Cognitive effects that affect life and work (infographics)
Cognitive distortion - the concept of cognitive science, meaning systematic deviations in behavior, perception and thinking, due to subjective beliefs (prejudices) and stereotypes, social, moral and emotional causes, failures in the processing and analysis of information, as well as physical limitations and structural features of the human brain. Cognitive distortions arise on the basis of dysfunctional beliefs embedded in cognitive patterns, and are easily detected when analyzing automatic thoughts. People tend to create their own “subjective social reality”, dependent on their perception, and this subjective reality of theirs can determine their behavior in society. Thus, cognitive distortions can lead to inaccurate judgments, illogical interpretations, or irrationality in behavior in the broad sense of the word.
The brain sometimes gets up weird things. Confuses time, makes you overestimate your own capabilities and believe in all sorts of nonsense. Interesting psychological cognitive effects with simple and clear graphs to show how they work and affect life.
Some cognitive distortions may contribute to more effective individual actions in specific conditions. In addition, some cognitive distortions allow you to make decisions faster in situations where the speed of decision making is more important than its accuracy. Other cognitive distortions are a direct consequence of the limited ability of a person to process information or the lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (limited rationality).
Studies of cognitive distortions are of great importance for cognitive science, social psychology and behavioral economics, since they allow to “isolate” the psychological processes underlying the processes of perception and decision making. Kahneman and Tversky (1996) also argue that the study of cognitive impairment is of great practical importance, particularly in the medical field.
Cognitive distortions can occur due to various reasons, in particular:
- "Failures" in information processing (heuristics);
- "Mental noise";
- limited capacity of the brain to process information;
- emotional and moral reasons;
- social influence.
This effect explains well why many newcomers consider themselves to be experts, while good experts underestimate themselves.
The effect of Dunning - Kruger - is a distortion of ideas about their abilities. It is expressed in the fact that the first successes in the new business raise self-esteem to unprecedented heights. Therefore, newcomers often teach more experienced and do not understand that they are doing some kind of game. This often leads to misunderstandings and conflicts at work.
But getting more experience, a person realizes how little he really knows, and gradually descends into the pit of suffering. Surely you have a lot of acquaintances who are very good at their work, but at the same time they constantly diminish their own abilities. They just sit in this pit.
And only by becoming an expert, a person can finally soberly assess himself and look with horror at the path traveled.
Deja vu effect
Everybody knows the effect of deja vu. What it is? Error in the matrix? Echoes of a past life? In fact, this is just a malfunction of the brain, which can occur due to fatigue, illness, or a change in environmental conditions.
Failure occurs in the hippocampus. This part of the brain is looking for analogies in memory. In essence, the deja vu effect is that in the event of a second prescription the brain finds some details that it saw, for example, a year ago. After that, he begins to perceive the whole event as something that happened in the distant past. As a result, you feel like Wanga and think that you foresaw this event a long time ago. In fact, these are your memories of the second prescription immediately returned to you as information from the past.
You see the same scene twice, but not in the know. Why, the brain? For what?!
Why leave the comfort zone? What is bad work and life calm conditions? It turns out that the degree of comfort is related to performance, and unusual conditions not only open up new opportunities, but also make you work better.
Comfort involves doing the usual things, the absence of any tests and measured during the life. The level of alarm in this area is low, and there is enough performance to perform familiar tasks.
So why bother, if it is so comfortable here? In unusual conditions, we mobilize all forces and begin to work harder, so that we can quickly return back to the comfort zone. So we move to the learning zone, where we quickly gain new knowledge and put more effort into it. And at some point, our comfort zone becomes wider and captures part of the learning zone.
The same happens to the learning zone. So, the more stress, the cooler we are? Great! Not. At some point, the alarm grows so much that we move into a panic zone, and there is no longer any talk of performance. But if the comfort zone is growing, then the things that scare, just fall into the field of study, which also grew.
So for growth, you need to challenge yourself and learn to cope with difficulties.
The effect of Dr. Fox
This effect allows you to make incredible information interesting and even informative in the eyes of the public. It is he who explains the popularity and persuasiveness of any pseudo-scientific trends and sects.
It turns out that it’s enough to be charismatic. People are more inclined to listen to artistic lecturers and take their words for granted. During the performance of an artistic and charismatic person, the viewer is less obvious contradictions and even illogic of his statements. It is more difficult for him to adequately assess the value of what the speaker is talking about. Moreover, following the results of the lecture, it may seem to him that he has gained new valuable knowledge, although in reality everything may be completely different.
