How it started, the very first thing
When was the first epidemic caused by a computer virus? Who came up with the first cartoon character? What year did the first iPhone come out? And what was the first computer?
The very first windows
The first versions of Windows were not full-fledged operating systems, but were add-ons to the DOS operating system and were in fact a multifunctional extension, adding support for new processor modes, multitasking support, standardizing hardware interfaces, and consistency for program user interfaces. Provided built-in GDI and USER to create a graphical interface. The first versions of Windows generally consisted of three modules - KERNEL, GDI and USER. The first of them provided the memory management, the launch of executable files and the loading of dynamic DLLs, the second - the graphics, the third - the windows. They have been working with processors since Intel 8086.
- Windows 1.0 ( 1985 )
- Windows 2.0 ( 1987 ) - the system now has the ability to run DOS applications in graphical windows, with each application being provided with full 640 KB of memory. Improved support for 80286 processors. In version 2.03 (2.0 / 386), support for 80386 processors has been added.
- Windows 2.1 ( 1988 ) - full support for all features of the 80286 and 80386 processors.
- Windows 3.0 ( 1990 ) - improved support for 80386 processors and protected mode.
- Windows 3.1 ( 1992 ) - seriously reworked Windows 3.0: eliminated UAE (fatal errors of application programs), added OLE mechanism, printing in WYSIWYG mode (“what you see, you will get”), TrueType fonts, changed file manager, added multimedia functions. The 8086 processor and real mode are no longer supported.
- Windows for Workgroups 3.11 ( 1993 ) - Windows for Workgroups, the first version of the OS family with support for local area networks. The system also tested some kernel enhancements that were applied later in Windows 95. Since this version, support for the 80286 processor and standard mode has been discontinued.
Microsoft Windows 1.0 is a Microsoft graphical user interface for the MS-DOS operating system, using the principle of a frame window manager, created to facilitate dialogue with the latter, unify the appearance of applications and optimize work with peripheral devices (for example, with a printer). The system was officially announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983 in New York, but was only released two years later. During these years, 24 developers worked on the product. Finally, on November 20, 1985, deliveries of the system to retail chains began. To expedite the delivery of kits to the stores, postage was used. The next day, the product was officially presented at a press conference. The declared value in the United States was $ 99, in Germany - 399 German marks.
The reaction of users to the appearance of Windows was restrained, because for full use it was necessary to acquire such expensive equipment as a mouse, a larger memory and a new processor model. In addition, the delivery included several applications designed specifically for such computer characteristics that required the purchase of new equipment from most users. Many parts of the system were used in its next, more successful versions.
First full-text search engine
Early in the development of the Internet, Tim Berners-Lee maintained a list of web servers on the CERN website. There are more and more sites, and manually maintaining such a list has become increasingly difficult. The NCSA website had a special “What's New!” Section, where they published links to new sites.
The first full-text indexing resources using a robot (“craweler-based”) search engine, was the system “WebCrawler”, launched in 1994. Unlike its predecessors, it allowed users to search by any words located on any web page - since then it has become the standard for most search engines. In addition, it was the first search engine to be widely distributed. In 1994, the Lycos system, developed at Carnegie Mellon University and launched as a serious commercial enterprise, was launched.
First cartoon hero
The first steps in the animation were made long before the invention of the cinema Lumiere brothers. Attempts to capture the movement in the figure began in the primitive era, continued in ancient times and led to the emergence of primitive multiplication in the first half of the XIX century. The Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau, the Austrian professor-geometr Simon von Shtampfer and other scientists and inventors used a rotating disk or tape with pictures, a system of mirrors and a light source (lantern) - phenakisciscope and a stroboscope to reproduce moving images on the screen. Further development of this technology in combination with photography led to the invention of the cinematograph, and in turn created the technological basis for the invention of the cinema by the Lumiere brothers.
In 1914, Winsor McKay created the first ever cartoon character endowed with bright personality traits — Gertie's dinosaur . At the same time, a huge number of drawings made for the film demanded to invent a new technology of cinematic production, for the first time leading to a division of labor between the artist-animator and the artist-background engineer: while McKay traced the phases of the dinosaur movement, the student he hired copied from the sample to each sheet the contours of the mountains, the lake and the tree (celluloid film was not yet used). Thus, it can be considered that the total multiplication was the primary method of cinematographic multiplication.
Naturally, animation has become part of the cinema, taking a firm place in it, as one of the genres. For the manufacture of cartoons were used movie cameras, suitable for frame-by-frame shooting on one of the standard film formats. In order to create hand-drawn animations, multistas were created, which were complex installation-reproducers with a special film-making device, as a rule, having a design similar to devices for combined shooting and allowing to adjust the angle of the obturator and perform darkening and sagging. Such devices were produced in a special version for animation, which was distinguished by vertical installation and a special magnifying glass for the convenience of viewing from this position. The design of professional multistas allowed to create multi-layered images on separate carriers and included lighting equipment. At present, a computer or multi-station with a digital camera is used for hand-drawn animation.
