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Smiley (English smiley - “smiling”) or happy face (☺ /) - a stylized graphic image of a smiling human face; traditionally depicted as a yellow circle with two black dots representing the eyes, and a black arc symbolizing the mouth. Smiles are widely used in popular culture, the word “smiley” itself is also often used as a general term for any emoticon (images of emotion are not graphics, but punctuation marks).
To indicate positive emotions, a smiley (as a pictogram) was used in Slovakia in the 17th century: archivists found a document where a local lawyer showed his satisfaction with the read documents. Four smiles (sad and funny) were used in the notes of their eccentric pieces “In Futurum” (1919) by Erwin Schulhoff. The stylized image of a human face for expression of emotions was used by director Ingmar Bergman in the film “Port City”, but this image expressed suffering. Later, a happy face was used in the advertising campaigns for the films “Lily” in 1953 and “Zhizhi” in 1958. In 1958, when the WMCA radio station in New York held a contest for the most popular radio show of that time, “Cousin Brucy,” listeners who answered questions by telephone were awarded the “Good Guys!” Sweatshirt, which included a picture of a happy face. Thousands of such sweatshirts were distributed in the late 1950s.
In 1963, Harvey Ball, an American commercial artist, was invited to an advertising company to create an image of a happy face that was supposed to be used on buttons. The image he made in the form of dark oval eyes and folds on the sides of the mouth on a bright yellow background was the most iconic version.
In 1967, Ball's design was used in an advertising campaign of the University of Federal Savings and Loan in Seattle. Later, the man who organized the campaign, David Stern, ran for mayor of Seattle in 1993, and he used the image again.
In 1972, Franklin Laufrani presented an image of the happy face of a European audience, giving it the name "Smiley". From January 1, the French newspaper France Soir began the promotion “Find time to smile.” It used an emoticon logo to highlight good news, and people could choose positive and upbeat articles to read.
In the early 1970s, the image was popularized by the brothers Bernard and Murray Spain from Philadelphia, who used it in a campaign to sell a new product. They produced buttons, coffee mugs, T-shirts, bumper stickers and many other items decorated with a smiley face and the phrase “Happy Day” (designed by Gyula Bogar). The phrase later mutated into “Have a nice day.” Working with the New York-based NG Slater button maker, they sold about 50 million images of happy faces by 1972 .
In the 1970s, the image of a happy face (the “Good Day” cliche accompanying it) became a zombie for an empty mood, a symbol of the Nixon era in America and the transition from the optimism of the “summer of love” to a new, more cynical decade. This motif appears in the era of "paranoid souls", including in Smiling Faces Sometimes - The Temptations (and The Undisputed Truth, 1971), I'll Take You There - The Staple Singers (February 1972), Don't Call Me Brother - The O'Jays (November 1973), Back Stabbers - The O'Jays (August 1972), You Caught Me Smilin - Sly & the Family Stone (November 1971). This image was parodied in the famous scene from the Forrest Gump movie, when Forrest does numerous jogging across America and wipes his face with a T-shirt, which was sold to him by the ruined salesman, and on the T-shirt looks like Forrest's translated face, and you can see an image of a happy face, after which the idea . A happy face could also be seen on the van in the TV series Mork and Mindy, the van was driven by the people who kidnapped him.
In 2005–2013, the emoticon was the official emblem of the Seliger All-Russian Youth Forum.