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50 masterpieces of painting that every educated person must know

50 шедевров живописи

Art (from church glorious art, art. Glorious art - experience, test) - figurative understanding of reality; the process or outcome of the expression of the internal or external (in relation to the creator) of the world in an artistic image; creativity directed in such a way that it reflects the interest not only of the author himself, but also of other people. Art (along with science) is one of the ways of cognition, both in the natural sciences and in the religious picture of the perception of the world.

Once art was the privilege of the elites, but today anyone can visit a museum or a philharmonic to enjoy the great works of the past. A modern person who wants to be considered educated should be at least a little savvy in these matters and be able to distinguish Manet from Monet, for example.

No one says that it is necessary to familiarize yourself with all the works of the authors, which are rightfully considered great, but it’s still worth knowing the most significant works. At a minimum, this is very useful for overall development. Therefore, we decided to collect the most famous paintings ever written by man.

The concept of art is extremely broad - it can manifest itself as an extremely developed skill in a particular area. For a long time, art was considered a type of cultural activity that satisfies a person’s love for the beautiful. Along with the evolution of social aesthetic norms and assessments, art has the right to be called any activity aimed at creating aesthetically expressive forms.

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa

Леонардо да Винчи, «Мона Лиза»

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian: Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci; April 15, 1452, the village of Ankiano, near the town of Vinci, near Florence - May 2, 1519, Castle of Clos-Luce, near Amboise, Touraine, France) - Italian artist ( painter, sculptor, architect) and scientist (anatomist, naturalist), inventor, writer, musician, one of the largest representatives of the art of the High Renaissance, a vivid example of a “universal man” (lat. homo universalis).

“Mona Lisa”, or “Mona Lisa” (Italian: Mona Lisa, La Gioconda, full name - “Portrait of Madame Lisa del Giocondo”, Italian. Ritratto di Monna Lisa del Giocondo) - painting by Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most famous paintings . The exact date of writing is unknown (according to some sources, it was written between 1503 and 1505). Now stored in the Louvre. It is believed that the painting depicts Lisa Gerardini, the wife of the Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo.

Rafael Santi, The Sistine Madonna

Рафаэль Санти, «Сикстинская Мадонна»

Rafael Santi (Italian: Raffaello Santi, Raffaello Sanzio, Rafael, Raffael da Urbino, Rafaelo; March 26 or 28, or April 6, 1483, Urbino - April 6, 1520, Rome) - Italian painter, graphic artist and architect, representative of the Umbrian school.

"Sistine Madonna" (Italian: Madonna Sistina) - a painting by Raphael, which since 1754 has been in the Gallery of Old Masters in Dresden. Belongs to the number of universally recognized peaks of the High Renaissance.

Jerome Bosch, “Garden of Earthly Delights”

Иероним Босх, «Сад земных наслаждений»

Jeroen Antonison van Aken (Dutch. Jeroen Anthoniszoon van Aken [jəˈrun ɑnˈtoːnɪˌsoːn vɑn ˈaːkə (n)]), better known as Jerome Bosch (Dutch. Jheronimus Bosch [ˌɦijeˈroːnimʏs ˈbɔsnim. artist, one of the greatest masters of the Northern Renaissance. About ten paintings and twelve drawings have survived from the artist’s work. He was ordained a member of the Brotherhood of Our Lady (Dutch. Illustre Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap; 1486); considered one of the most mysterious painters in the history of Western art. In the hometown of Bosch, the Dutch Hertogenbosch, Bosch's creativity center is open, which presents copies of all his works.

“Garden of Earthly Delights” - the most famous triptych of Jerome Bosch, named after the central part, is dedicated to the sin of voluptuousness - Luxuria. The original name of this work by Bosch is not known for certain. Researchers called the “Garden of Earthly Delights” a triptych. In general, not one of the interpretations of the picture available today is recognized as the only true one. Most theories about the meaning of the picture were developed in the 20th century.

Diego Velazquez, Menin

Диего Веласкес, «Менины»

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (Spanish: Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez; June 6, 1599, Seville, Kingdom of Castile and Leon - August 6, 1660, Madrid, Spain) - Spanish artist, the largest representative of the Madrid school of the golden age of Spanish painting , court painter of King Philip IV. Among his students are Esteban Murillo and Juan de Pareja. The only statement of the artist that has been preserved is “I prefer to be the best in the image of ugliness, and not the second in the image of beauty.”

"Menin" (Spanish Las Meninas - "maids of honor"), or "Family of Philip IV" - a painting by Diego Velazquez, written in 1656. One of the most famous paintings in the world, now kept at the Prado Museum.

The canvas depicts the scene of Velasquez writing a joint portrait of the Spanish king Philip IV with his wife and niece Marianne of Austria in the presence of their daughter Infanta Margarita Teresa with her retinue. The complex and mysterious composition of the picture raises questions about illusion and reality, as well as about the uncertainty of the connection between the viewer and the characters.

"Menin" is universally considered one of the most important and most carefully studied paintings in the history of Western art. According to the Italian baroque master Luke Giordano, it is a "theology of painting", and the president of the Royal Academy of Arts, Sir Thomas Lawrence, called it "a true philosophy of art." According to one of the modern estimates, this is “the highest achievement of Velazquez - a self-conscious and carefully verified demonstration of the limits of painting; perhaps the most profound statement about her possibilities ever made. ”

Eugene Delacroix, “Freedom Leading the People”

Эжен Делакруа, «Свобода, ведущая народ»

Ferdinan Victor Eugene Delacroix (French: Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix; 1798-1863) - French painter and graphic artist, leader of the romantic trend in European painting.

“Freedom leading the people” (French: La Liberté guidant le peuple), or “Freedom on the barricades” is a painting by the French artist Eugene Delacroix. It is considered one of the key milestones between the epochs of Enlightenment and Romanticism.

Mikhail Vrubel, The Demon Sitting

Михаил Врубель, «Демон сидящий»

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (March 5, 1856, Omsk, Siberian Kirghiz Region, Russian Empire - April 1, 1910, St. Petersburg) is a Russian artist of the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries who worked in almost all types and genres of fine art: painting, drawing, decorative sculpture and theatrical art. Since 1896 he was married to the famous singer N.I. Zabele, whose portraits he repeatedly painted.

N.A. Dmitrieva compared Vrubel’s creative biography with drama in three acts with a prologue and epilogue, and the transition to a new stage each time occurred abruptly and unexpectedly. By “prologue” is meant the early years of learning and choosing a vocation. Act one - the 1880s, staying at the Academy of Arts and moving to Kiev, practicing Byzantine art and church painting. The second act is the Moscow period, which began in 1890 with the "Demon Sitting" and ended in 1902 with the "Demon Downed" and the hospitalization of the artist. Act Three: 1903-1906, associated with mental illness, which gradually undermined the physical and intellectual powers of the painter. The last four years, having become blind, Vrubel has lived only physically.

