Cognitive effects that affect life and work (infographics)
Cognitive distortion is the concept of cognitive science, meaning systematic deviations in behavior, perception and thinking, conditioned by subjective beliefs (prejudices) and stereotypes, social, moral and emotional causes, failures in the processing and analysis of information, and physical limitations and peculiarities of the structure of the human brain. Cognitive distortions arise on the basis of dysfunctional beliefs embedded in cognitive schemes, and are easily detected in the analysis of automatic thoughts. People tend to create their own "subjective social reality", dependent on their perception and this their subjective reality can determine their behavior in society. Thus, cognitive distortions can lead to inaccurate judgments, illogical interpretations, or irrational behavior in the broad sense of the word.
The brain sometimes does strange things. It confuses time, makes you overestimate your own abilities and believe in all sorts of nonsense. Interesting psychological cognitive effects with simple and understandable graphics to show how they work and affect life.
Some cognitive distortions can contribute to more effective actions of the individual in specific conditions. In addition, some cognitive distortions allow faster decision-making in situations where the speed of decision making is more important than its accuracy. Other cognitive distortions are a direct consequence of the limited possibilities of human processing of information or the lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (limited rationality).
Studies of cognitive distortions are of great importance for cognitive science, social psychology and behavioral economics, since they allow us to "isolate" the psychological processes underlying the processes of perception and decision-making. Kahneman and Tversky (1996) also argue that the study of cognitive distortions is of great practical importance, in particular in the medical field.
Cognitive distortions can arise due to various reasons, in particular:
- "Failures" in the processing of information (heuristics);
- "Mental noise";
- limited ability of the brain to process information;
- emotional and moral reasons;
- social influence.
The Dunning-Krueger effect
This effect explains well why many beginners consider themselves experts, and good specialists underestimate themselves.
The effect of Dunning - Kruger - is a distortion of ideas about his abilities. It is expressed in the fact that the first successes in a new business raise self-esteem to an unprecedented height. Therefore, beginners often teach more experienced and do not understand that they are doing some kind of game. This often leads to misunderstandings and conflicts at work.
But getting more experience, a person realizes how little he really knows, and gradually descends into the pit of suffering. Surely you have many acquaintances who are very good in their business, but at the same time constantly belittle their own abilities. They just sit in this hole.
And only by becoming an expert, a person can finally assess himself soberly and with horror look at the path that has been passed.
The effect of deja vu
Everyone knows the effect of deja vu. What it is? An error in the matrix? Echoes of a past life? In fact, it's just a malfunction of the brain, which can occur due to fatigue, illness, or a change in environmental conditions.
The failure occurs in the hippocampus. This department of the brain is looking for analogies in memory. In fact, the effect of deja vu is that in the event of a second ago the brain finds some details that I saw, for example, a year ago. After that, he begins to perceive the entire event, as happened in the distant past. As a result, you feel like Vanga and think that you foresaw this event for a very long time. In fact, it is your memories of a second ago that immediately return to you as information from the past.
You see the same scene twice, but do not know it. For what, the brain? For what?!
Why leave the comfort zone? What is bad about work and life? It turns out that the degree of comfort is related to performance, and unusual conditions not only open up new opportunities, but also make it work better.
Comfort implies the occupation of familiar things, the absence of any tests and the measured course of life. The alarm level in this zone is low, and the performance is sufficient to perform the usual tasks.
So why strain if it's so comfortable here? In unusual conditions, we mobilize all forces and begin to work harder to quickly return back to the comfort zone. So we go to the training zone, where we quickly get new knowledge and put more effort. And at some point our comfort zone becomes wider and captures a part of the training zone.
The same happens with the training zone. So, the stronger the stress, the we are steeper? Great! No. At some point, the anxiety grows so much that we go into a zone of panic, and no speech productivity is coming. But if the comfort zone is growing, then the things that scare you will simply fall into the area of training, which has also grown.
So for growth, you need to challenge yourself and learn to cope with difficulties.
The effect of Dr. Fox
This effect allows you to make unbelievable information interesting and even informative in the eyes of the public. It is he who explains the popularity and persuasiveness of all pseudoscience trends and sects.
It turns out that it is enough to be charismatic for this. People are more inclined to listen to artistic lecturers and take their words for granted. During the performance of an artistic and charismatic person, the viewer is less obvious contradictions and even illogical of his statements. It is more difficult for him to adequately assess the value of what the speaker is talking about. Moreover, following the results of the lecture, it may seem to him that he received new valuable knowledge, although in reality everything may be completely different.
