is aligned with the direction to the left object (landmark) through the rear sight and the front sight.
After that, without changing the position of the compass, the sighting device is transferred to the direction of the right object and is read on the scale, which will correspond to the value of the measured angle in degrees.
When measuring the angle in thousandths, the line of sight is first combined with the direction to the right object (guide), since the thousandth count increases counterclockwise.
On any map above - always north, below - south, on the right - east, on the left - west. To rotate the map respectively to the cardinal points, you need to impose a compass with a diameter of CU on the western (eastern) frame of the map or on the vertical line of the kilometer grid of the map, with the letter C in the direction of the northern frame. Then, freeing the compass needle, rotate the map with the compass until the northern end of the arrow is set against the letter C.
To orient the map, use the following methods:
- Orientation of the map along the lines of terrain. In this case, you need to go onto the road (a clearing, river bank or another line), find it on the map and then rotate the map until the direction of the road (line) on the map matches the direction of the road (line) on the terrain, then check so that the objects located to the right and left of the road (line) are on the ground on the same sides as on the map.
- Compass orientation of the map is used mainly on the ground, difficult for orientation (in the forest, in the desert, in the tundra), as well as in poor visibility. Under these conditions, the compass determines the direction to the north, and then the map is turned (guided) with the upper side of the frame toward the north so that the vertical line of the grid of the map coincides with the longitudinal axis of the magnetic needle of the compass.
The mutual position of the horizon.
The map on the compass can be oriented more accurately taking into account the declination of the magnetic needle. To do this, you need to additionally rotate it so that the north end of the magnetic needle deviates from the 0 ° stroke of the compass scale by the amount of the direction correction indicated in the lower left corner of this map sheet.
It should be remembered that the compass can not be used near iron objects, military equipment and power lines, as they cause the deflection of the magnetic needle. It is easier to determine the point of your standing on the map when you are on the ground next to the landmark (local object) shown on the map. In this case, the location of the symbol will coincide with the point of standing.
If there are no such landmarks at the point of standing on the ground, then it can be determined in one of the following ways:
- In the nearby local objects (relief). To do this, it is necessary to orient the map and identify on it and, accordingly, on the terrain 1-2 local objects, determine visually its location on the terrain relative to these objects and also map out its standing position on the map.
- Measured distances. Driving along the road (along a clearing in the forest or another line on the ground) indicated on the map, measure the distance traveled from the nearest reference point in pairs of steps (car speedometer). To determine the point of your standing, it is enough just to postpone the measured (traveled) scale distance on the map in the right direction.
- Serif. When driving along the road (along the glade, along the telegraph line), your location can be determined by local objects located on the sides of the road. To do this, orient the map in the direction of the road and identify a reference point on it and on the ground.
Then attach a ruler or pencil to the selected reference point on the map and, without knocking down the orientation of the map, rotate the ruler around the reference sign until its direction coincides with the direction of the reference point. The place where the ruler will cross the road will be the point of standing.
When driving on the road, when the point of standing is not marked on the map, it can be determined by reverse serif in two or three directions. To do this, choose on the map and on the ground 2-3 reference points. Then orient the map along the compass and, similarly to the previous method, provide for the provision and draw along the ruler for each of the selected landmarks. The intersection of the drawn lines will be the point of standing.
Map Orientation in Local Items
Knowing the position of local objects in relation to the countries of the world, it is already easy to determine their location on the terrain and mark this point on the map.
To find an object visible on the map, you need:
- become a person to the specified subject;
- map the map;
- find your location on the map;
- mentally draw a line from the point of standing to the specified object on the ground;
- in the direction of this line, look for a symbol of this item on the map.
To find on the ground the object indicated on the map, you need:
- Orient the map and find the point of your standing on it;
- attach a ruler on the map to the point of standing and to the conventional sign of the object;
- without knocking down the orientation of the map and not moving the rulers, search for an imaginary continuation of the line with the corresponding object on the ground.
It is necessary to take into account the distance to it, previously determined by the map.
The map is oriented on a compass on the terrain of poor landmarks: in the forest, in desert-steppe areas, and also if a person does not even know about the point of his standing.
Azimuth is the angle formed between the direction to any object of the terrain and the direction to the north.
Azimuths are counted from 0 to 360 ° clockwise.
Compass azimuth determination
To determine the azimuth on the ground, you need:
- become a person in the direction of the object on which you want to determine the azimuth;
- Orient the compass, that is, to bring its zero division (or the letter C) under the darkened end of the compass needle;
- turning the compass cover, aim the sight device;
- against the pointer of the target device facing the object, read the value of the azimuth.