In the 1880-1890s, Vrubel’s creative searches did not find support from the Academy of Arts and art critics, but S. I. Mamontov became his regular customer. Artists and critics made Vrubel “their own”, later uniting around the World of Art magazine, his works were constantly exhibited at the expositions of the Moscow artists and Diaghilev’s retrospectives, and at the beginning of the 20th century Vrubel’s painting became an organic part of Russian Art Nouveau. "For fame in the artistic field" November 28, 1905 he was awarded the title of academician of painting - just in time for the complete cessation of artistic activity.

"The Demon Sitting" (1890) - a picture of the Russian artist Mikhail Vrubel.

Grant Wood, American Gothic

Грант Вуд, «Американская готика»

Grant Devolson Wood (born Grant DeVolson Wood; February 13, 1891 - February 12, 1942) is an American artist, known mostly for paintings on rural life in the American Midwest. The author of the famous painting "American Gothic"

"American Gothic" (Eng. American Gothic) is a painting by American artist Grant Wood, created in 1930. One of the most recognizable (and parodied) images in American art of the 20th century.

Rene Magritte, “Son of man”

Рене Магритт, «Сын человеческий»

Rene Francois Gilen Magritte (French: René François Ghislain Magritte; November 21, 1898, Lessin - August 15, 1967, Brussels) is a Belgian surrealist artist. Known as the author of witty and at the same time poetically mysterious paintings.

“The Son of Man” (French: Le fils de l'homme) - a picture of the Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte. Perhaps the most famous of his works.

Salvador Dali, “Persistence of Memory”

Сальвадор Дали, «Постоянство памяти»

Salvador Dali (full name Salvador Domenech Felip Jacinto Dali and Domenech, Marquis de Dali de Poubol, Cat.Salvador Domènec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Dalí de Púbol, Spanish Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí délé de Mar i Domè Púbol; May 11, 1904, Figueres - January 23, 1989, Figueres) - Spanish painter, graphic artist, sculptor, director and writer. One of the most famous representatives of surrealism.

He worked on the films: “Andalusian Dog”, “Golden Age” (director - Luis Bunuel), “Spellbound” (director - Alfred Hitchcock). Author of the books “The Secret Life of Salvador Dali, Told by Himself” (1942), “The Diary of a Genius” (1952-1963), Oui: The Paranoid-Critical Revolution (1927-33) and the essay “The Tragic Myth of Angelus Millet”.

“Persistence of memory” (Spanish: La persistencia de la memoria, 1931) is one of the most famous paintings by the artist Salvador Dali. Located in the Museum of Modern Art in New York since 1934.

Also known as “Soft Clock”, “Hardness of Memory” or “Persistence of Memory” or “The Flow of Time” or “Time”.

This small picture (24 × 33 cm) is probably Dali's most famous work. The softness of hanging and flowing watches is an image that expresses a departure from a linear understanding of time. Here Dali himself is present in the form of a sleeping head, which has already appeared in The Mourning Game and other paintings. According to his method, the artist explained the origin of the plot by reflecting on the nature of Camembert cheese; the landscape from Port Ligat was already ready, so painting a picture was a matter of two hours. Returning from the cinema where she went that evening, Gala correctly predicted that no one, once he saw the "Constancy of memory", would not forget him. The painting, apparently, could have been facilitated by the associations that Dali had when he saw cream cheese (this is indicated by his statement).

Ivan Aivazovsky, The Ninth Wave

Иван Айвазовский, «Девятый вал»

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Armenian Հովհաննես Այվազյան, Hovhannes Ayvazyan; July 17, 1817, Feodosia, Tauride province, Russian Empire - April 19 [May 2] 1900, Feodosia, Tauride province, Russian Empire) - Russian artist, artist collector, philanthropist. Painter of the Main Naval Headquarters, academician and honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Arts, honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts in Amsterdam, Rome, Paris, Florence and Stuttgart.

The most outstanding artist of Armenian origin of the XIX century. Brother of the Armenian historian and archbishop of the Armenian Apostolic Church Gabriel Aivazovsky.

"The Ninth Wave" - ​​one of the most famous paintings of the Russian artist-marine painter of Armenian origin Ivan Aivazovsky, is stored in the Russian Museum (inv. Zh-2202).

The painter depicts the sea after a very strong night storm and shipwrecked people. The rays of the sun illuminate the huge waves. The largest of them - the ninth shaft - is ready to fall upon people trying to escape on the wreckage of the mast.

Despite the fact that the ship was destroyed and only the mast remained, the people on the mast are alive and continue to struggle with the elements. The warm colors of the picture do not make the sea so harsh and give the viewer hope that people will be saved.

The size of the painting is 221 × 332 cm. Below, on the mast, signature and date: Ayvazovskiy 1850; in the lower right corner in red: 5; on the back in black: No. 2506. The painting arrived at the Russian Museum in 1897 from the Hermitage.

Peter Brueghel, The Tower of Babel

Питер Брейгель, «Вавилонская башня»

Peter Bruegel the Elder (Dutch. Pieter Bruegel de Oude [ˈpitər ˈbrøːɣəl]; c. 1525 - September 9, 1569, Brussels), also known by the nickname Muzhitsky, is a Dutch painter and graphic artist, the most famous and significant of the artists who wore this name. Master of landscape and genre scenes. The father of artists Peter Brueghel the Younger ("Hell") and Ian Bruegel the Elder ("Paradise").

The Tower of Babel (Dutch: De Toren van Babel) is a famous painting by Peter Brueghel. The artist created at least two works on this plot.

Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper

Леонардо да Винчи, «Тайная вечеря»

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian: Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci; April 15, 1452, the village of Ankiano, near the town of Vinci, near Florence - May 2, 1519, Castle of Clos-Luce, near Amboise, Touraine, France) - Italian artist ( painter, sculptor, architect) and scientist (anatomist, naturalist), inventor, writer, musician, one of the largest representatives of the art of the High Renaissance, a vivid example of a “universal man” (lat. homo universalis).

The Last Supper (Italian: Il Cenacolo or L'Ultima Cena) is a monumental painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the scene of Christ's last meal with his disciples. Created in 1495-1498 in the Dominican monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.

Eduard Manet, “The Bar at the Foley Berger”

Эдуард Мане, «Бар в “Фоли-Бержер”»

Edouard (Edouard) Manet (fr. Édouard Manet [edwaʁ manɛ]; January 23, 1832, Paris - April 30, 1883, Paris) - French painter, engraver, one of the founders of impressionism.

“Bar at the Foley Berger” ”(Fr. Un bar aux Folies Bergère) - painting by Edouard Manet. Currently located in the Courto Gallery in London.

Foley Berger - variety show and cabaret in Paris. It is located at 32 Richet Street. At the end of the 19th century, this establishment was very popular. Manet often visited the Foley-Berger and eventually painted this painting - the last that he presented at the Paris Salon before his death in 1883.

