How it started, the very first thing
When did the first epidemic caused by a computer virus happen? Who came up with the first cartoon character? What year was the first iPhone released? And what was the first computer like?
The very first Windows
The first versions of Windows were not full-fledged operating systems, but were add-ons to the DOS operating system and were essentially a multifunctional extension, adding support for new processor modes, support for multitasking, providing standardization of hardware interfaces and uniformity for user interfaces of programs. Provided built-in GDI and USER tools for creating a graphical interface. The first versions of Windows generally consisted of three modules - KERNEL, GDI and USER. The first of them provided memory management, the execution of executable files and the loading of dynamic DLLs, the second - graphics, the third - windows. They worked with processors starting with the Intel 8086.
- Windows 1.0 ( 1985 )
- Windows 2.0 ( 1987 ) - the system has the ability to run DOS applications in graphical windows, and each application was provided with a full 640 KB of memory. Improved support for 80286 processors. Version 2.03 (2.0 / 386) introduced support for 80386 processors.
- Windows 2.1 ( 1988 ) - full support for all the features of the 80286 and 80386 processors.
- Windows 3.0 ( 1990 ) - improved support for 80386 processors and protected mode.
- Windows 3.1 ( 1992 ) - seriously redesigned Windows 3.0: fixed UAE (fatal application errors), added OLE mechanism, WYSIWYG printing (“what you see, you will get”), TrueType fonts, file manager changed, multimedia functions added. The 8086 processor and real mode are no longer supported.
- Windows for Workgroups 3.11 ( 1993 ) - Windows for Workgroups, the first version of the OS family with support for local area networks. The system also tested individual kernel enhancements, which were later used in Windows 95. With this version, support for the 80286 processor and standard mode ceased.
Microsoft Windows 1.0 is Microsoft's graphical user interface for the MS-DOS operating system, using the principle of a frame manager for windows, designed to facilitate dialogue with the latter, to unify the appearance of applications and optimize work with peripheral devices (for example, with a printer). The system was officially announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983 in New York, but was released only two years later. During these years 24 developers worked on the product. Finally, on November 20, 1985, deliveries of the system to retail chains began. Mail delivery was used to expedite the delivery of program packages to stores. The next day, the product was officially presented at a press conference. The declared value in the USA was 99 dollars, in Germany - 399 German marks.
User reaction to the appearance of Windows was restrained, because for full use it was necessary to purchase such expensive equipment as a mouse, a larger memory and a new processor model. In addition, the package included several applications designed specifically for such computer characteristics that required most users to purchase new equipment. Many parts of the system were used in its next, more successful versions.
First full-text search engine
At an early stage in the development of the Internet, Tim Berners-Lee maintained a list of web servers hosted on the CERN website. There were more and more sites, and maintaining such a list manually became more and more difficult. The NCSA website had a special section, “What's New!”, Which published links to new sites.
The first full-text indexing resource using a craweler-based search engine was WebCrawler, launched in 1994. Unlike its predecessors, it allowed users to search by any words located on any web page - since then it has become the standard for most search engines. In addition, it was the first search engine to be widely used. In 1994, the Lycos system was launched, developed at Carnegie Mellon University and has become a major commercial enterprise.
The first cartoon hero
The first steps in the animation were made long before the Lumiere brothers invented cinema. Attempts to capture the movement in the drawing began in the primitive era, continued in ancient times and led to the appearance of primitive animation in the first half of the 19th century. The Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau, the Austrian professor-geometer Simon von Stampfer and other scientists and inventors used a rotating disk or tape with pictures, a mirror system and a light source (flashlight) - a phenacystiscope and a stroboscope to reproduce moving images on the screen. Further development of this technology in combination with photography led to the invention of the movie camera, and in turn created the technological basis for the invention of the cinema by the Lumiere brothers.
In 1914, Winsor Mackay creates the first in the history of the hero of the cartoon, endowed with vivid personal qualities - the Gerty dinosaur . At the same time, a huge number of drawings made for the film required the invention of a new technology for cinematographic production, for the first time leading to the division of labor between the animator and the artist-background artist: while Mackay was drawing the phases of the movement of the dinosaur, the student he hired copied from the sample to each sheet contours of mountains, a lake and a tree (a celluloid film was not used then). Thus, we can assume that the primary method of cinematic animation was total animation.
Naturally, the animation became part of the cinema, taking in it a solid place, as one of the genres. For the production of cartoons, filming machines were used, suitable for single-frame shooting on one of the standard film formats. To create hand-drawn animation, multi-station machines were created, which were a complex installation-reproducer with a special movie camera, usually having a design similar to devices for combined shooting and allowing you to adjust the opening angle of the shutter and perform dimming and bursts. Such devices were produced in a special version for animation, characterized by a vertical installation and a special magnifier for ease of sighting from this position. The design of professional multstanks made it possible to create multilayer images on separate media and included lighting equipment. Currently, for hand-drawn animation, a computer or multi-station with a digital camera is used.