To determine the specified azimuth on the ground, you must:
- set the pointer of the target device of the compass point over the division corresponding to the value of the specified azimuth;
- turn the compass so that the pointer of the viewfinder is ahead;
- turn yourself along with the compass until the zero point coincides with the north end of the arrow; the direction of the pointer will be the direction in a given azimuth.
The combination of the sighting line with the direction of the object (goal) is achieved by repeatedly shifting the view from the sighting line to the target and back. It is not recommended to raise the compass to eye level, the measurement accuracy decreases. The accuracy of azimuth measurements using Andrianov’s compass is plus or minus 2-3 °.
Motion in azimuth
To move in a given azimuth, you need:
- explore the terrain between the starting and ending points on a map and map out a route easily recognizable by local subjects;
- draw the chosen route on the map and determine the azimuths of all links of the route;
- determine on the map the length of each link of the route in steps (a couple of steps on average equal to 1.5 m);
- All data for the movement to write in the field book in the form of a table or a schematic drawing.
Having come to the starting point, you should:
- navigate by compass;
- set the pointer of the rolling compass ring against a reference equal to the azimuth value of the first link of the route;
- rotate the compass smoothly until the zero division coincides with the north end of the arrow;
- in this direction choose an item and go for it. Going to the object, you need to check the orientation of the compass and continue to the first turning point;
- at the first turning point, you need to set the azimuth on the next turning point on the compass and move on it as you would from the starting point.
Magnetic azimuth detection
Magnetic declination happens either east with the sign "+" or western with the sign "-". Knowing the magnitude and the sign of deviation, it is easy to combine the direction of one of the sides of the frame of the map sheet (western or eastern) with the direction of the true meridian. At the combined position of the sides of the map frame with the direction of the true meridian, the map will be oriented precisely.
Practically they do it like this:
- set a compass on one of the sides of the map so that the north-south line of the compass scale coincides with the direction of this side of the frame, and zero (C) on the scale is directed to the north side of the map frame;
- release the compass needle brake and, when the arrow calms down, rotate the map until the arrow points to its north end against zero division (C) of the compass scale;
- turn the map without shifting the compass so that the northern end of the arrow stands up against dividing the corresponding magnitude and declination sign for the given map sheet;
- the map oriented in this way is fixed;
- connect landmarks with straight lines;
- set the compass on the drawn straight line between the reference point so that the "north-south" line of the scale coincides with this direction, and zero division (C) is directed in the direction of motion;
- when the arrow calms down, make a countdown on the scale against the north end of the arrow;
- To subtract the resulting count from 360 °, this difference will be the magnetic azimuth.
To indicate the approximate location of any object on the map, it is enough to indicate the square of the grid in which it is located.
The square is always indicated by the numbers of kilometer lines, the intersection of which forms the south-western (lower left) corner. When specifying the square of the map, the following rules are followed: first, two numbers are inscribed on the horizontal line (on the west side), that is, the “X” coordinate, and then two numbers on the vertical line (the south side of the sheet), that is, the “Y” coordinate. At the same time, "X" and "U" are not spoken.
For example, enemy tanks are spotted. When transmitting the report by radiotelephone, the number of the square is pronounced: "eighty-eight zero two."
If the position of a point (object) needs to be determined more precisely, then use full or reduced coordinates.
Work with full coordinates
It is required to determine the coordinates of the road index in the square "8803" on a map of 1:50 000 scale. Б.
First, determine what is the distance from the lower horizontal side of the square to the road indicator (600 m on the ground).
In the same way, measure the distance from the left vertical side of the square (500 m).
Now, by digitizing kilometer lines, we determine the full coordinates of the object.
The horizontal line has the signature "5988" (X), adding the distance from this line to the road indicator we get: X = 5988 600.
Similarly, we determine the vertical line and get 2403 500.
The full coordinates of the road indicator are as follows: X = 5988 600 m, Y = 2403 500 m.
Abbreviated coordinates: X = 88 600 m, Y = 03 500 m.
The data of the Point (RFQ) is known: X = 90,850, Y = 02,550.
We are calculating:
- First, we determine the square in which the object is located.
- We lay on the vertical line of 850 m, from this point we draw a horizontal line.
- Now we lay off 550 m from the horizontal line below and draw a vertical line.
A special coordinator is made: a square with two mutually perpendicular scales.
Signatures on the scales show the number of hundreds of meters in the scale of the map. This square also works when determining the coordinates on the map and when mapping objects.
The position of the target in the square is specified in two ways:
- on the "snail" - the square is divided into 9 parts, which are designated by numbers, the figure specifying the location of the object inside the square is added to the designation of the square, for example: RFP - 5015 and 7;
- by letter - the square is divided into 4 parts, which are designated by letters, for example, a mortar battery - 4016-B.