The very first computer in the world
The first computer in the world was an American programmable computer, which was developed and built in 1941 by Harvard mathematician Howard Aixon with the cooperation of four IBM engineers, upon the order of which the computer was developed. The computer was created based on the ideas of Charles Babbage.
The official launch of the world's first computer called "Mark 1" was held after successful tests on August 7, 1944. Computer located in the walls of Harvard University.
The cost of this computer was 500 thousand dollars. The computer is assembled in a case of stainless steel and glass, had a length of about 17 meters, a height of more than 2.5 meters, weight about 4.5 tons, the area occupied several tens of meters. Computer Mark 1 contained electromechanical switches, relays and other parts in the amount of 765 thousand pieces.
The length of the wires of the first computer in the world was almost 800 kilometers. A computer could operate with 72 numbers consisting of 23 decimal places. He performed the subtraction and addition operations, spending on each operation for 3 seconds. The computer could also perform multiplication and division operations, while spending 6 and 15.3 seconds, respectively.
A perforated paper tape was used to enter the computer, which was nothing more than an advanced adding machine.
Mark 1 was the very first automatic computing device that did not require human intervention to carry out work processes.
The very first horror
The first films with supernatural events that can be attributed to horror films appeared even in Georges Méliès in the late 1890s, one of his most famous works is the 1896 film “The Devil's Castle” (sometimes called the first horror film), also This is one of the first films in which the most primitive special effects were used (freeze-frame, multi-exposure, fast and slow). His other significant project was the film “La Caverne” of 1898 (roughly translated “Cave of the Demons”).
In Japan, one of the earliest films of the genre was "Bake Jizo" and "Shinin no Sosei", both of 1898. In 1910, the Edison Manufacturing Company released the very first known adaptation of Mary Shelley's gothic novel Frankenstein, or Modern Prometheus. The film is called “Frankenstein” and goes only 12 minutes, for decades the film was considered lost, information about it was exhausted by a photograph of Charles Ogl in the image of the Beast and the presentation of the plot from the Edison film catalog. In the 1950s, a copy of the film was acquired by a collector from Wisconsin, Alois Detlaff, who did not attach much importance to this film and only in the 1970s did he discover that he owned a unique rarity. In 1993, the film was re-released.
Also, some researchers refer to one of the first horror films, which was released on August 22, 1913 in Germany, the horror film “Student from Prague”. That very day the premiere of this film took place in the Mozart Saal cinema in Berlin. However, as the researchers note, it was “The Student from Prague” that had the most characteristic features of the emerging genre. The 20th century brought a great contribution to horror films, Quasimodo became the first monster in the full-length film in the film adaptation of the novel “Notre-Dame de Paris” by Victor Hugo. The films in which the hunchback appeared were “Esmeralda” by Alice Guy-Blanche (1905), “The Hunchback” (1909), “The Love of Hunchback” (1910) and “Notre Dame de Paris” (1911).
Many of the earliest full-length horror films belonged to German expressionism, among which were films that influenced Hollywood cinema. Among them were "Golem" (1915) by Paul Wegener, "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" (1920) by Robert Wien, this expressionistic style influenced such directors as Orson Welles and Tim Burton. Also in the 1920s, Friedrich Murnau created the most memorable image of a vampire in his film “Nosferatu. The symphony of horror ", the film adaptation of the novel by Bram Stoker's" Dracula ".
The very first iPhone
iPhone (retrospectively referred to as the first iPhone or iPhone 2G) is a touchscreen smartphone of the first generation iPhone, designed and marketed by Apple.
It was presented on January 9, 2007 after several months of rumors. It went on sale in the USA on June 29, 2007. The second generation was the iPhone 3G.
The first iPhone no longer receives software updates from Apple, the latest version of its firmware was iPhoneOS 3.1.3.
The world's first icebreaker
In 1837, the City Ice Ice No.1 wooden wheeled steamer was built in Philadelphia (USA) for chopping ice in the harbor.
In December 1897, at the initiative and with the active participation of Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov, the world's first icebreaker, capable of forcing heavy ices of two meters thickness, was laid on the stocks of the English firm Armstrong in Newcastle. The idea of Admiral Makarov was supported by the Siberian merchants, who suggested that an icebreaker be named after Yermak. The commission that participated in the development of the icebreaker was DI Mendeleev, engineers P. K. Yankovsky and R. I. Runeberg, F. F. Wrangel, and others. On October 17 (29), 1898, the icebreaker hull was solemnly launched from the stocks to the water. The completion of the ship went quickly. After the factory tests, “Yermak” was accepted from the factory and on February 21 (March 5), 1899, went on the first voyage. Ermak is an icebreaker of the Russian and Soviet fleets. The world's first icebreaker Arctic class. Named in honor of the Russian explorer of Siberia - Yermak Timofeyevich.