Less charismatic lecturers will not leave the same vivid impression about themselves. By the way, this in turn can create the feeling that the information and knowledge obtained is less important and interesting.
Benefits of limiting choice
The variety of choices is so great. But why do we choose for so long from a pile of different options, and then also dissatisfied with our decision?
The fact is that diversity not only slows down the decision, but also makes us unhappy. People hang out in front of shelves in stores and cannot pick up a pack of pasta. However, this applies not only to the purchase of products. Any life situation that confronts the choice of a large number of options leads to a decrease in the speed of decision making.
But that is not all. When the choice is finally made, there is a feeling of insecurity and dissatisfaction. Is this the right decision? Maybe it was worth choosing another option. But the guy bought other pasta. Why? He knows something! As a result, we are dissatisfied with the choice and depressed. This would not have happened if there were five options.
To avoid this effect, you can limit the choice in advance. For example, buy only farm products, only equipment from German manufacturers, and so on.
And when the choice is already made, do not let doubts overtake you. After all, if someone makes other decisions, it does not mean that they will suit you.
The error of the survivor is the tendency to draw conclusions about the phenomenon only on the basis of successful cases. For example, we hear the story of a man whom a dolphin pushed up to the shore and thus saved, and we conclude that dolphins are smart and kind creatures. But the one whom the dolphin pushed in the other direction, we, unfortunately, will not be able to tell anything.
This mistake forces us to repeat the actions of successful people in the hope that it will lead us to success. He left school in the 7th grade and is now a millionaire! Great, you need to do that too. But first think about the thousands of people who left school and achieved nothing. They do not lecture and do not fall on the covers of magazines. But knowing about their experience is also useful, so as not to repeat their mistakes.
In order not to die you need to know not only about the experience of the “survivor, but also about what the“ dead ”did, in order to have a complete picture.
This effect explains why the fulfillment of a long-awaited dream sometimes does not bring us joy. The point is that emotions are often ahead of events.
How it works? Suppose you set out to buy a car. Established a term and began to save money. All along, you are encouraged by the idea that many positive emotions (and a car) will follow your goal.
If you confidently move to the goal and fulfill all the necessary conditions, at some point it will become clear that the goal will be exactly achieved. For example, a month before buying a car, it is obvious that the required amount is collected. At this moment an emotional rush comes - the car is already in our pocket!
That is why at the time of buying the car emotions are not at the maximum. Of course, some emotions appear, but they are no longer so strong, and sometimes we remain completely disappointed. It often happens that a person achieves the largest and most ambitious goal and no longer sees the meaning in life. To prevent this from happening, many set themselves such big goals that they reach them after death.
The main thing is to have time in life to get to the very point where it is clear that the goal will definitely be achieved. It saves from disappointment and sad consequences.
Crab Bucket Effect
Has it happened with you that you tell your friends about your goals (stop smoking, learn to play the violin, etc.), and in return they unanimously dissuade you from this? They begin to say that this is all a whim and in general no one needs, you lived normally until this moment!
This phenomenon is called the crabs bucket effect or the crab mentality. Observing the crabs showed that one crab would be able to get out of the bucket, but when there is a whole bunch of them in this bucket, they begin to cling to each other and interfere with their fellows to get out. As a result, everyone continues to sit in the bucket.
Same thing with people. They subconsciously do not want anyone to start changing their lives. After all, this means that it is time for them to think about the changes and the excuse "yes, everyone lives like that" does not work anymore. Perhaps they themselves dream of quitting smoking or learning how to play the violin, but they are afraid, they are lazy or something else bothers them.
This does not mean that your friends wish you evil, you just turned their attention to their own unrealized dreams, and this is not very pleasant.
So if you really decided on something, do not listen to such excuses. Get out of the bucket and drag friends along.
We like objects that resemble people externally: dolls, robots, soft toys. But with the growth of similarity, a moment comes when such an object begins to look frightening.
This psychological effect is called the “sinister valley” effect. When the resemblance, a doll or a robot and a person, becomes very strong, we are ready to accept this doll as a person. But minor inconsistencies in appearance are alarming. It starts to seem like a creature that seems to be a man before us, but some kind of person is not and better not to get involved with him just in case. Everything gets worse if the object is moving.
People have long been trying to develop a robot that would be like a man. Still, he is not able to move as naturally as a living being. And we are looking at him involuntarily thinking: “Oh no, it is inanimate, but it moves! What are you ?! ”
By the way, horror filmmakers often use this effect to scare us.
Via facebook.com & wiki