How it started, the very first thing
When did the first epidemic caused by the computer virus occur? Who invented the first cartoon character? In what year did the first iPhone come out? And what was the first computer?
The very first Windows
The first versions of Windows were not full-fledged operating systems, but were add-ons to the DOS operating system and were in fact a multi-functional extension, adding support for new processor modes, multitasking support, providing standardization of hardware interfaces and uniformity for user interface programs. Provided built-in tools GDI and USER for creating a graphical interface. The first versions of Windows generally consisted of three modules - KERNEL, GDI and USER. The first one provided memory management, executing executable files and loading dynamic DLLs, the second one for graphics, and the third for windows. They worked with processors, starting with Intel 8086.
- Windows 1.0 ( 1985 )
- Windows 2.0 ( 1987 ) - the system was able to run DOS-based applications in graphics windows, and each application was provided with a total of 640 KB of memory. Improved support for the processors 80286. In version 2.03 (2.0 / 386) there was support for processors 80386.
- Windows 2.1 ( 1988 ) - full support for all the features of the processors 80286 and 80386.
- Windows 3.0 ( 1990 ) - improved support for processors 80386 and protected mode.
- Windows 3.1 ( 1992 ) - seriously reworked Windows 3.0: fixed UAE (fatal errors of application programs), added OLE mechanism, printing in WYSIWYG mode ("what you see, you will get"), TrueType fonts, file manager changed, multimedia functions added. The processor 8086 and the real mode are no longer supported.
- Windows for Workgroups 3.11 ( 1993 ) - Windows for Workgroups, the first version of the OS family with support for local networks. The system also tested individual kernel improvements, applied later in Windows 95. With this version, the support for the 80286 processor and standard mode has ceased.
Microsoft Windows 1.0 is a Microsoft graphical user interface for the MS-DOS operating system, which uses the principle of the frame window manager, designed to facilitate dialogue with the latter, to unify the appearance of applications and to optimize work with peripheral devices (for example, a printer). The system was officially announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983 in New York, but was released only two years later. During these years, there were 24 developers working on the product. Finally, on November 20, 1985, the system was launched in the retail network. To speed up the delivery of the program bundles, the mail was sent to the stores. The next day the product was officially presented at a press conference. The declared value in the US was 99 dollars, in Germany - 399 DM.
The reaction of users to the emergence of Windows was restrained, because for full use it was necessary to purchase such expensive equipment as a mouse, memory of a larger volume and a new processor model. In addition, the supply included several applications designed specifically for such characteristics of the computer, which required most users to purchase new equipment. Many parts of the system were used in its next, more successful versions.
The first full-text search engine
Early on in the development of the Internet, Tim Berners-Lee supported a list of Web servers on the CERN website. Sites became more and more, and manually maintaining such a list became more difficult. The NCSA site had a special section "What's New!", Where links to new sites were published.
The first full-text indexing resource using a search engine (craweler-based) was the WebCrawler system, launched in 1994. Unlike its predecessors, it allowed users to search for any words located on any web page - since then it has become the standard for most search engines. In addition, it was the first search engine to be widely used. In 1994, the Lycos system, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, was launched and became a serious commercial enterprise.
The first animated character
The first steps in the animation were made long before the invention of the Lumiere Brothers cinema. Attempts to capture the movement in the drawing began in the primitive epoch, continued in ancient times and led to the emergence of primitive animation in the first half of the XIX century. The Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau, the Austrian professor-geometer Simon von Stampfer and other scientists and inventors used a rotating disc or ribbon with drawings, a mirror system and a light source (flashlight) - a phenacistisk and a strobe to play on the screen of moving images. The further development of this technology in combination with photography led to the invention of a movie camera, and in turn created a technological basis for the invention of the Lumiere Brothers' cinema.
In 1914, Winsor Mackay created the first in the history of the cartoon character, endowed with vivid personal qualities - the dinosaur Gerti . Simultaneously, a huge number of drawings made for the film required the invention of a new technology of cinematographic production, for the first time leading to a division of labor between the animator and the artist-background: while Mackey drew the phases of the dinosaur movement, the student he hired copied from the sample on each sheet contours of mountains, lake and tree (celluloid film was not yet used). Thus, we can assume that the primary method of cinematographic animation was total animation.
Naturally, the animation became a part of the cinema, taking in it a solid place, as one of the genres. For the production of cartoons cameras were used, suitable for time-lapse photography on one of the standard formats of film. To create a cartoon animated cartoon was created, consisting of a complex installation-reproducer with a special film camera, usually having a design similar to the apparatus for combined shooting and allowing to adjust the opening angle of the obturator and perform darkening and sagging. Such apparatuses were produced in a special version for animation, characterized by a vertical installation and a special magnifying glass for the convenience of sighting from such a position. The design of professional multi-stations allowed creating multi-layer images on separate carriers and included lighting equipment. At present, for cartoon animation, a computer or animation is used with a digital camera.