This is one of the most important moments in the work. The accuracy of determining its coordinates depends on how accurately the object (target) is mapped. An error will cause a fire of weapons of destruction over an empty space.
Having discovered an object (goal), a person must first accurately determine what is detected by various signs. Then, without stopping the observation of the object and not finding yourself, put the object on the map.
There are several ways to draw an object on the map:
- by eye;
- straight serif.
Eye to eye
The object is mapped if it is near a well-known landmark.
By direction and distance: orient the map, find the point of your standing on it, swipe the direction of the detected object on the map and draw a line, determine the distance to the object, put this distance on the map from the point of standing. The resulting point will be the position of the object on the map. If this way it is graphically impossible to solve the problem (prevents the enemy, poor visibility, etc.), then you need to accurately measure the azimuth of the object, then transfer it to a directional angle and draw a direction from the standing point on which to put the distance to the object. To get the direction angle, it is necessary to add the magnetic declination of the given map to the magnetic azithmuth (correction of the direction).
In this way, the object is mapped on a map of 2 - 3 points from which you can monitor it. To do this, from each selected point is drawn on an oriented map the direction to the object, then the intersection of lines determines the location of the object.
Measurement of the distance between landmarks is performed as follows:
- determine the length of the segments on the map with a compass or a ruler;
- using the scale of the map, find out what distance the segments correspond to the terrain;
For example, on a 1:25 000 scale map, the measured distance between two landmarks is 6.4 cm. The scale value is 250 m and 1 cm. The distance will be 250 x 6.4 = 1600 m . The data necessary for the movement is drawn up in a specially designed route map, or in the form of a table.
The movement begins with finding the desired azimuth direction. In the direction of travel, it is advisable to select and memorize a reference point as far as possible. In motion, the measured distance is measured (usually in pairs of steps).
If the reference point is not at this point, a sign is left at the exit point, or one or two fighters, and the reference point is searched in a radius of 0.1 the distance traveled from the previous reference point.
In the movement use additional landmarks: power lines, rivers, roads, etc.
Determination of distances on the ground
It is often necessary to determine the distance to various objects on the ground, as well as assess their size.
The most accurate and fast distances are determined by means of special instruments (range finders) and rangefinder scales of binoculars, stereo tubes, and sights.
But due to the lack of devices, distances are often determined with the help of available tools and by eye.
Among the simplest methods for determining the distance (distance) to objects on the ground are the following:
- by eye;
- according to the linear dimensions of the objects;
- visibility (distinguishability) of objects;
- on the angular size of known items;
- by sound.
Eye to eye
This is the easiest and fastest way.
Click here for an example of using the eye method for determining distances in pictures .
The main thing about it is the training of visual memory and the ability to mentally set aside well-represented permanent measure on the ground (50, 100, 200, 500 meters).
Having fixed these standards in memory, it is easy to compare with them and estimate the distances on the ground.
When measuring the distance by successive mental postponement of a well-studied constant measure, it must be remembered that the terrain and local objects appear reduced in accordance with their distance, that is, when removed twice and the object will appear twice as small.
Therefore, when measuring distances, the mentally deferred segments (terrain measures) will decrease according to the distance.
It should take into account the following:
- the closer the distance, the clearer and sharper the visible object seems to us;
- the closer the subject, the more it seems;
- larger objects appear closer than smaller objects at the same distance;
- a brighter object appears closer than a dark colored object;
- brightly lit objects appear closer to dimly lit, located at the same distance;
- during fog, rain, at twilight, cloudy days, when the air is saturated with dust, the observed objects appear farther than on clear and sunny days;
- the sharper the difference in the color of the object and the background on which it is visible, the more reduced the distances seem to be; so, for example, in winter, a snow field seems to bring darker objects on it;
- objects on flat terrain appear closer than on hilly, distances that are determined through extensive bodies of water seem particularly reduced;
- folds of the terrain (river valleys, depressions, ravines), invisible or not fully visible by the observer, hide the distance;
- when lying down, objects appear closer than when standing;
- when viewed from the bottom up - from the bottom of the mountain to the top, objects appear closer, and when viewed from top to bottom - further;
- when the sun is behind us, the distance is hidden, shining in the eyes - it seems larger than it really is;
- the smaller objects in the area under consideration (when viewed through water, a flat meadow, steppe, arable land), the distances appear to be smaller.
The accuracy of the eye is dependent on the person's training.
For a distance of 1000 m, the usual error ranges from 10-20%.