The very first computer in the world
The world's first computer was an American programmable computer, which was developed and built in 1941 by Harvard mathematician Howard Aixon in collaboration with four IBM engineers, who commissioned the computer to be developed. The computer was created based on the ideas of Charles Babbage.
The official launch of the very first computer in the world called “Mark 1” was carried out after successful tests on August 7, 1944. The computer is located within the walls of Harvard University.
The cost of this computer was 500 thousand dollars. The computer was assembled in a stainless steel and glass case, had a length of about 17 meters, a height of more than 2.5 meters, a weight of about 4.5 tons, and an area of several tens of meters. Computer Mark 1 contained electromechanical switches, relays and other parts in the amount of 765 thousand pieces.
The length of the wires of the world's first computer was almost 800 kilometers. The computer could operate with 72 numbers consisting of 23 decimal places. He performed subtraction and addition operations, spending 3 seconds on each operation. The computer could perform the operations of multiplication and division, while spending 6 and 15.3 seconds, respectively.
Perforated paper tape was used to enter into a computer, which was nothing more than an advanced arithmometer.
Mark 1 was the very first automatic computing device that did not require human intervention to conduct work processes.
The very first horror movie
The first films with supernatural events that can be attributed to horror films appeared even in Georges Méliès in the late 1890s, one of his most famous works is the 1896 film “Castle of the Devil” (sometimes called the first horror film), also this is one of the first films in which the most primitive special effects were used (freeze frame, multiple exposure, fast and slow motion). His other significant project was the film "La Caverne" in 1898 (roughly translated "Demon Cave").
In Japan, one of the earliest films of the genre was Bake Jizo and Shinin no Sosei, both of 1898. In 1910, the Edison Manufacturing Company released the very first known adaptation of Mary Shelley's Gothic novel Frankenstein, or Modern Prometheus. The film is called "Frankenstein" and lasts only 12 minutes, for decades the film was considered lost, the information about it was limited to a photograph of Charles Ogle in the form of a Beast and an exposition of a plot from the Edison movie catalog. In the 1950s, a copy of the film was purchased by a Wisconsin collector, Alois Detluff, who did not attach much importance to this film and only in the 1970s discovered that it had a unique rarity. In 1993, the film was re-released.
Also, some researchers refer to one of the first horror films released on August 22, 1913 in Germany, the horror film "Student from Prague." It was on this day that the premiere of this film took place in the Mozart Saal Berlin cinema. However, as the researchers note, it was the “Student from Prague” that possessed the most characteristic features of the emerging genre. The 20th century made a great contribution to horror films, the first monster in the feature film was Quasimodo in the film adaptation of Victor Hugo’s novel “Notre Dame de Paris”. Films in which the hunchback appeared - Esmeralda by Alice Guy Blanche (1905), The Hunchback (1909), The Love of the Hunchback (1910) and Notre Dame de Paris (1911).
Many of the earliest full-length horror films belonged to German expressionism, among which were films that influenced Hollywood cinema. Among them were The Golem (1915) by Paul Wegener, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) Robert Wien, this expressionist style influenced such directors as Orson Welles and Tim Burton. Also in the 1920s, Friedrich Murnau created the most memorable image of a vampire in his film “Nosferatu. Symphony of Horror ", an adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel" Dracula ".
The very first iPhone
iPhone (retrospectively called the first iPhone or iPhone 2G) is a first-generation iPhone touchscreen smartphone developed and sold by Apple.
It was introduced on January 9, 2007 after several months of rumors. It went on sale in the USA on June 29, 2007. The second generation was the iPhone 3G.
The first iPhone no longer receives Apple software updates; the latest version of its firmware was iPhoneOS 3.1.3.
The world's first icebreaker
In 1837, a wooden wheeled steamer City Ice Boat No.1 was built in Philadelphia (USA), intended for breaking ice in the harbor.
In December 1897, on the initiative and with the active participation of Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov, the first icebreaker in the world was built on the stocks of the British company Armstrong in Newcastle on the order of Russia, capable of forcing heavy ice of two meters thickness. The idea of Admiral Makarov was supported by the Siberian merchants, who proposed to name the icebreaker by the name of Ermak. The commission that participated in the development of the icebreaker included D.I. Mendeleev, engineers P.K. Yankovsky and R.I. Runeberg, F.F. Wrangel and others. On October 17 (29), 1898, the icebreaker case was solemnly launched from the slipway into the water. The completion of the ship was quick. After factory tests, Ermak was accepted from the factory and on February 21 (March 5), 1899, went on its first voyage. Ermak is an icebreaker of the Russian and Soviet fleets. The world's first Arctic-class icebreaker. Named in honor of the Russian researcher of Siberia - Ermak Timofeevich.