Less charismatic lecturers will not leave the same bright impression of themselves. By the way, this in turn can create the feeling that the information and knowledge received are less important and interesting.
The use of selection restriction
The variety of choice is so great. But why do we choose so many variants from the heap for so long, and then also are dissatisfied with our decision?
The fact is that diversity not only slows down the decision making, but also makes us unhappy. People hang in front of shelves in stores and can not choose a pack of pasta. However, this applies not only to the purchase of products. Any life situation that poses a choice of a large number of options leads to a decrease in the speed of decision-making.
But that is not all. When the choice is finally made, there remains a feeling of insecurity and dissatisfaction. Is this a correct decision? Maybe it was worth choosing another option. But that guy bought other pasta. Why? He knows something! In the end, we are dissatisfied with the choice and suppressed. This would not have happened if there were five options.
To avoid this effect, you can limit the choice in advance. For example, buy only farm products, only equipment from German manufacturers and so on.
And when the choice has already been made, do not allow doubts to overtake you. After all, if someone makes other decisions, it does not mean that they will suit you.
The systematic error of the survivor
The mistake of the survivor is the tendency to draw conclusions about the phenomenon only on the basis of successful cases. For example, we hear the story of a man whom the dolphin pushed to the shore and thereby saved, and conclude that the dolphins are clever and kind beings. But the one whom the dolphin pushed in the other direction, unfortunately, we will not be able to tell anything.
This mistake forces us to repeat the actions of successful people in the hope that this will lead to success and us. He dropped out of school in the 7th grade and now is a millionaire! Great, you also need to do this. But first think about the thousands of people who dropped out of school and achieved nothing. They do not give lectures and do not get on the covers of magazines. But to know about their experience is also useful, so as not to repeat their mistakes.
In order not to perish, one must know not only the experience of the survivor, but also what the "deceased" did in order to have a complete picture.
This effect explains why the fulfillment of a long-awaited dream sometimes does not bring us joy. Deto is that emotions often outstrip events.
How it works? Let's say you set out to buy a car. They set a deadline and started saving money. On all the way you are encouraged by the idea that the achievement of the goal will be followed by a lot of positive emotions (and the machine).
If you confidently move to the goal and fulfill all the necessary conditions, at some point it becomes clear that the goal will be exactly achieved. For example, a month before the purchase of the machine it is obvious that the required amount is collected. At this moment, the emotional peak comes - the car is already in our pocket!
That is why when buying a car, emotions are not at their maximum. Of course, some emotions appear, but they are not so strong, and sometimes we are completely disappointed. It often happens that a person achieves the greatest and most ambitious goal and no longer sees the meaning in life. To prevent this, many set themselves such great goals that they reach them after death.
The main thing is to have time to get to the very point in life, in which it is clear that the goal will be exactly achieved. This saves from disappointments and sad consequences.
Bucket effect with crabs
Has it happened with you that you tell your friends about your goals (quit smoking, learn to play the violin, etc.), and they respond in a friendly way to dissuade you from this? Begin to say that this is all a whim and does not need anyone at all, but you lived normally until this moment!
This phenomenon is called the effect of buckets of crabs or crab mentality. Observation of crabs showed that one crab can get out of the bucket, but when there are a whole bunch of them in this bucket, they begin to cling to each other and prevent their brethren from getting out. In the end, everyone continues to sit in a bucket.
It's the same with people. They subconsciously do not want someone to start changing their lives. After all, this means that it's time for them to reflect on the changes and the excuse "yes all around so live" does not work anymore. Perhaps they themselves dream of quitting smoking or learning to play the violin, but they are afraid, are lazy or something else is hindering them.
This does not mean that your acquaintances wish you evil, you simply turned their attention to their own unrealized dreams, which is not very pleasant.
So if you have decided on something, do not listen to such excuses. Get out of the bucket and drag along friends.
We like objects that outwardly resemble people: dolls, robots, soft toys. But with the growth of similarity, we come to a point when such an object begins to look frightening.
This psychological effect is called the "sinister valley" effect. When the resemblance, doll or robot and person becomes very strong, we are ready to take this doll for a person. But small discrepancies in appearance cause anxiety. It begins to seem that the creature, which before us seems to be a man, but some he is not, and it is better not to communicate with him just in case. Everything becomes even worse if the object is moving.
People have long been trying to develop a robot that would be like a human being. But still he is not able to move as naturally as a living being. And we look at him involuntarily thinking: "Oh no, it's lifeless, but it's moving! What are you? "
By the way, the creators of horror films often use this effect to scare us.
Via facebook.com & wiki