By linear dimensions
To determine the distance in this way, you need:
- keep a ruler in front of you at arm's length (50-60 cm from the eye) and measure, in millimeters, the width or height of the object to which you want to determine the distance;
- The real height (width) of the object, expressed in centimeters, divided by the apparent height (width) in millimeters, and the result multiplied by 6 (a fixed number), we get the distance.
For example, if a pillar with a height of 4 m (400 cm) is closed along a ruler of 8 mm, then the distance to it will be 400 x 6 = 2400; 2400: 8 = 300 m (actual distance).
To determine distances in this way, it is required to know well the linear dimensions of various objects, or to have this data at hand (on a tablet, in a notebook). The dimensions of the most frequently encountered objects must be remembered by man, since they are also required for the method of measurement by the angular value, which is basic for us.
By visibility (distinguishability) of objects
To the naked eye, one can approximately determine the distance to the targets (objects) by the degree of their visibility.
For example, if someone saw a pipe on the roof of a house, it means that there is no more than 3 km to the house, and not exactly 3 km.
When eyeing the distances, it is desirable to use landmarks, the distances to which are already accurately known.
By angular value
To use this method, you need to know the linear value of the observed object (its height, length or width) and that angle (in thousandths) under which this object is visible.
For example, the height of the railway booth is 4 meters, the person sees it at an angle of 25 thousandths (the thickness of the little finger).
Then the distance to the booth will be 4 x 1000 = 4000 divided by 25, that is 160 meters.
To determine the angular value, you need to know that a segment of 1 mm, 50 cm from the eye, corresponds to an angle of two thousandths (written: 0-02).
From here it is easy to determine the angular value for any segments. For example, for a segment of 0.5 cm, the angular value will be 10 thousandths (0-10), for a segment of 1 cm - 20 thousandths (0-20), etc.
The easiest way to memorize standard values are thousandths:
Angular values (in thousandths of a distance)
Item Name / Size in Thousands
- Thumb thickness 40
- Index finger thickness 33
- The thickness of the middle finger 35
- The thickness of the little finger 25
- Cartridge width Dults sleeve (7.62 mm) 12
- Sleeve width 18
- A simple pencil 10-11
- Matchbox length 60
- Matchbox width 50
- Matchbox height 30
- Matchstick thickness 2
At night and in the fog, when observation is limited or impossible at all (and on very rough terrain and in the forest, both at night and during the day), hearing comes to the aid of the sight.
We must learn to determine the nature of sounds (that is, what they mean), the distance to the sources of sounds and the direction from which they originate.
If different sounds are heard, the person must be able to distinguish them from one another. The development of this ability is achieved by a long workout (in the same way, a professional musician distinguishes the voices of the instruments in the orchestra).
Almost all sounds that mean danger are made by man.
Therefore, if a person hears even the faintest suspicious noise, he should stand still and listen.
It is possible that the enemy is not far from him.
If the enemy begins to move first, thereby giving out his location, he will be the first to die.
In the same way, an inexperienced or impatient hunter betrays his presence to the beast that he hunts.
A skilled hunter, by his own perseverance, surpasses animals.
On a quiet summer night, even an ordinary human voice can be heard in the open, far away, sometimes for half a kilometer.
In a frosty autumn or winter night, all kinds of sounds and noises are heard very far.
This applies to speech, and footsteps, and the clinking of dishes or weapons.
In foggy weather, sounds are also heard far away, but their direction is difficult to determine.
On the surface of calm water and in the forest, when there is no wind, the sounds are carried over a very long distance.
But the rain is very deafening sounds.
The wind blowing towards the person brings the sounds closer, and o removes them from it.
He also puts the sound aside, creating a distorted view of the location of its source.
Mountains, forests, buildings, ravines, ravines and deep ravines change the direction of the sound, creating an echo.
Echoes and water spaces are generated, contributing to its spread over long distances.
The sound changes when its source moves along soft, wet or hard soil, down the street, along a country or field road, along pavement or leaf-covered soil.
It must be borne in mind that dry earth conveys sounds better than air.
Therefore, listen, putting his ear to the ground or to the trunks of trees.
At night, sounds are well transmitted through the earth.
There are certain ways to help listen at night, namely:
- lying: put ear to the ground;
- standing: one end of the stick to lean against the ear, the other end to rest against the ground;
- leaning over: standing, slightly leaning forward, shifting the center of gravity of the body to one leg, with the mouth half-open, the teeth are a conductor of sound.
When creeping, a trained person, if only life is dear to him, lies on his stomach and listens while lying, trying to determine the direction of the sounds.
It is easier to do this by turning one ear in the direction from which a suspicious noise is coming.