Manet made sketches for the picture right in the bar, located on the ground floor of the variety show to the right of the stage. Then he asked the barmaid Suzon (Fr. Suzon) and his friend, a martial artist Henri Dupray (Fr. Henri Dupray), to pose in the workshop. Initially, the basis of the composition should be opposed to each other the barmaid and the client, passionate about the conversation. This is evidenced not only by preserved sketches, but also by X-ray pictures of the picture. Mane later decided to make the scene more meaningful. In the background you can see a mirror, which reflects a huge number of people filling the room. Opposite this crowd, behind the counter stands a barmaid absorbed in her own thoughts. Mana managed to convey a feeling of incredible loneliness in the middle of a drinking, eating, talking and smoking crowd, watching an acrobat on a trapeze, which can be seen in the upper left corner of the picture.

If you look at the bottles standing on the marble bar of the bar, you will notice that their reflection in the mirror does not correspond to the original. Reflection of the barmaid is also unrealistic. She looks directly at the viewer, while in the mirror she is facing the man. All these inconsistencies make the viewer think about whether Mane portrayed the real or imaginary world.

The mirror, which reflects the figures depicted in the picture, makes the “Bar at the Foley Berger” related to the “Menins” of Velazquez and the “Portrait of the Arnolfini Couple” by van Eyck.

Edgar Degas, Blue Dancers

Эдгар Дега, «Голубые танцовщицы»

Hilaire-Germain-Edgar de Ga, or Edgar Degas (fr. Edgar Degas; July 19, 1834, Paris - September 27, 1917) - French painter, one of the most prominent and original representatives of the Impressionist movement.

“Blue Dancers” (French Danseuses bleues) is a pastel by the French impressionist painter Edgar Degas created in 1897. It is stored in the A. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, which entered the State Museum of New Western Art in 1948; until 1918 he was in the collection of Sergei Ivanovich Schukin in Moscow, after creation the pastel was stored in the collection of Duran-Ruel in Paris.

The drawing was done in pastel on paper measuring 65 × 65 cm.

Rembrandt, Night Watch

Рембрандт, «Ночной дозор»

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (Dutch Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə (n) soːn vɑn ˈrɛin], 1606–1669) - Dutch painter, engraver, great master of chiaroscuro, the largest representative of the golden age of Dutch painting. He managed to embody in his works the whole spectrum of human experiences with such an emotional richness that the visual arts did not know before him. Rembrandt's works, extremely diverse in genre affiliation, open to the viewer the timeless spiritual world of human emotions and feelings.

“Night Watch” (Dutch: Nachtwacht) - the name by which Rembrandt’s group portrait “The performance of the rifle company of Captain Frans Bunning Cock and Lieutenant Willem van Reutenburg”, traditionally known, was written in 1642.

Edward Munch, The Scream

Эдвард Мунк, «Крик»

Edward Munch (Norwegian. Edvard Munch; December 12, 1863, Löthen, Hedmark - January 23, 1944, Ekel, near Oslo) - Norwegian painter and graphic artist, one of the first representatives of expressionism, the most recognizable image of which was the painting "Scream". His work is embraced by the motives of death, loneliness, but at the same time the thirst for life.

"Scream" (Norwegian. Skrik) - created between 1893 and 1910, a series of paintings by the Norwegian expressionist artist Edward Munch. They depict a human figure screaming in despair against a blood-red sky and an extremely general landscape background. In 1895, Munch created lithography on the same subject.

“Scream” as an emblem of expressionism serves as a kind of prelude to 20th-century art, foreshadowing the key themes of modernism for loneliness, despair and alienation. As if peering into the coming century of world wars, revolutions and environmental disasters, the author seems to deny the very possibility of any overcoming them, or transcendence.

Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Marat

Жак-Луи Давид, «Смерть Марата»

Jacques-Louis David (fr. Jacques-Louis David; August 30, 1748, Paris - December 29, 1825, Brussels) - French painter and teacher, a major representative of French Neoclassicism in painting.

“The Death of Marat” (French: La Mort de Marat) - a painting by the French artist Jacques Louis David, is one of the most famous paintings dedicated to the Great French Revolution.

The picture tells about the fate of Jean Paul Marat, journalist of the radical newspaper "Friend of the People", the leader of the Jacobins. Marat was one of the most ardent supporters of the Jacobin terror. Having a skin disease, Marat did not leave home and, in order to alleviate his suffering, took baths. On July 13, 1793, he was stabbed with a knife in his apartment by a noblewoman Charlotte Corde.

The inscription on the wooden pedestal is the author's dedication: "MARATU, David." A leaflet with the text was clutched in Marat’s hand: “July 13, 1793, Marie Anna Charlotte Corde, citizen of Marat. I am unhappy, and therefore I have the right to your protection. ” In fact, Marat did not have time to get this note - Korde had killed him before. Although many researchers claim that the episode with the note was completely invented by the artist to further emphasize the drama. His posture and wound just below the collarbone resembles the image of Jesus, at the time of removal from the cross. The chaotic and chaotic murder is carefully edited by the artist and is like martyrdom. The position of the right hand resembles the figure of Jesus in the painting “Burial of Christ” (sometimes “The Position in the Sepulcher”), by Caravaggio.

The painting was extremely popular, there are several repetitions of the authors and artists of his school ("Death of Marat. C. 1793. David's workshop. Museum of Fine Arts in Reims," ​​Death of Marat. C. 1793. David's workshop. Museum of Fine Arts in Dijon, "Jean Paul Marat, who was killed in the bath on July 13, 1793. XIX century J.-M. Langlois after the order of David. Versailles)

He appreciated the painting by Baudelaire, according to his definition, Marat, "is before us a tragedy full of lively pain and horror." “There is something tender and painful in the picture; in the cold space of this room, between these cold walls, over a cold sinister bath, a soul soars. ”

Currently, the painting is in Brussels, in the collection of the Royal Museum of Fine Arts.

Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night

Винсент Ван Гог, «Звездная ночь»

Vincent Willem Van Gogh (Dutch: Vincent Willem van Gogh; March 30, 1853, Grot-Sundert, Netherlands - July 29, 1890, Over-sur-Oise, France) is a Dutch post-impressionist artist whose work had a timeless influence on 20th-century painting. For ten years, he has created more than 2100 works, including about 860 oil paintings. Among them - portraits, self-portraits, landscapes and still lifes, with the image of olive trees, cypress trees, fields of wheat and sunflowers. Most critics did not notice Van Gogh until his suicide at the age of 37, which was preceded by years of anxiety, poverty and mental disorders.

Starry Night (Dutch: De sterrennacht) is one of the most famous paintings by Dutch post-impressionist painter Vincent Van Gogh. Presents a view from the east window of Van Gogh’s bedroom in Saint-Remy-de-Provence to the predawn sky and a fictional village. The painting was painted in June 1889; Since 1941, kept at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Victor Vasnetsov, "The Heroes"

Виктор Васнецов, «Богатыри»

Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (May 3, 1848, the village of Lopyal, Vyatka province - July 23, 1926, Moscow) - Russian painter and architect, master of historical and folk painting. The younger brother is the artist Apollinariy Vasnetsov.

"Athletes" - a picture of Viktor Vasnetsov. Vasnetsov worked on the picture for about twenty years. April 23, 1898 it was completed and was soon bought by P. M. Tretyakov for his gallery. Inv. 1019.