The very first computer in the world
The world's first computer was an American programmable computer that was designed and built by the Harvard mathematician Howard Eixon in 1941 with the collaboration of four IBM engineers, for which the computer was designed. The computer was created on the basis of the ideas of Charles Babbage.
The official launch of the world's first computer named "Mark 1" was conducted after successful tests on August 7, 1944. The computer was located within the walls of Harvard University.
The cost of this computer was 500 thousand dollars. The computer is assembled in a case of stainless steel and glass, had a length of about 17 meters, a height of more than 2.5 meters, weight about 4.5 tons, the area occupied several tens of meters. Computer Mark 1 contained electromechanical switches, relays and other parts in the amount of 765 thousand pieces.
The length of the wires of the world's first computer was almost 800 kilometers. The computer could operate with 72 numbers consisting of 23 decimal digits. He performed subtraction and addition operations, spending 3 seconds per operation. The computer could perform multiply and divide operations, thus spending 6 and 15.3 seconds, respectively.
To enter the computer, which was nothing more than an improved calculator, a perforated paper tape was used.
Mark 1 was the very first automatic computer, which did not require human intervention for carrying out work processes.
The very first horror movie
The first films with supernatural events, which can be attributed to horror films, appeared even in Georges Méliès in the late 1890s, one of his most famous works is the 1896 film The Devil's Castle (sometimes called the first horror film), also this is one of the first films in which the most primitive special effects (freeze-frame, multi-exposure, accelerated and slow-motion shooting) were used. Another of his significant projects was the film "La Caverne" in 1898 (roughly translated "Demon's Cave").
In Japan, some of the early films of the genre were "Bake Jizo" and "Shinin no Sosei," both 1898. In 1910 Edison Manufacturing Company released the very first well-known adaptation of the gothic novel by Mary Shelley "Frankenstein, or Modern Prometheus". The film is called "Frankenstein" and goes only 12 minutes, for decades the film was considered lost, information about it was exhausted with a photo of Charles Ogle in the image of the Beast and a presentation of the plot from the catalog of films by Edison. In the 1950s, a copy of the film was purchased by a collector from Wisconsin, Alois Detlaff, who did not give this film much importance and only in the 1970s discovered that he owns a unique rarity. In 1993, the film was reissued.
Also, some researchers refer to one of the first horror films that appeared on August 22, 1913 in Germany, the horror film Student from Prague. It was on this day in the Berlin cinema Mozart Saal premiere of this film. However, as the researchers note, it was the "Student from Prague" who possessed the most characteristic features of the emerging genre. XX century brought a big contribution to horror films, the first monster in the feature film was Quasimodo in the film adaptation of Victor Hugo's novel Notre Dame de Paris. The films in which the hunchback appeared were Esmeralda by Alice Guy Blanche (1905), Hunchback (1909), Love Gorbun (1910) and Notre Dame de Paris (1911).
Many of the earliest full-length horror films belonged to German expressionism, among which were films that influenced the cinema of Hollywood. Among them were "Golem" (1915) by Paul Wegener, "Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" (1920) by Robert Wine, this expressionistic style influenced such directors as Orson Welles and Tim Burton. Also in the 1920s, Friedrich Murnau created the most memorable image of a vampire in his film "Nosferatu. Symphony of Horror ", a screen version of the novel by Bram Stoker" Dracula ".
The very first iPhone
iPhone (retrospectively called the first iPhone or iPhone 2G) is the first-generation iPhone touchscreen smartphone developed and sold by Apple.
Was presented on January 9, 2007 after several months of rumors. It went on sale in the US on June 29, 2007. The second generation was the iPhone 3G.
The first iPhone no longer receives software updates from Apple, the latest version of its firmware was iPhoneOS 3.1.3.
The world's first icebreaker
In 1837 in Philadelphia (USA) a wooden wheel steamer City Ice Boat No.1 was built, intended for splitting ice in the harbor.
In December 1897, at the initiative and with the active participation of Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov, the first icebreaker in the world was built at the slips of the British company Armstrong in Newcastle, on the order of Russia, capable of forcing heavy ice of two meters in thickness. The idea of Admiral Makarov was supported by the Siberian merchant class, who suggested calling the icebreaker the name of Ermak. The commission participating in the development of the icebreaker was DI Mendeleyev, engineers PK Jankowski and RI Runeberg, FF Wrangell and others. On October 17 (29), 1898, the icebreaker's corps was solemnly razed from the slipway to the water. The completion of the ship was fast. After factory tests, "Ermak" was accepted from the plant and on February 21 (March 5) in 1899 went out on the first voyage. Ermak is an icebreaker of the Russian and Soviet fleets. The world's first icebreaker of the Arctic class. Named after the Russian explorer of Siberia - Ermak Timofeevich.