The very first CD
The technology of laser recording of information on CDs came into being long before the birth of personal computers. The priority in the development of "laser" technology belongs to the Soviet scientists Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolai Basov - the creators of the first "cold" lasers, which formed the basis of not only CDs, but also many other computer and home appliances. In 1964, both scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize. In the late 1970s, two companies, Philips and Sony, seriously tackled the issue of digital sound reproduction.
So the laser CD was introduced in 1980 by Philips and Sony. The signal coding method is pulse code modulation (PCM; Eng. Pulse Code Modulation, PCM). The release of the first commercial (CD prototypes were made before) of the music CD was announced on June 20, 1982, and on August 17 of the same year, the record company Polygram, located in Langenhagen, not far from Hanover, was released, on order of Philips, the world's first commercial compact -disk, thereby putting the beginning of their mass production. The honor of being first released on CD was awarded to ABBA with the album "The Visitors".
The first CD to hit the shelves of music stores was Billy Joel's 1978 album, 52nd Street. Sales of the CD with this recording began in Japan on October 1, 1982.
According to Philips, over 25 years, more than 200 billion CDs have been sold in the world. Despite the fact that more and more people prefer to purchase music files through the Internet, according to IFPI, CD sales in 2007 accounted for about 70% of all music sales.
Significant contribution to the popularization of CDs made Microsoft and Apple Computer. In 1987, John Sculley, Apple Computer CEO at the time, said that CDs would revolutionize the personal computer world. Amiga CDTV (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) was one of the first mass multimedia computers / entertainment centers using CDs. Later, CDs began to be used in Panasonic 3DO gaming consoles and Amiga CD32.
In Russia, since the mid-1990s, the main income in the domestic publishing show business came from the sale of albums of performers and compilations of music on CDs as on carriers.
There is a version that the CD was not invented by Philips and Sony at all, but by the American physicist James Russell, who worked at Optical Recording. Already in 1971, he demonstrated his invention for data storage. He did this for "personal" purposes, wanting to prevent scratches of his records with needles of pickups. And eight years later, such a device was "independently" invented by Philips and Sony.
The first computer virus epidemic
The appearance of the first computer viruses are often mistakenly attributed to the 1970s and even the 1960s. Commonly referred to as "viruses" are programs like ANIMAL, Creeper, Cookie Monster, and Xerox worm .
In 1981, Richard Skrenta wrote one of the first boot viruses for the Apple II PC - ELK CLONER.
Other viruses for Apple II were created in 1981 by a University of Texas A & M student Joe Delinger in 1981. They were designed for the Apple DOS 3.3 operating system for this PC. The second version of this virus "slipped away" from the author and began to spread throughout the university. An error in the virus caused the suppression of the graphics of a popular game called CONGO, and within a few weeks all (“pirated”) copies of this game stopped working. To remedy the situation, the author launched a new, fixed virus designed to "replace" the previous version. The virus could be detected by the presence of an infection counter in its memory: “(GEN 0000000 TAMU)”, at the offset of $ B6E8, or at the end of the zero sector of the infected disk.
In September 1984, F. Cohen's article was published, in which the author investigated a type of file virus. This is the first academic study of the problem of viruses. The term “virus” was proposed by Cohen’s research director Len Adman, but Cohen is considered to be the author of the term “computer virus”.
In 1985, Tom Neff began to distribute the list of Dirty dozen - a list of dangerous downloadable programs (The Dirty Dozen - An Unloaded Program Alert List) to various BBS, which listed programs known at that time vandals. Later this list, which includes most of the detected Trojans and “hacked” or renamed copies of commercial software for MS-DOS, became widely known under the short name “dirty dozen” (eng. Dirty dozen).
In early 1985, Guy Wong (born Gee Wong) wrote the program DPROTECT - a resident program that intercepts attempts to write to floppy disks and hard drives. It blocked all operations (writing, formatting) performed through the BIOS. If such an operation was detected, the program required a system restart.
1987 is considered the next stage in the development of viruses. By this time, relatively cheap IBM PCs were widespread, which led to a sharp increase in the scale of infection by computer viruses. It was in 1987 that three major epidemics of computer viruses broke out at once.