Jackson Pollock, "No. 5"

Джексон Поллок, «№ 5»

Paul Jackson Pollock (Eng. Paul Jackson Pollock; January 28, 1912 - August 11, 1956) is an American artist, ideologist and leader of abstract expressionism, who had a significant influence on the art of the second half of the 20th century.

"No. 5, 1948" - a painting by Jackson Pollock, completed in 1948. One of the most famous works in the style of abstract expressionism.

It is made in the characteristic spray technique for Pollock. A non-objective painting of 243.8 × 121.9 cm in size written on fiberboard (wood fiber board). Used mainly gray, brown, white and yellow paints.

Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus

Сандро Боттичелли, «Рождение Венеры»

Sandro Botticelli (Italian: Sandro Botticelli, real name Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Italian: Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi; March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510)) - Italian Renaissance painter, representative of the Florentine school of painting.

The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere) is a painting by the Italian artist of the Tuscan school, Sandro Botticelli. It is a tempera painting on canvas measuring 172.5 × 278.5 cm. Currently, it is stored in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Andrei Rublev, “Trinity”

Андрей Рублев, «Троица»

Andrei Rublev (circa 1360 - October 17, 1428, Moscow) is the most famous and revered Russian icon painter of the Moscow school of icon painting, book and monumental painting of the 15th century. Canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in the guise of saints.

“Trinity” (also “The Hospitality of Abraham”) is an icon of the Holy Trinity painted by Andrei Rublev in the 15th century, the most famous of his works and one of two works attributed to him (including murals in Vladimir), whose authorship, according to scientists, is reliable belongs to him. It is one of the most famous Russian icons.

Vasily Vereshchagin, “The Apotheosis of War”

Василий Верещагин, «Апофеоз войны»

Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin (1842-1904) - Russian painter and writer, one of the most famous battle painters.

"The Apotheosis of War" - a picture of the Russian artist Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin. The inscription is made on the frame: "Dedicated to all the great conquerors - past, present and future."

Jan Vermeer, “Girl with a Pearl Earring”

Ян Вермеер, «Девушка с жемчужной сережкой»

Jan Vermeer (Vermeer Delft, Dutch. Jan Vermeer van Delft or Dutch. Johannes Vermeer van Delft, IPA: [ˈjɑn vərˈmeːr]; 1632–1675) - Dutch painter, master of household painting and genre portraiture. One of the most talented (along with de Hoch) followers of Terborch. The work of Rembrandt, Hals and Vermeer is considered to be the pinnacle of Dutch art of the Golden Age.

In the Russian art tradition, the more common spelling of the name of the artist is Vermeer Delftsky. Other options are Johannis van der Mer, Johannis ver Mer, Wermer Delft. According to Dutch transcription rules, the combination ee is transmitted as e.

“Girl with a Pearl Earring” (Dutch. Het meisje met de parel) is one of the most famous paintings by Dutch artist Jan Vermeer. She is often called the northern or Dutch Mona Lisa.

The painting is signed by IVMeer, but not dated. According to the Mauritshuis Museum, where the painting is currently stored, it was painted around 1665. Very little is known about her. It is not known whether Vermeer wrote it to order, who in that case was the customer and the name of the depicted girl. According to one version, the artist portrayed his own daughter, Maria. In any case, it is obvious that this is an unusual portrait. The artist tried to capture the moment when the girl turns her head in the direction of the viewer to someone she just noticed. In accordance with the name, the viewer's attention is focused on a pearl earring in the girl’s ear. Currently, a number of researchers doubt that the picture shows a pearl earring. For natural pearls, the size is too large, it can be fake pearls made of Venetian glass or mother of pearl. In addition, you can not see the loop or pendant, for which the "pearl" is attached to the ear. The bright white highlight at the top of the “catkins” can be a deformation during one of the restorations of the painting.

In modern descriptions of Vermeer, the picture is attributed to a genre called “thrones” in Holland of the 17th century, which denoted images of the human head, and not full-fledged portraits. During the restoration of the painting in 1994, it was possible to emphasize the grace of the color scheme and the attractiveness of the girl's gaze aimed at the viewer. On the advice of Victor de Stur, who for many years persistently fought to preserve his rare paintings in the artist’s homeland, A.A. des Tombé acquired the painting at an auction in The Hague in 1881 for only two guilders and thirty cents. The picture was in a deplorable state. Des Tombé had no heirs, and he donated the “Girl with a Pearl Earring” along with several other paintings to the Mauritshuis Museum in 1902.

In 1937, a very similar picture appeared, which was also attributed to Vermeer. Collector Andrew W. Mellon transferred it to the National Gallery of Art in Washington. Now it is considered a fake under Vermeer, which at the beginning of the 20th century was written by the copyist Theo van Weingarden, a friend of Khan van Megeren.

Katsushika Hokusai, "The Great Wave in Kanagawa"

Кацусика Хокусай, «Большая волна в Канагаве»

Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese 葛 飾 北 斎); October 21, 1760, Edo - May 10, 1849, ibid.) - a well-known Japanese artist ukiyo-e, illustrator, engraver of the Edo period. He worked under many aliases. He is one of the most famous Japanese engravers in the West, a master of the final period of Japanese woodcut.

Hokusai used at least thirty pseudonyms throughout his life. Despite the fact that the use of pseudonyms was a common practice among Japanese artists of that time, in terms of the number of pseudonyms it is significantly superior to other well-known authors. Hokusai's pseudonyms are often used to periodize the stages of his work.

“The Great Wave in Kanagawa” (神奈川 沖浪 裏 Kanagawa-oki nami hurray) - woodcut by Japanese artist Katsushiki Hokusai. The first work from the series "Thirty-six Views of Fuji." The painting is made in the style of ukiyo-e. It is considered one of the most famous and most popular works of Japanese fine art outside of Japan itself. Some believe that in the West this engraving is better known than any other work of Asian art in general.

In the center of the plot, in the foreground, is a huge wave hanging over the boat; Mount Fuji in the center of the background. The action takes place in Kanagawa Prefecture.

Karl Bryullov, “The Last Day of Pompeii”

Карл Брюллов, «Последний день Помпеи»

Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Bryulov) (until 1822 - Bryullo; December 12, 1799, St. Petersburg, Russia - June 11, 1852, Manziana, Papal region) - Russian artist, painter, monumentalist, watercolorist, representative of classicism and romanticism.

“The Last Day of Pompeii” is a large-format painting by the Russian artist Karl Bryullov (1799-1852), the work on which was completed in 1833. It is stored in the State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg (inv. Zh-5084). Size - 456.5 × 651 cm. The picture depicts the events in Pompeii [K 1] during the catastrophic eruption of Vesuvius, which occurred in 79 AD.

Karl Bryullov visited the excavations of Pompeii in the summer of 1827 during his trip to Naples, where he also got the idea to write a large canvas dedicated to the death of Pompeii. The customer of the canvas was Prince Anatoly Demidov. In general, work on the painting took about six years - from 1827, when Bryullov created the first sketches and sketches, until 1833. The final version of the large multi-figured canvas was created in 1830-1833.

