Herbal medicinal plants
A long time ago a man used plants to treat a variety of diseases.
Interesting information about the use of medicinal properties of plants can be found in the monuments of ancient culture - Sanskrit, Hebrew, Chinese, Greek, Roman.
Extensive material on the use of medicinal plants was found in the study of papyrus, found in the XIX century by the German Egyptologist George Ebers, - "Books of medicines for all parts of the body . "
It contains a number of recipes that the ancient Egyptians used to treat many diseases .
They used various ointments, lotions, potions , which had a rather complex composition.
In Egypt, fragrant oils, balsams, resins were widely distributed. Already at that time, the healing properties of aloe, plantain, juniper, castor oil and many other plants were well known.
LIST OF PLANTS AVAILABLE IN THE DIRECTORY
- Find the desired plant in the list below (Use Ctrl + F to search for a word on the page).
- Click on it to open the detailed description and photo.
- Apricot ordinary - Armeniaca Vulgaris
- Adonis spring - Adonis vernalis l.
- Ayr marsh - Acorus calamus L.
- Actinidia - Actinidia L.
- Alexandrian leaf (Senna, cassia holly) - Cassia acutifolia Del.
- Aloe arborescent (century) - Aloe arborescens Mill.
- Althaea officinalis - Althaea officinalis L.
- Amaranth (Shiritsa) - Amaranthus L.
- Anise ordinary - Anisum vulgare Gaerth.
- Aralia - Aralia L.
- Watermelon edible - Citrullus edulus Pans.
- Arnica mountain - Arnica montana L.
- Artichoke - Cynara scolymus L.
- Astragalus woollyflower - Astragalus dasyanthus Pall.
- Astragalus - Astragalus
- Atractylodes oval - Atractylodes ovata Dc. B
- Ledum palustre - Ledum palustre L.
- Badan with thick-leaved grass - Bergenia crassifolia L.
- Basil fragrant - Ocimum basilicum L.
- Barberry common - Berberis vulgaris L.
- Periwinkle small - Vinca minor L.
- Velvet Amur - Phellodendron amurense Rupr.
- Raspberry thistle - Pimpinella saxifraga L.
- Belozor marsh - Parnassia palustris L.
- Birch white - Betula albosinensis L.
- Birch flat-bed - Betula platyphylla sucacz.
- Immortelle sandy, cumin - Helichrysum arenarium L.
- Borshevik - Heracleum L.
- Hawthorn blood red - Crataegus sanguinea Pall.
- Cowberry ordinary - Vacciinium vitis idaea L.
- Bouncer whorled - Adenophora verticillata fisch.
- Thigh-bushgrass - Clechoma hederacea L.
- Black elderberry - Sambucus nigra L.
- Initial letter of medicinal - Betonica officinalis L. AT
- Weida dye - Isatis tinctoria L.
- Valerian officinalis - Valeriana officinalis L.
- Cornflower blue - Ceintaurea cyanus L.
- Violent stench - Thalictrum foetidum L.
- Small thistle - Thalictrum minus L.
- Three-leaved watch - Menyanthes trifoliata L.
- Verbeynik coin (meadow tea) - Lysimachia nummularia L.
- Verbena officinalis - Verbena officinalis l.
- Heather ordinary - Calluna vulgaris Hull.
- Veronica - Veronica L.
- Grapes cultivated - Vitis vinifera L.
- Vitex sacred (Abraham tree) - Vitex agnus-castus L.
- Water nuts (roguel) - Trapa natans
- Voloshushka - Bupleurum L.
- Red Fox - Lithospermum crythrorhizon L.
- Convolvulus of the field - Convolvulus arvensis L. D
- Glega medicinal (goatskin) - Galeca officinalis L.
- Horned fillets - Halenia corniculata L.
- Harmanas common - Pecainum harmala L.
- Carnations - Dianthus L.
- Geranium - Geranium L.
- Blueberry - Vaccinium uliginosum
- Highlander snake (cancer necks) - Polygonum bistorta L.
