Aralia - aralia l.
Araliaceae family - Araliaceae
Botanical characteristics. A small tree or shrub. It grows in forests, burns and clearings.
The bark of old trees is gray, wrinkled, young - light yellow, covered with tiled spikes. The leaves are large, up to 1 m in length, two-or threefold. The leaves are elliptical, heart-shaped or ovate, serrate along the edge, glabrous above, bristly underneath. The flowers are white or creamy-yellow, fragrant, in a large final inflorescence. Fruits juicy spherical, blue-black or black. It blooms in July - August, the fruits ripen in September - October. There are 2 species.
- Aralia high - A. elata Seem. The leaves are double-pinnate, complex, closer to the pinnacle. The leaflets are more often ovoid, glaucous below, entirely velvety-bushy. The flowers are yellowish, small, in the final panicles. Fruits are black with five, less often with six seeds. Blossoms in August, fruits in October.
- Aralia Manchu - A. mandshurica Rupr. Leaves alternate, concentrated at the top, very large. Leaflets ovate or elliptical. The flowers are white or creamy yellow in numerous umbrellas. Fruits are blue-black. It blooms in July - August. The fruits ripen in September.
Both species are close to each other in appearance, similar in chemical composition, and have similar healing properties.
Used plant parts. Medicinal raw materials are flowers, leaves, fruits, bark, buds, collected in the usual way.
Chemical composition. All parts of the plant contain carbohydrates, coumarins, essential oil. The kidneys contain organic acids; flowers and leaves - flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins; seeds - fatty oil. Alkaloids and triterpene compounds, aralosides A, B and C, which are glycosides of oleanolic acid, are isolated from the roots.
Application. The galenic preparations of aralia in the experiment cause excitation of the central nervous system, which is superior in activity to the effect of the preparations of ginseng and eleutherococcus. Water extracts from the roots stimulate the proliferation of yeast cells. Root extract has gonadotropic action, stimulates respiration, dilates blood vessels.
Aralia preparations have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect in experimental radiation sickness and alloxan diabetes in animals. The antistress effect of Aralia Manchu has been established. Tincture of the roots is used in hypotension and asthenia, in the initial stages of atherosclerosis, physical and mental fatigue, schizophrenia, impotence, and head injuries. In healthy people, Aralia increases physical performance, shows an antitoxic, cardiotonic, hypotensive effect.
In medicine, the drug "Saparal" is used, used as a tonic for astheno-depressive states, neurasthenia, hypotension, and mental and physical fatigue.
Aralia is part of the tonic drinks "Sayany", "Aralman", acting like Coca-Cola.
In folk medicine, decoctions and extracts of flowers, leaves, bark and roots are used for colds, diseases of the kidneys, the gastrointestinal tract, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus.
Coumarins contained in the plant exhibit antitumor activity.
Nanaians use Aralia drugs as an anti-inflammatory in case of toothache, the Chinese as a diuretic, Japanese in diabetes, as a sedative, in kidney diseases.
- For an infusion, take 20 g of flowers or leaves, pour 200 ml of boiling water, infuse in a water bath for 15 minutes, cool for 45 minutes, filter. Take 1/3 cup 2-3 times a day.
- From the bark and roots prepare a decoction , for which they take 15 g of bark or roots, crushed, poured boiling water 180 ml, insist 30 minutes, cool 10 minutes, filter. Take 2 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day.