After completing work on the painting, Karl Bryullov began to show it in his workshop in Rome. The popularity of The Last Day of Pompeii and its author was growing rapidly: the writer Nikolai Rozhalin reported that in Rome “the most important incident was the exhibition of Bryullov’s painting in his studio”, “the whole city flocked to marvel at her.” From Rome, the canvas was transported to Milan, where it was exhibited at the Milan Art Exhibition of 1833. Inspired by the success of the painting in Italy, its owner Anatoly Demidov achieved the inclusion of the creation in the exposition of the Paris Salon, which opened in March 1834, where Bryullov's work received a large gold medal.

In the summer of 1834, the painting “The Last Day of Pompeii” was sent from France to St. Petersburg, where Demidov presented it to Emperor Nicholas I. In August 1834, the painting was placed in the Hermitage, and at the end of September of the same year the canvas was moved to a separate hall of the Academy arts for all to see. The painting was a huge success, the poet Alexander Pushkin dedicated his poem “Vesuvius the Pharynx”, and the writer Nikolai Gogol wrote an article in which he called “The Last Day of Pompeii” as one of the brightest phenomena of the 19th century and “the bright resurrection of painting that had been in the city for a long time some semi-lethargic state. ” In 1851, the painting entered the New Hermitage, and in 1897 it was transferred to the collection of the Russian Museum of Emperor Alexander III (now the State Russian Museum), which was being created at that time.

The art critic Alla Vereshchagina noted that the plot of the painting “The Last Day of Pompeii” “was unheard of in the practice of classic historical painting”. The artist showed not the heroic deed of one hero, but a natural disaster that affected many people, thereby “for the first time the people entered Russian historical painting”. According to art critic Svetlana Stepanova, the work of Bryullov became "not just one of the next achievements of the national school, but a phenomenon that accelerated the evolution of art."

James Whistler, “Arrangement in Gray and Black. Mother of the artist "

Джеймс Уистлер, «Аранжировка в сером и черном. Мать художника»

James Abbot McNeill Whistler (English James Abbot McNeill Whistler, sometimes McNill, July 11, 1834, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA - July 17, 1903, London, UK) - American artist, master of painting portraiture, as well as etching and lithography. One of the famous tonalists - the forerunners of impressionism and symbolism. Adherent of the concept of "art for art." Officer of the Legion of Honor (1892).

He studied in the Russian Empire and the USA, but spent most of his active life in England. Most famous for portraits of his contemporaries. He was influenced by realists in the person of his friend Gustav Courbet and the Pre-Raphaelites, as well as Japanese art. In a number of creative methods, he was close to impressionism. One of Whistler's most famous works is a portrait of his mother: “Arrangement in gray and black. Mother of the artist. ” He influenced two generations of artists, in Europe and in the United States. He was friends with Dante Rossetti, Eduard Manet, Claude Monet, Aubrey Beardsley, poets Stefan Mallarm and Oscar Wilde.

“Arrangement in Gray and Black, No. 1: Portrait of the Artist's Mother” (English Arrangement in Gray and Black, No.1: Portrait of the Artist's Mother; often called Whistler's Mother) - the most famous painting by American artist James Whistler, written in 1871 year. The painting depicts Anna Whistler (1804–1881), the artist’s mother. It is stored in the Orsay Museum in Paris, France. The size of the picture is 144.3 × 162.4 cm.

Claude Monet, “Impression. Rising Sun"

Клод Моне, «Впечатление. Восходящее солнце»

Oscar Claude Monet (French Oscar-Claude Monet; February 14, 1840, Paris, France - December 5, 1926, Giverny, France) - French painter, one of the founders of impressionism.

"Impression. The Rising Sun ”(Fr. Impression, soleil levant) - a picture by Claude Monet, painted in 1872 from nature in the old port of Le Havre and giving the name to the artistic direction“ Impressionism ”.

The canvas was first exhibited at the exhibition in 1874 in the former studio of the photographer Nadar. With the light hand of the journalist Louis Leroy, the name of the work became the name of the direction whose representatives took part in this exhibition. In his article “Exhibition of the Impressionists” (1874, the newspaper Le Charivari), Leroy wrote: “Wallpaper, and they would have looked more complete than this“ Impression “!”.

The canvas was exhibited at the Paris Marmotte Museum, from where it was stolen in 1985 along with other works by the artist, as well as paintings by Auguste Renoir and Berthe Morisot. The canvas was discovered only five years later, in 1991 it again took its place in the exposition.

Ilya Repin, "Barge Haulers on the Volga"

Илья Репин, «Бурлаки на Волге»

Ilya Efimovich Repin (Russian dore. Ilya Efimovich Rѣpin, July 24 [August 5] 1844, Chuguev, Russian Empire - September 29, 1930, Kuokkala, Finland) - Russian painter, teacher, professor, full member of the Imperial Academy of Arts.

From the very beginning of his career, from the 1870s, Repin became one of the key figures in Russian realism. The artist managed to solve the problem of reflecting the diversity of the surrounding life in a pictorial work, in his work he managed to cover all aspects of modernity, touch upon topics of concern to the public, and reacted vividly to the spite of the day. Plasticity was characteristic of Repin's artistic language; it perceived various stylistic trends from the Spanish and Dutch of the 17th century to Alexander Ivanov and modern French impressionists.

"Barge Haulers on the Volga" is a painting by Russian artist Ilya Repin, created in 1870-1873. Depicts an artel of barge haulers during work.

The painting has dimensions 131.5 × 281 cm and is located in the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg.

Valentin Serov, “Girl with Peaches”

Валентин Серов, «Девочка с персиками»

Valentin Aleksandrovich Serov (January 7, 1865, St. Petersburg - November 22 [December 5] 1911, Moscow) - Russian painter and graphic artist, portrait master, academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts.

“Girl with Peaches” - a picture of the Russian painter Valentin Serov, painted in 1887, is stored in the State Tretyakov Gallery.

Pablo Picasso, “Girl on the Ball”

Пабло Пикассо, «Девочка на шаре»

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, full name - Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuseno Maria de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santisima Trinidad Martir Patricio Ruiz and Picasso José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Mártir Patricio Ruiz y Picasso; October 25, 1881, Malaga, Spain - April 8, 1973, Mougins, France) - Spanish and French artist, sculptor, graphic artist, theater artist, ceramist and designer.

The founder of cubism (together with Georges Braque and Juan Gris), in which the three-dimensional body in the original manner was depicted as a series of planes combined. Picasso worked a lot as a graphic artist, sculptor, ceramist, etc. He brought to life a lot of imitators and had an exceptional impact on the development of fine art in the 20th century. According to the Museum of Modern Art (New York), Picasso created about 20 thousand works in his life.

According to expert estimates, Picasso is the most “expensive” artist in the world: in 2008, the volume of official sales of his works amounted to $ 262 million. Picasso's painting "Algerian Women" (French Les Femmes d'Algers), sold in the spring of 2015 in New York for $ 179 million, became the most expensive painting ever auctioned.