- Highlander pepper (water pepper) - Polygonum hydropiper L.
- Highlander pochechuyny (pochechuynaya grass) - Polygonum persicaria L.
- Highlander bird (sporish) - Polygonum aviculare L.
- Gentian bearded - Gentiana barbata
- Gentian - Gentiana L.
- Medicinal herb medicinal - Peucedanum officinalis L.
- Gravilite city - Geum urbanum L.
- Grushanka red (meat-red) - Pyrola incarnata F.
- The medicinal golem - Sisymbrium officinale Scop. D
- Devyasil high - Inula helenium L.
- Derbennik ivolistny - Lythrum salicaria L.
- Deskuraine of Sophia - Descurainia sophia L.
- Dioscorea nippon - Dioscorea nipponica M.
- The medicinal hermit is Melilotus officinalis Pall.
- Sandy (tarry) white - Melandrium album (Silene alba)
- Drok dye - Genista tinctoria L.
- Oak ordinary - Quercus robur L.
- Dubrovnik vulgaris - Teucrium chamedrys
- Dudnik officinalis - Angelica officinalis L.
- Durnishnik prickly - Xanthium spinosum L.
- Oregano - Origanum vulgar L.
- Dymyary officinalis - Fumaria officinalis L. F
- Yellowish leukogoid - Erysimum cheiranthoides L.
- Ginseng ordinary - Panax ginseng S.A. Mey
- Zheruha pharmacy - Nasturtium officinale R. BR.
- Honeysuckle edible - Lonicera edulis L.
- Zhoster laxative (buckthorn laxative) - Rhaminus cathartica L.
- Anthrax (ragwort) cicuta - Erodium cicutarium L. З
- Zaitsegub (lagohilus) intoxicating - Lagochilus inebrians bunge.
- Zamaniha high (echinopanax high) - Echinopanax elatum Nakai
- Medium asterisk (mocrica) - Stellaria Media L.
- Hypericum perforated (pierced) - Hypericum Perforatum L.
- Wild strawberry forest - Fracaria Vesca L.
- Zimolyubka - Chimaphila R.
- Snakehead - Dracocephalum L.
- Common goldenrod - Solidaco vircaurea L.
- Golden mustache (calligraphy fragrant) - Callisia fragrans
- A thousand-acres (umbrella) - Centaurium minus Moench. (S. umbellatum Gilib)
- The eight-thousand-square centner Erythraea Raf.
- Zopnik prickly - Phlomis Pungens Willd.
- Common Scallop - Odontites Vulgaris L. AND
- Willow white (willow) - Salix alba L.
- Iva kozya (bredina, rakita) - Salix Caprea L.
- Ginger - Zingiber
- Figs are common - Ficus carica L.
- Hyssop officinalis - Hyssopus Officinalis L.
- Eastad - Polygala L.
- Kakalija spear-shaped (nesospelka) - Cacalia Hastata L.
- Kalanchoe pinnate - Kalanchoe pinnata
- Calendula officinalis (calendula officinalis) - Calendula officinalis L.
- Kalina vulgaris - Viburnum Opulus L.
- Sawmill - Saxifraga L.
- Cabbage (white) - Brassica oleracea L.
- Chestnut horse - Aesculus hippocastanum L.
- Kiprei angustifolia (Ivan the tea) - Epilobium angustifolium
- Clover meadow (red) - Trifolium pratense L.
- Cranberry - Oxycoccus Palustris Pers.
- Cranberry four-leaved (marsh) - Oxycoccus quadripetalus (Oxycoccus quadripetala)
- Codonopsis lanceolate - Codonopsis Lanceolata Benth.
- European Kopecks
- Mullein scepeter-like (high)
- Stinging nettle - Urtica dioica L.
- Blood-spitting drug
- The buckthorn is brittle (alder-like)
- Maize (corn) L
- Laminaria sugary (sea kale)
- Lily of the valley
- Goatee Goatee
- The spine is erect (Uzik, kalgan)
- Leuzea safflower - Rhaponticum carthamoides
- Flax seed
- Common hazel - Corylus avellana
- Schizandra Chinese
- Lime heart-shaped (small-leaved)
- Burdock large (burdock) - Arctium lappa L.