The very first CD
The technology of laser recording of information on CDs was born long before the birth of personal computers. Priority in the development of "laser" technology belongs to Soviet scientists Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolai Basov - the creators of the first "cold" lasers, which formed the basis for not only compact discs, but also many other computer and consumer devices. In 1964, both scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize. In the late 1970s, two companies, Philips and Sony, seriously tackled the issue of digital audio reproduction.
So the laser CD was introduced in 1980 by Philips and Sony. The method of signal coding is pulse-code modulation (PCM, English Pulse Code Modulation, PCM). The release of the first commercial CD, which was produced before, was announced on June 20, 1982, and on August 17 of the same year, the world's first commercial compact was released at the factory of the record company Polygram, located in Langenhagen near Hanover. -Disk, thereby beginning their mass production. The honor to be first published on CD was awarded to ABBA with the album "The Visitors".
The first compact disc that hit the counters of music stores was Billy Joel's 1978 album 52nd Street. Sales of CDs with this recording began in Japan on October 1, 1982.
According to Philips, over 25 years in the world, more than 200 billion CDs have been sold. Despite the fact that more and more people prefer to purchase music files via the Internet, according to IFPI CD sales in 2007 accounted for about 70% of all music sales.
A significant contribution to the popularization of CDs was made by Microsoft and Apple Computer. In 1987, John Sculley, then Apple Computer CEO, said that CDs would revolutionize the world of personal computers. One of the first mass multimedia computers / entertainment centers using CDs was the Amiga CDTV (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision), later CDs were used in the game consoles Panasonic 3DO and Amiga CD32.
In Russia, since the mid-1990s, the main income in the domestic publishing business has gone to the sale of albums of performers and collections of music on CDs as carriers.
There is a version that the CD was invented not by Philips and Sony, but by American physicist James Russell, who worked at Optical Recording. Already in 1971, he demonstrated his invention for data storage. He did this for "personal" purposes, wishing to prevent the scratching of his records with the needles of pickups. And after eight years, such a device was "independently" invented by Philips and Sony.
The first epidemic of computer virus
The appearance of the first computer viruses is often mistakenly attributed to the 1970s and even the 1960s. Typically referred to as "viruses" are programs such as ANIMAL, Creeper, Cookie Monster and Xerox worm .
In 1981 Richard Scrantha wrote one of the first boot viruses for the PC of Apple II - ELK CLONER.
Other viruses for Apple II were created by a student at the Texas A & M University, Joe Dellinger, in 1981. They were designed for the operating system Apple DOS 3.3 for this PC. The second version of this virus "slipped away" from the author and began to spread around the university. An error in the virus caused suppression of the graphics of the popular game called CONGO, and within a few weeks all ("pirate") copies of this game stopped working. To correct the situation, the author launched a new, corrected virus designed to "replace" the previous version. To detect the virus it was possible by the presence of the infection counter: "(GEN 0000000 TAMU)", at the $ B6E8 offset, or at the end of the zero sector of the infected disk.
In September 1984, an article by F. Cohen was published, in which the author investigated a version of the file virus. This is the first academic study of the problem of viruses. The term "virus" was suggested by Cohen's scientific leader Len Edlman, but it is Cohen who is considered to be the author of the term "computer virus".
In 1985, Tom Neff began distributing on the various BBSs a list of "The Dirty Dozen - An Unloaded Program Alert List", which listed the well-known program- vandals. In the future, this list, which includes most of the detected Trojans and "hacked" or renamed copies of commercial software for MS-DOS, has become widely known under the short title "dirty dozen".
In early 1985, Guy Wong (English Gee Wong) wrote the program DPROTECT - a resident program, intercepting attempts to write to floppy disks and hard drives. It blocked all operations (writing, formatting) performed through the BIOS. In the event of detection of such an operation, the program required a restart of the system.
The next stage in the development of viruses is 1987. By this time, relatively cheap IBM PC computers were widely distributed, which led to a sharp increase in the scale of infection with computer viruses. It was in 1987 that three major epidemics of computer viruses erupted at once.