According to a survey of 1.4 million readers conducted by The Times in 2009, Picasso is the best artist among those who have lived in the last 100 years. Also, his canvases occupy first place in terms of "popularity" among the kidnappers.

“Girl on the Ball” - a picture by Pablo Picasso, written in 1905. A large work of the “pink” period in the artist’s work.

In 1913, it was acquired in Paris by I. A. Morozov. The painting was nationalized after the revolution and ended up at the State Museum of New Western Painting (GMNZI), where, after its disbandment in 1948, it was transferred to the collection of the A. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts.

Henri Matisse, “Dance”

Анри Матисс, «Танец»

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (French: Henri Émile Benoît Matisse; December 31, 1869, Le Cato-Cambresi, France - November 3, 1954, Nice, France) - French artist and sculptor, leader of the Fauvist movement. Known for his research in conveying emotions through color and form.

“Dance” (French: La Danse) - created in 1910 by a French artist Henri Matisse. It exists in two versions: the first is in the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the second and the most famous is in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg.

Kazimir Malevich, “White on White”

Казимир Малевич, «Белое на белом»

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Polish. Kazimierz Malewicz; February 11, 1879, Kiev - May 15, 1935, Leningrad) - Russian and Soviet avant-garde artist of Polish origin, teacher, art theorist, philosopher. The founder of Suprematism - one of the largest areas of abstract art.

“White on White” (“White Square”, “White Square on a White Background”) - a painting painted in 1918 by Kazimir Malevich belongs to the direction of Russian non-objective painting, which Malevich called Suprematism. The white square was one of the three Suprematist squares of Malevich, the other two - black and red.

Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Creation of Adam

Микеланджело Буонарроти, «Сотворение Адама»

Michelangelo Buonarroti, full name Michelangelo di Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarroti Simoni (Italian: Michelangelo di Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarroti Simoni; March 6, 1475, Caprese - February 18, 1564, Rome) [⇨] - Italian sculptor, artist, architect [⇨] , poet [⇨] and thinker [⇨]. One of the greatest masters of the Renaissance [⇨] and early Baroque. His works were considered the highest achievements of the Renaissance art during the life of the master himself. Michelangelo lived for almost 89 years, a whole era, from the period of the High Renaissance to the origins of the Counter-Reformation. During this period, thirteen popes were replaced - he carried out orders for nine of them. Many documents about his life and work have been preserved - testimonies of contemporaries, letters of Michelangelo himself, contracts, his personal and professional records. Michelangelo was also the first representative of Western European art, whose biography was printed during his lifetime.

Among his most famous sculptural works are “David”, “Bacchus”, “Pieta”, statues of Moses, Leah and Rachel for the tomb of Pope Julius II. Giorgio Vasari, Michelangelo's first official biographer, wrote that “David” “took away the glory of all statues, modern and antique, Greek and Roman.” One of the artist’s most monumental works is the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, about which Goethe wrote that: “Having not seen the Sistine Chapel, it’s hard to imagine for yourself what one person can do.” Among his architectural achievements - the project of the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, the stairs of the Laurenzian library, Campidoglio Square and others. Researchers believe that the art of Michelangelo begins and ends with the image of the human body.

The Creation of Adam (Italian: La creazione di Adamo) is a fresco by Michelangelo painted around 1511.

Caravaggio, "The Decapitation of John the Baptist"

Караваджо, «Обезглавливание Иоанна Крестителя»

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (Italian: Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio; September 29, 1571, Milan - July 18, 1610, Porto Ercole [it]) - Italian artist, reformer of European painting of the 17th century, founder of realism in painting, one of the greatest masters of Baroque. One of the first to apply the chiaroscuro style of writing - a sharp contrast between light and shadow. Not a single drawing or sketch was found, the artist immediately realized his complex compositions on canvas.

"The Decapitation of John the Baptist" - a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio, painted in 1608 in Malta. The only picture known at the moment with his signature.

Jean-Honore Fragonard, "Swing"

Жан-Оноре Фрагонар, «Качели»

Jean-Honore Fragonard (French: Jean-Honoré Fragonard; April 5, 1732, Grass - August 22, 1806, Paris) - French painter and engraver. He worked in the rococo style. He created more than 550 paintings (not including drawings and prints).

"Swing" - a picture of the French painter Jean Honore Fragonard, painted around 1767. The most famous work of the artist, considered one of the masterpieces of the Rococo era.

The picture shows a young man watching from behind the bushes a young lady on a swing, who is rocked by an elderly man who does not notice a hiding fan. At the moment captured in the picture, the girl, being at the top of the swing path, allows the successful cavalier to look into the secrets of her dress, although such generosity results in the loss of the shoe flying away into the statue of Harpocrates - the ancient Greek god of silence and secrets. Shapo Berger (shepherd's hat) on the girl’s head reinforces the ironic-frivolous meaning of the picture, since in those days such hats were associated with the noble power of the inhabitants of rural estates, familiar with nature and unspoiled by city temptations.

According to the memoirs of the playwright Charles Colle, the unnamed court of Louis XV ordered this painting to Gabriel-Francois Doyen as a plot portrait of his mistress and himself, and according to the original idea, the bishop should swing the swing. Not venturing to undertake such a frivolous work, Doyen transferred the order to Fragonard, who painted the picture, however, replacing the bishop with a layman.

The identity of the first owner of the painting remains unclear, although it was suggested that it could be Marie-Francois-David Boyu de Saint-Julien, better known as Baron de Saint-Julien (1713-1788). The first reliable owner was tax collector M.—F. Ménage de Pressigny, after whose death in 1794 the painting passed into the ownership of the revolutionary government of France. Subsequently, the painting may have belonged to the Marquis de Racin de Saint-Mar, and Charles de Morny became the next undisputed owner. After the death of de Morney in 1865, the painting was bought at an auction in Paris by Richard Seymour-Conway, the fourth Marquise of Hartward, one of the founders of the Wallace Assembly in London, where the painting is kept to this day.

Gustave Courbet, Despair. Self portrait »

Гюстав Курбе, «Отчаяние. Автопортрет»

Jean Desire Gustave Courbet (French: Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet; June 10, 1819, Ornant - December 31, 1877, La Tour de Pels, Vaud, Switzerland) - French painter, landscape painter, genre painter and portrait painter. It is considered one of the finalists of romanticism and the founders of realism in painting. One of the largest artists in France throughout the 19th century, a key figure in French realism.

Karl Bryullov, The Horsewoman

Карл Брюллов, «Всадница»

Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Bryulov) (until 1822 - Bryullo; December 12, 1799, St. Petersburg, Russia - June 11, 1852, Manziana, Papal region) - Russian artist, painter, monumentalist, watercolorist, representative of classicism and romanticism.