Very first cd
The technology of laser recording of information on compact discs was born long before the birth of personal computers. Priority in the development of "laser" technology belongs to Soviet scientists Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolai Basov - the creators of the first "cold" lasers, which formed the basis not only of CDs, but also of many other computer and household devices. In 1964, both scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize. In the late 1970s, two companies, Philips and Sony, took up the issue of digital audio playback seriously.
So the laser CD was introduced in 1980 by Philips and Sony. The signal coding method is Pulse Code Modulation (PCM; Eng. Pulse Code Modulation, PCM). The first commercial CD (prototypes made before) was released on June 20, 1982, and on August 17 of the same year, the first commercial CD in the world was released at Polygram, a recording company located in Langenhagen near Hanover. -disk, thereby laying the foundation for their mass production. The honor of being first published on CD was awarded to ABBA with the album The Visitors.
The first CD to hit the shelves of music stores was Billy Joel's 1978 album 52nd Street. CD sales with this record began in Japan on October 1, 1982.
According to Philips, over 25 billion CDs have been sold worldwide in 25 years. Despite the fact that more and more people prefer to purchase music files over the Internet, according to IFPI CD sales in 2007 accounted for about 70% of all music sales.
A significant contribution to the popularization of CDs was made by Microsoft and Apple Computer. In 1987, John Scully, then CEO of Apple Computer, said that CDs would revolutionize the world of personal computers. One of the first mass-media multimedia computers / entertainment centers using CDs was the Amiga CDTV (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision), later CDs were used in Panasonic 3DO and Amiga CD32 game consoles.
In Russia, since the mid-1990s, the main income in the domestic publishing show business came from the sale of albums of artists and music collections on CDs as media.
There is a version that the CD was not invented at all by Philips and Sony, but by the American physicist James Russell, who worked at Optical Recording. Already in 1971, he demonstrated his invention for data storage. He did this for "personal" purposes, wanting to prevent scratching of his phonograph records with pickup needles. And eight years later, such a device was “independently” invented by Philips and Sony.
The first computer virus epidemic
The appearance of the first computer viruses is often mistakenly attributed to the 1970s and even 1960s. Commonly referred to as "viruses" are programs such as ANIMAL, Creeper, Cookie Monster, and Xerox worm .
In 1981, Richard Skrenta wrote one of the first boot viruses for the Apple II PC - ELK CLONER.
Other viruses for Apple II were created by A&M University of Texas student Joe Dellinger in 1981. They were designed for the Apple DOS 3.3 operating system for this PC. The second version of this virus “slipped away” from the author and began to spread throughout the university. An error in the virus caused the graphics to be suppressed by a popular game called CONGO, and within a few weeks all (“pirated”) copies of this game stopped working. To remedy the situation, the author launched a new, fixed virus, designed to "replace" the previous version. The virus could be detected by the presence of the infection counter in memory: “(GEN 0000000 TAMU)”, by offset $ B6E8, or at the end of the zero sector of the infected disk.
In September 1984, an article by F. Cohen was published in which the author investigated a type of file virus. This is the first academic study of the virus problem. The term "virus" was proposed by the supervisor of the Cohen Len Adlman, however it is Cohen who is considered to be the author of the term "computer virus".
In 1985, Tom Neff began to distribute the Dirty Dozen - An Unloaded Program Alert List on various BBSs, which listed the then-known programs - vandals. Subsequently, this list, which includes most of the detected trojans and “hacked” or renamed copies of commercial software for MS-DOS, became widely known under the short name “dirty dozen”.
In early 1985, Gee Wong wrote DPROTECT, a resident program that intercepts attempts to write to floppy disks and hard drives. It blocked all operations (recording, formatting) performed through the BIOS. If such an operation was detected, the program required a restart of the system.
The next stage in the development of viruses is 1987. By this time, relatively cheap IBM PC computers were widely used, which led to a sharp increase in the scale of infection with computer viruses. It was in 1987 that three large epidemics of computer viruses broke out.