In order to improve hearing, it is recommended to attach bent palms, a kettle, a pipe section to the auricle.
In order to better listen to the sounds, a person can put his ear to a dry board on the ground, which acts as a sound collector, or to a dry log dug into the ground.
If necessary, you can make a homemade water stethoscope.
To do this, use a glass bottle (or a metal flask), filled with water to the neck, which is buried in the ground to the level of water in it. In a cork tightly insert the tube (plastic), which put a rubber tube. The other end of the rubber tube, provided with a tip, is inserted into the ear.
To check the sensitivity of the device, hit the ground at a distance of 4 m from it (the sound from the impact is clearly audible through the rubber tube).
It consists in determining the sides of the horizon (directions to the north, east, south, west) and its location on the ground relative to the designated (selected) landmarks and is usually used in a limited area.
When determining the sides of the horizon by the compass, it is given a horizontal position, the brake of the arrow is released. After the termination of oscillations, its luminous end will indicate the direction to the north.
The mutual position of the horizon.
To determine the sides of the horizon by the sun and the clock, you must face the sun. Put a clock showing the local time so that the hour hand points to the sun. The line dividing the angle between the hour hand and the direction to the number "1" in winter time or in "2" in summer time (only for the CIS) in half, will show the direction to the south
They are guided by the moon and the clock when the starry sky is poorly visible. In the full moon, the sides of the horizon can be determined by the moon using a clock as well as by the sun.
If the moon is incomplete (arrives or decreases), then you need:
- divide by eye the radius of the disk of the moon into six equal parts, determine how many such parts are contained across the visible crescent of the moon, and note the time by hours;
- from this time, subtract (if the moon arrives) or add (if the moon is decreasing) as many parts as contained across the visible crescent of the moon.
The resulting amount or difference will show the hour when the Sun is in the direction of the Moon.
- send to the moon the place on the dial that corresponds to that obtained after adding or subtracting time. The bisector of the angle between the direction of the moon and the hour (in winter time) or two hours (in summer time) will show the direction to the south.
By moon and compass
At different times of the month, we observe from the Earth certain phases of the Moon in the form of its full disk and separate parts containing a certain number of fractions of the diameter of the lunar disk. In the new moon the lunar disk is not visible, since this is the beginning of the lunar month. From this point on, the moon begins to arrive, on its way to the full moon. In order to find out if the Moon is coming or going down, you need to look where its convex part is directed: if it is directed to the right from the central axis, then the Moon is born, and if to the left the Moon comes.
Orient the compass so that the letter "C" was directed to the moon. We count the degrees from the north end of the magnetic needle of the compass to this direction and get the azimuth to the moon.
Suppose it is 270 °. We divide them by 15 (15 - twenty-fourth of the circle - the amount of rotation of the Earth around its axis in 1 hour).
270: 15 = 18.
To this number we add 1 hour (the decree time, introduced in the USSR by a special decree of the government in all belts of the country) (see Time zones):
18 + 1 = 19.
Next, determine the number of shares in the visible part of the moon. Let us imagine that this part includes five fractions of its diameter. A full disc contains 12 lobes. By 19 we add 5, and it turns out 24 hours. This is the time of interest to us. If the amount exceeds 24 hours, then the same amount should be deducted from it.
We act in the same way as in the first case. Imagine that the azimuth to the moon was 90 °.
90: 15 = 6; 6 + 1 = 7.
The disk of the moon is full, therefore 7 + 12 = 19.
Thus, at that moment time 19 hours.
The moon is waning
We act in the same way as in the first two cases. Imagine that the azimuth to the moon is 165 °. Then 165: 15 = 11; 11 + 1 = 12. In the case of a decrease in the moon, the share of its disk is not added, but subtracted.
12-8 (SHARE diameter of the moon) = 4. The proportion of the lunar diameter is 8.
According to the sun and compass
It is defined as follows. First, the azimuth to the Sun is measured (in the same way as in the case of the Moon). Assume that it is equal to 90 °.
90:15 (magnitude of the Earth’s turn in 1 hour) = 6;
6 + 1 (unit time) = 7.
This means that it is 7 o'clock. Suppose the azimuth is 180 °.
180: 15 = 12. 12 + 1 = 13.
This means that the time in this area is 13 hours.
Determining local time without hours
In the event of a breakdown or loss of hours, local time can be recognized with relative accuracy by a compass, measuring the azimuth of the sun. Having determined the azimuth, its value should be divided by 15 (the value of the Sun's rotation for 1 hour), the resulting number will indicate the local time at the time of reference. For example, the azimuth of the sun is 180 °, which means time will be 12 hours.