"The Horsewoman" - a picture of the Russian artist Karl Bryullov, painted in 1832.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Rowers Breakfast

Пьер Огюст Ренуар, «Завтрак гребцов»

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (fr. Pierre-Auguste Renoir [pjɛʁ oɡyst ʁənwaʁ]; February 25, 1841, Limoges - December 3, 1919, Cagnes-sur-Mer) - French painter, graphic artist and sculptor, one of the main representatives of Impressionism. Known primarily as a master of secular portrait, not without sentimentality. Renoir was the first of the Impressionists to succeed among wealthy Parisians. In the mid 1880s in fact, he broke with impressionism, returning to the linearity of classicism, to “engism”. The father of the famous director Jean Renoir.

“Rowers' Breakfast” (French Le Déjeuner des canotiers, English Luncheon of the Boating Party) is a painting by French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), written in 1880-1881.

Marc Chagall, “Above the City”

Марк Шагал, «Над городом»

Mark Zakharovich (Moses Khatskelevich) Chagall (fr. Marc Chagall, Yiddish מאַרק שאַגאַל; July 6 or July 7, 1887, Vitebsk, Vitebsk province, Russian Empire (present Vitebsk region, Belarus) - March 28, 1985, Saint-Paul- de Vence, Provence, France) - Russian and French artist of Jewish origin. In addition to graphics and painting, he was also engaged in scenography, and wrote poems in Yiddish. One of the most famous representatives of the artistic avant-garde of the XX century.

Peter Brueghel, Flemish Proverbs

Питер Брейгель, «Фламандские пословицы»

Peter Brueghel (Younger) (Dutch Pieter Bruegel de Jonge, MFA: [ˈpitər ˈbrøːɣəl]; 1564/65 Brussels - October 10 [source not specified 757 days] 1636 Antwerp, nicknamed “Hell”) - Dutch (Flemish) painter.

Pablo Picasso, "Guernica"

Пабло Пикассо, «Герника»

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, full name - Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuseno Maria de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santisima Trinidad Martir Patricio Ruiz and Picasso José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Mártir Patricio Ruiz y Picasso; October 25, 1881, Malaga, Spain - April 8, 1973, Mougins, France) - Spanish and French artist, sculptor, graphic artist, theater artist, ceramist and designer.

“Gernika” (Spanish: Guernica) - a painting by Pablo Picasso, painted in May 1937 by order of the Government of the Spanish Republic for the Spanish pavilion at the World Exhibition in Paris. The theme of the painting, executed in the manner of cubism and in black and white, is the bombardment of Guernica, which occurred shortly before this, as well as the horror of the April Spanish Revolution (1931) and the Civil War in Spain (1936-1939).

After the exhibition, the canvas was exhibited in a number of countries (mainly in the USA). Picasso himself stated that he would like to see her at the Prado Museum, but only after the restoration of the republic in Spain. The painting was placed in Prado in 1981, and in 1992 was transported with other works of art of the 20th century to the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid, where it is still preserved.

Gustav Klimt, The Kiss

Густав Климт, «Поцелуй»

Gustav Klimt (German: Gustav Klimt; July 14, 1862, Baumgarten, Austrian Empire - February 6, 1918, Vienna, Austria-Hungary) - a well-known Austrian artist, the founder of Art Nouveau in Austrian painting. The main subject of his painting was a female body, and most of his works are distinguished by outright eroticism.

“Kiss” (German: Der Kuß) is a painting by Austrian artist Gustav Klimt, written in 1907-1908.

Peter Paul Rubens, “The Abduction of Leucippus' Daughters”

Питер Пауль Рубенс, «Похищение дочерей Левкиппа»

Peter Paul Rubens (Dutch: Pieter Paul Rubens, MFA: [ˈpitər 'pʌul' rybə (n) s]; June 28, 1577, Siegen - May 30, 1640, Antwerp) - Dutch (Flemish) painter, one of the founders of Baroque art, diplomat collector. Rubens’s creative heritage includes about 3,000 paintings, a significant part of which was made in collaboration with students and colleagues, the largest of which was Anthony van Dyck. According to the catalog of M. Jaffe, there are 1403 authentic canvases. Extensive Rubens correspondence, mainly diplomatic, has been preserved. He was elevated to noble dignity by the Spanish king Philip IV (1624) and granted chivalry by the English king Charles I (1630) with the inclusion of the heraldic lion in his personal coat of arms. With the acquisition in 1635 of the castle of Steen in Eleutheit, Rubens received the title of lord.

Rubens' work is an organic fusion of the traditions of Bruegel realism with the achievements of the Venetian school. Rubens specialized in religious painting (including altar images), painted paintings on mythological and allegorical subjects, portraits (he abandoned this genre in the last years of his life), landscapes and historical canvases, and also made sketches for trellis and book illustrations. In the oil painting technique, Rubens was one of the last artists to use wood panels for easel work, even very large ones.

“The Abduction of the Leucippus Daughters” is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

In this picture, Rubens used the myth of the brothers Dioscuri, the sons of Zeus and Leda, Castor and Pollux, who had abducted the daughters of King Leucippus - Gilair and Phoebe. In this story, Rubens was carried away by the very dramatic moment of the abduction, which provides rich opportunities for plastic decisions.

With strong, muscular arms, the young men catch naked women to put them on horses. In despair and fright, the daughters of the king turn their eyes to heaven, as if searching for salvation from the gods. Little funny cupids hung on the necks of the mounted horses. All eight figures are skillfully inscribed in a circle, which in turn is beautifully located within an almost square field. The low horizon allows you to clearly read the complex, whimsical silhouette of the group. It is built on the contrasts of movements and color spots. Light, tender bodies of naked golden-haired women are skillfully compared with tanned, strong figures of dark-wise men. Red, golden, white and dark green fabrics enhance the decorative effect of the color composition. The seeming complexity of the group is designed to give the impression of tension in the situation, but at the same time, the construction has the strictest logical thoughtfulness. The ball of bodies has three points of support, fixed in the abutting foot of the horse, at the point of abutment of Dioscur's right leg and at the point of support of his left leg, which, as it were, is repelled by the arm of Leucippida. Moreover, these support points are located at different distances from the viewer, thereby contributing to the spatial orientation of the group. One can feel the extraordinary enthusiasm of the great artist for finding various angles, revealing the wealth of the plastic states of the human body, in which he can hardly have many rivals. The movement in the understanding of Rubens carries both an emotional impulse and a situational or plot meaning. But in that and in the other case, starting from reality, it acquires a certain artistic convention, obeying the laws of the artistic organization of forms on the plane. Rubens sought to convey the composition's decorative character, to delight in the diverse beauty of lines and forms in their interweaving, interpenetration and juxtaposition. Rubens endowed his brave and bold heroes with the beauty of a healthy youth, dexterity, strength and a seething thirst for life.

Paul Gauguin “Where did we come from? Who are we? Where are we going?"

Поль Гоген «Откуда мы пришли? Кто мы? Куда мы идём?»