The first epidemic of 1987 was caused by the Brain virus (from the English "brain"), which was developed by the brothers Amjat and Basit Alvi in 1986 and was discovered in the summer of 1987. According to McAfee, the virus infected more than 18,000 computers in the US alone. The program was supposed to punish local pirates stealing software from their firm. In the program were the names, address and phone numbers of the brothers. However, unexpectedly for all, The Brain has gone beyond the borders of Pakistan and has infected thousands of computers around the world. The Brain virus was also the first stealth virus - when trying to read an infected sector, it “substituted” its uninfected original. On Friday, May 13, 1988, several firms and universities in several countries of the world immediately “got acquainted” with the Jerusalem virus - on this day, the virus destroyed files when they were launched. This is perhaps one of the first MS-DOS viruses that caused this pandemic - reports of infected computers were received from Europe, America and the Middle East.
In 1988, the first mass network worm was created by Robert Morris Jr. The 60,000-byte program was developed with the expectation of hitting Berkeley 4.3 UNIX operating systems. The virus was originally designed as harmless and was only intended to secretly penetrate into the computer systems connected by the ARPANET network and remain undetected there. The virus program included components that made it possible to reveal the passwords that were present in the infected system, which, in turn, allowed the program to disguise itself as the task of the legitimate users of the system, in fact engaged in reproduction and sending copies. The virus did not remain hidden and completely safe, as the author conceived, due to minor errors made during development, which led to a rapid uncontrollable self-replication of the virus. According to the most modest estimates, the Morris worm incident cost over 8 million hours of loss of access and over a million hours of direct losses to restore system performance. The total cost of these costs is estimated at $ 96 million (this amount is also not entirely justified, including the cost of finalizing the operating system). The damage would be much greater if the virus was originally created for destructive purposes. The Morris worm hit more than 6,200 computers. As a result of a virus attack, most networks failed for up to five days. Computers that performed switching functions, acted as file servers, or performed other functions of network operation, also failed. On May 4, 1990, a jury convicted Morris. He was sentenced to probation for three years, 400 hours of community service and a fine of 10 thousand dollars.
In 1989, DATACRIME viruses became widespread, starting from October 12, they destroyed the file system, and before this date they simply multiplied. This series of computer viruses began to spread in the Netherlands, the USA and Japan at the beginning of 1989 and by September hit about 100 thousand PCs only in the Netherlands (which made up about 10% of their total number in the country). Even IBM has responded to this threat by launching its own VIRSCAN detector, which allows you to search for virus-specific strings (signatures) in the file system. The set of signatures could be added and changed by the user. In 1989, the first "Trojan horse" AIDS appeared. The virus made all information on the hard disk inaccessible and highlighted only one inscription on the screen: “Send a check for $ 189 to such and such address”. The author of the program was arrested at the time of cashing the check and convicted of extortion. The first virus that counteracts the anti-virus software, The Dark Avenger, was also created. He infected new files while the antivirus program checked the hard disk of the computer.
In 1995, a new version of Windows was officially released - Windows 95. At a press conference dedicated to its release, Bill Gates announced that the virus threat was now gone. Indeed, at the time of the release of Windows was very resistant to the existing viruses for MS-DOS. However, already in August, the first virus for Microsoft Word (Concept) appears.
In 1996, the first virus for Windows 95 appeared - Win95.Boza. In March 1996, Win.Tentacle broke free, infecting computers running Windows 3.1. This was the first epidemic caused by the Windows virus. July 1996 marked the spread of Laroux - the first virus for Microsoft Excel. In December 1996, Win95.Punch appeared - the first resident virus for Win95. It is loaded into the system as a VxD driver, intercepts calls to files and infects them.
The very first antivirus
The first antivirus programs appeared in the winter of 1984 (the first virus for Apple personal computers appeared in 1977, and only in 1981 viruses appeared that pose any threat) under the names CHK4BOMB and BOMBSQAD . They were written by American programmer Andy Hopkins (Andy Hopkins).
CHK4BOMB made it possible to analyze the text of the boot module and identify all text messages and “suspicious” sections of code.
The program BOMBSQAD intercepted write and format operations performed through the BIOS. If a prohibited operation was detected, it was possible to allow or prohibit its execution.
The first antivirus in the modern sense of the term, that is, resident, “protecting” against virus attacks, appeared in 1985. The DRPROTECT program was created by Gee Wong. The development blocked all operations (writing, formatting) performed through the BIOS. If such an operation was detected, the program required a system restart.
The very first CorelDraw
The current version of the product, CorelDRAW Graphics Suite X8, is available only for Microsoft Windows. Earlier versions were also available for Macintosh and Linux. The latest version for Linux is 9th, released in 2000.
In 1989, CorelDRAW made a splash in the world of computer graphics, becoming the first program in history to create full-color vector illustrations and page layouts. Two years later, Corel continued the revolution by releasing the world's first universal graphics package CorelDRAW 3. This package includes tools for creating vector illustrations, page layouts, photo editing and other features.
Via fishki.net & wiki