The first epidemic in 1987 was caused by the Brain virus (from the English "brain"), which was developed by the brothers Amjat and Bazit Alvi in 1986 and was detected in the summer of 1987. According to McAfee, the virus infected more than 18 thousand computers in the United States alone. The program was supposed to punish local pirates stealing software from their company. The program included the names, address and phone numbers of the brothers. However, unexpectedly for everyone, The Brain went beyond the borders of Pakistan and infected thousands of computers around the world. The Brain virus was also the first stealth virus - when trying to read the infected sector, it “substituted” its uninfected original. On Friday, May 13, 1988, several companies and universities from several countries of the world “got acquainted” with the Jerusalem virus at once - on that day the virus destroyed the files when they were launched. This is perhaps one of the first MS-DOS viruses that caused a real pandemic - messages about infected computers came from Europe, America and the Middle East.
In 1988, Robert Morris Jr. created the first massive network worm. A 60,000-byte program was developed with the expectation of defeating UNIX Berkeley 4.3 operating systems. The virus was originally developed as harmless and was intended only to covertly penetrate the computer systems connected by the ARPANET network and remain undetected there. The virus program included components that allowed to reveal the passwords available in the infected system, which, in turn, allowed the program to disguise itself as the task of legal users of the system, in fact, by copying and sending out copies. The virus did not remain hidden and completely safe, as the author intended, due to minor errors made during the development, which led to the rapid uncontrolled self-propagation of the virus. According to the most conservative estimates, the Morris worm incident cost more than 8 million hours of access loss and over a million hours of direct loss to restore the systems. The total cost of these costs is estimated at $ 96 million (this amount, also, is not entirely justified, includes the costs of finalizing the operating system). The damage would be much greater if the virus was originally created with destructive purposes. Morris's worm infected over 6,200 computers. As a result of a virus attack, most networks failed for up to five days. Computers that performed switching functions, worked as file servers or performed other functions of ensuring network operation, also failed. On May 4, 1990, a jury found Morris guilty. He was sentenced to three years of imprisonment, 400 hours of community service and a fine of 10 thousand dollars.
In 1989, DATACRIME viruses became widespread, which, starting from October 12, destroyed the file system, and until that date simply multiplied. This series of computer viruses began to spread in the Netherlands, the USA and Japan at the beginning of 1989 and by September it hit about 100 thousand PCs only in the Netherlands (which amounted to about 10% of their total number in the country). Even IBM responded to this threat by releasing its VIRSCAN detector, which allows it to search for lines (signatures) specific to a virus in the file system. The set of signatures could be supplemented and modified by the user. In 1989, the first AIDS Trojan horse appeared. The virus made all information on the hard disk inaccessible and displayed only one message on the screen: "Send a check for $ 189 to such and such an address." The author of the program was arrested at the time of cashing the check and convicted of extortion. The first virus to counter antivirus software, The Dark Avenger, was also created. It infected new files while an antivirus program checked the computer’s hard drive.
In 1995, a new version of Windows, Windows 95, was officially released. At a press conference on her release, Bill Gates said the virus threat was now over. Indeed, at the time of its release, Windows was very resistant to existing viruses for MS-DOS. However, already in August, the first virus for Microsoft Word (Concept) appears.
In 1996, the first virus for Windows 95 appeared - Win95.Boza. In March 1996, Win.Tentacle broke free, infecting computers running Windows 3.1. This was the first virus outbreak caused by Windows. July 1996 marked the spread of Laroux, the first virus for Microsoft Excel. Win95.Punch, the first resident virus for Win95, appeared in December 1996. It loads into the system as a VxD driver, intercepts file accesses and infects them.
The very first antivirus
The first antivirus programs appeared in the winter of 1984 (the first virus for Apple's personal computers appeared in 1977, and only in 1981 did viruses pose a threat) under the names CHK4BOMB and BOMBSQAD . They were written by Andy Hopkins, an American programmer.
CHK4BOMB allowed you to analyze the text of the boot module and identify all text messages and "suspicious" sections of code.
BOMBSQAD intercepted the write and format operations performed through the BIOS. When a prohibited operation was detected, it was possible to allow or prohibit its execution.
The first antivirus in the modern sense of the term, that is, resident, “protecting” from virus attacks, appeared in 1985. The DRPROTECT program was created by Gee Wong. Development blocked all operations (recording, formatting) performed through the BIOS. If such an operation was detected, the program required a restart of the system.
The very first CorelDraw
The current version of the product is CorelDRAW Graphics Suite X8, available only for Microsoft Windows. Earlier versions were also released for Macintosh and Linux. The latest version for Linux is the 9th, released in 2000.
In 1989, CorelDRAW made a splash in the world of computer graphics, becoming the first program in history to create full-color vector illustrations and page layouts. Two years later, Corel continued the revolution with the release of the world's first universal graphics package, CorelDRAW 3. This package includes tools for creating vector illustrations, page layouts, photo editing and other features.
Via fishki.net & wiki