Eugene Henri Paul Gauguin (fr. Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin [øˈʒɛn ãˈʁi ˌpol ɡoˈɡɛ̃]; June 7, 1848 - May 8, 1903) - French painter, sculptor and ceramic artist and graphic artist. Along with Cezanne and Van Gogh, he was the largest representative of post-impressionism. In the early 1870s, he began to paint as an amateur. The early period of creativity is associated with impressionism. Since 1880, participated in exhibitions of the Impressionists. Since 1883, a professional artist. Gauguin’s works did not find demand during his life, the artist was poor. Gauguin's painting "When is the wedding?" - one of the most expensive paintings sold.

"Where did we come from?" Who are we? Where are we going?" (1897–1898; FR. D'où venons nous? Que sommes nous? Où allons nous?) Is one of the most famous paintings by Paul Gauguin. Created in Tahiti, it is currently located at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

William Blake, The Great Architect

Уильям Блейк, «Великий архитектор»

William Blake (Eng. William Blake; November 28, 1757, London - August 12, 1827, London) - English poet, artist and engraver. Almost unrecognized during his lifetime, Blake is now considered an important figure in the history of poetry and fine art of the romantic era. He has lived all his life in London (with the exception of three years in Felfam).

Although his contemporaries considered Blake insane, later critics noted his expressiveness, and the philosophical and mystical depth of his work. His paintings and poems were described as romantic, or as pre-romantic. An adherent of the Bible, but an adversary of the Church of England (as well as the whole of all forms of organized religion), Blake was influenced by the ideals of the French and American revolutions. Although he later became disillusioned with many of these political beliefs, he maintained friendly relations with political activist Thomas Payne; also influenced by the philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg. Despite all the influences, Blake’s work is difficult to unambiguously classify. 19th-century writer William Rossetti called him “the glorious luminary” and “a man neither anticipated by his predecessors, nor classified by his contemporaries, nor replaced by famous or alleged successors.”

"The Ancient of Days" (Eng. The Ancient of Days) - engraving by the English artist and poet William Blake.

The title of the work “The Ancient of Days” in English means “The Ancient of Days” - this is one of the names (epithets) of God in the Old Testament, mentioned in the book of the prophet Daniel (in Aramaic: Atik Yomin).

The second name of the engraving ("The Great Architect") refers to the name accepted in Freemasonry as the highest entity or God (The Great Architect of the Universe)

The main character of the engraving is God at the time of creation. Blake gives him the name Urizen (from the word reason - reason).

Titian, “Earthly Love and Heavenly Love”

Тициан, «Любовь земная и Любовь небесная»

Titian Vecellio (Italian: Tiziano Vecellio, 1488/1490, Pieve di Cadore - August 27, 1576, Venice) - Italian painter, the largest representative of the Venetian school of the High and Late Renaissance. The name of Titian is on a par with such Renaissance artists as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Rafael. Titian painted on biblical and mythological subjects, and he became famous as a portrait painter. Kings and popes, cardinals, dukes and princes made orders to him. Titian was not even thirty years old when he was recognized as the best painter of Venice.

At his birthplace (Pieve di Cadore in the province of Belluno, Venetian Republic), he is sometimes called da Cadore; also known as the Titian Divine.

“Heavenly Love and Earthly Love” (Italian: Amor sacro e Amor profano; c. 1514) - painting by the artist Titian.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, “Portrait of Emperor Rudolph II in the Image of Vertumna”

Джузеппе Арчимбольдо, «Портрет императора Рудольфа II в образе Вертумна»

Giuseppe Arcimboldo (Italian: Giuseppe Arcimboldo; 1526 or 1527, Milan - July 11, 1593, ibid.) - Italian painter, decorator, usually ranked among the representatives of mannerism. In his work, some critics and artists of the 20th century saw anticipation of surrealism.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo was born into the family of a Milanese artist; From a young age, he helped his father create church murals, and also specialized in performing sketches of tapestries and stained-glass windows. Having achieved fame and authority, in 1562 he was invited to the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II to Vienna, and then served as his successor Rudolph II in Prague. In addition to fulfilling the duties of a court painter and decorator, he oversaw the acquisition of works of art, organized holidays and conducted engineering work. About two dozen works of Archimboldo of that period have been preserved - official portraits and specific paintings, made in the form of an unusual combination of objects, plants and animals; perhaps, the court’s Kunstkamera, which was supervised by the painter, influenced the originality of the style. This style was encouraged by the emperors-customers, and even served as a role model. Emperor Rudolph II in 1580 granted Archimboldo the nobility. After serving at the Habsburg court for about 25 years, in 1587 the artist retired and returned to Milan, but continued to create works in his chosen style, which he sent to Prague. For "Portrait of Rudolph II in the Image of Vertumn", the artist was granted the honorary title of the Palatinate. After his death, his style and formal experiments were forgotten, and a new interest in the heritage of Arcimboldo erupted in the 1930s. Since that time, he is considered a classic of European painting, to a certain extent, expanding the boundaries of form and content.

"Portrait of Emperor Rudolph II in the image of Vertumna" (Italian: L'imperatore Rodolfo II in veste di Vertumno) - a painting by the Italian artist-mannerist Giuseppe Archimboldo, painted around 1590.

In 1562, Arcimboldo was invited to the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II to Vienna, and then served his successor Rudolph II in Prague. After serving at the Habsburg court for about 25 years, in 1587 the artist retired and returned to Milan, but continued to create works in his chosen style, which he sent to Prague. For "Portrait of Rudolph II in the Image of Vertumn", the artist was granted the honorary title of the Palatinate.

This portrait depicts the emperor in the image of the god of the seasons and the earthly fruits of Vertumna, who was known in ancient Italy. Wertumn was the god of transformation, natural abundance. In ancient times, he was portrayed mainly in the form of a gardener with a garden knife and fruits. In this picture, the portrait of the emperor is made of a variety of fruits and vegetables, which personify the vegetation and gifts of nature of all four seasons. Gregorio Comanini, a friend of the artist, poet and historian, described this picture: “The eyes on his face are the stars of Olympus, his chest is air, his stomach is earth, his legs are abysses. His clothes are fruits and grass ... ”

This painting is currently on display at the Skukkloster Castle in Stockholm.

Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, “Bathing the Red Horse”

Кузьма Петров-Водкин, «Купание красного коня»

Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin (October 24 [November 5] 1878, Khvalynsk, Saratov Province, Russian Empire - February 15, 1939, Leningrad, USSR) - Russian and Soviet painter, graphic artist, art theorist, writer and teacher, Honored Artist of the RSFSR ( 1930).

“Bathing the Red Horse” is a famous painting by the artist Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin. It was written in 1912, became a landmark for the artist and brought him world fame.

Vasily Kandinsky, “Composition VII”

Василий Кандинский, «Композиция VII»

Vasily Vasilievich Kandinsky (December 4 (16), 1866, Moscow - December 13, 1944, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France) - Russian artist and theorist of fine art, who stood at the origins of abstract art. One of the founders of the Blue Horseman group. Uncle of the philosopher Alexander Kozhevnikov.

Of course, this is not a complete list of the works of geniuses, and it is not surprising if we accidentally missed your favorite author. Even world masterpieces are not to everyone's taste, let alone individual rather original painters. But some artists also hide messages in their works, if you find them, write about it in the comments, thanks.

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