The first epidemic in 1987 was caused by the Brain virus, which was developed by the brothers Amjat and Bazit Alvi in 1986 and was discovered in the summer of 1987. According to McAfee, the virus infected more than 18,000 computers in the US alone. The program was supposed to punish local pirates, stealing software from their firm. The program contained the names, addresses and telephone numbers of the brothers. However, unexpectedly for everyone, The Brain went beyond Pakistan's borders and infected thousands of computers around the world. Brain virus was also the first stealth virus - when trying to read the infected sector, he "substituted" his uninfected original. On Friday, May 13, 1988, several companies and universities from several countries "got acquainted" with the Jerusalem virus - on that day the virus destroyed files when they were launched. This is probably one of the first MS-DOS-viruses that caused a real pandemic - messages about infected computers came from Europe, America and the Middle East.
In 1988, Robert Morris Jr. was created the first massive network worm. The 60,000-byte program was designed to defeat the UNIX Berkeley 4.3 operating systems. The virus was originally developed as harmless and had the purpose only to secretly penetrate the computer systems connected by the ARPANET network, and remain there undetected. The virus program included components that allow the disclosure of passwords in the infected system, which in turn allowed the program to be masked by the task of legitimate users of the system, in fact duplicating and sending copies. The virus did not remain hidden and completely safe, as the author intended, because of minor errors in the development, which led to a rapid uncontrolled self-propagation of the virus. According to the most conservative estimates, the incident with the Morris worm cost over 8 million hours of loss of access and over a million hours of direct losses for the restoration of system health. The total cost of these costs is estimated at $ 96 million (this amount, also, is not entirely justified, includes the costs of finalizing the operating system). The damage would be much greater if the virus was originally created with destructive purposes. The Morris worm has amazed over 6,200 computers. As a result of the virus attack, most networks failed for up to five days. Computers that performed switching functions that acted as file servers or otherwise performed network operations were also out of order. On May 4, 1990, the jury found Morris guilty. He was sentenced to conditional imprisonment for three years, 400 hours of community service and a fine of $ 10,000.
In 1989, the viruses DATACRIME, which since October 12 destroyed the file system, were widespread, and before that date they simply multiplied. This series of computer viruses began to spread in the Netherlands, the US and Japan in early 1989 and by September hit about 100,000 PCs only in the Netherlands (which amounted to about 10% of their total in the country). Even IBM reacted to this threat by releasing its VIRSCAN detector, which allows searching for virus-specific strings (signatures) in the file system. A set of signatures could be supplemented and changed by the user. In 1989, the first "Trojan horse" of AIDS appeared. The virus made all the information on the hard drive inaccessible and displayed only one inscription on the screen: "Send a check for $ 189 to such-and-such address". The author of the program was arrested at the time of cashing the check and convicted for extortion. Also, the first virus was created, antivirus software - The Dark Avenger. He infected new files while the anti-virus program checked the hard disk of the computer.
In 1995, officially released a new version of Windows - Windows 95. At a press conference on her exit, Bill Gates said that the virus threat is now over. Indeed, at the time of the release, Windows was very resistant to existing viruses for MS-DOS. However, in August, the first virus for Microsoft Word (Concept) appears.
In 1996, the first virus for Windows 95 appeared - Win95.Boza. In March 1996, Win.Tentacle broke free, infecting computers running Windows 3.1. This was the first epidemic caused by the virus for Windows. July 1996 marked the spread of Laroux, the first virus for Microsoft Excel. In December 1996, Win95.Punch appeared - the first resident virus for Win95. It is loaded into the system as a VxD driver, intercepts access to files and infects them.
The very first antivirus
The first anti-virus programs appeared in the winter of 1984 (the first virus for Apple personal computers appeared in 1977, and only in 1981 there were viruses representing any threat) under the names CHK4BOMB and BOMBSQAD . They were written by American programmer Andy Hopkins (Andy Hopkins).
CHK4BOMB allowed to analyze the text of the boot module and to reveal all text messages and "suspicious" sections of the code.
The BOMBSQAD program intercepted the write and format operations performed through the BIOS. If a prohibited operation was detected, it was possible to allow or prohibit its execution.
The first antivirus in the modern sense of the term, that is, resident, "protecting" against virus attacks, appeared in 1985. The DRPROTECT program was created by the efforts of Gee Wong. The development blocked all operations (writing, formatting) performed through the BIOS. In the event of detection of such an operation, the program required a restart of the system.
The very first CorelDraw
The current version of the product is CorelDRAW Graphics Suite X8, available only for Microsoft Windows. Earlier versions were also released for Macintosh and Linux. The latest version for Linux is the 9th, released in 2000.
In 1989, the program CorelDRAW made a splash in the world of computer graphics, becoming the first ever program to create full-color vector illustrations and page layouts. Two years later, Corel continued the revolution, releasing the world's first universal CorelDRAW 3 graphics package. This package included tools for creating vector illustrations, page layouts, photo editing and other features.
Via fishki.net & wiki