- Onions (general information)
- Onion - Allium cepa
- Lyubistok medicinal - Levisticum officinalis Koch. M
- Magnolia large-flowered
- Raspberry ordinary
- Melissa officinalis
- Common Juniper Juniperus communis L.
- The common mongrel
- Carrot sowing - Daucus carota subsp. sativus
- Peppermint ABOUT
- Seabuckthorn buckthorn - Hippophae rhamnoides
- Oats sowing
- Dandelion officinalis - Taraxacum officinale
- Oleander ordinary - Nerium oleander
- Alder gray
- Walnut - Juglans regia
- Orthosiphon staminate
- Curious cleavage P
- Nightshade black
- Shepherd's purse
- Primula of spring (primula)
- Parsley garden
- Tansy (wild mountain ash)
- Peony dodging (Maryin root) - Paeonia anomala
- Plantain large - Plantago major
- Sunflower oil - Helianthus annuus
- Wormwood (blackberry)
- Motherwort five-lobed
- Pyritei creeping R
- Rhubarb Tangut
- Radish sowing
- Common caddis
- Rhodiola rosea - Rhodiola rosea
- The Crimean Rose
- Rosemary officinalis - Rosmarinus officinalis
- pharmaceutical camomile
- Rowanberry - Sorbus aucuparia
- Aronia blackberry (aronia aronia) FROM
- Lilac Ordinary
- Black currant - Ribes nigrum
- Licorice naked - Glycyrrhiza glabra
- Pine tree
- Asparagus officinalis - Asparagus officinalis
- Wheat grass swamp (marsh) T
- Tartaric prickly
- Cumin Common
- Bearberry (bear's eye)
- Thujia the Western
- Yarrow - Achillea millefolium Have
- Dill vegetable F
- Common beans
- Common fennel
- Violet tri-color (pansies, ivan-da-marya) X
- Hops ordinary
- Common horseradish - Armoracia rusticana C
- Chicory common H
- Thymus ordinary (thyme creeping) - Thymus serpyllum
- Chaga (birch mushroom) - Inonotus obliquus
- The tripartite sequence (scrofulous grass)
- Bird cherry
- Blueberry - Vaccinium myrtillus
- Sour garlic - Allium sativum
- Lentils ordinary - Lens culinaris
- Purity big W
- Salvia officinalis
- Mulberry white - Morus alba
- Cinnamon cinnamon (May) - Rosa cinnamomea Щ
- Sorrel horse E
- Eucalyptus ball (spherical)
- Eleutherococcus spiny (free fruit) - Eleutherococcus senticosus
- Sainfoin Seed - Onobrychis viciifolia
- Echinacea purpurea - Echinacea purpurea I
- Clear white (blank nettle)
In the world's oldest library - the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal in Nineveh (circa 660 BC) on clay tablets written in cuneiform, also contains extensive information about medicinal plants. Along with their description, diseases are indicated in which medicinal plants are used , and in what form they should be used.
In medicine in ancient China, you can find references to many human diseases. The collection of medicinal plants and various products of Li Shih-chzhen (1522 - 1596) "Fundamentals of pharmacognosy" is widely known, in which a detailed description of numerous medicinal products from medicinal plants is given.
Doctors of Ancient India believed that most diseases are caused by spoilage of "body juices", therefore, bloodletting, emetic and other remedies were recommended for treatment, including a large group of herbal medicines . Many Indian plants (especially spices) were imported into the Roman Empire. Some of the Indian plants have long been included in the European medical practice - chilibuha, rauwolfia, etc. "If we look around the eyes of a doctor looking for medicines, we can say that we live in a world of medicines ...", reads one of the precepts of ancient Buddhist medicine .
An outstanding representative of the Arab Medical School Avicenna, whose millennium in 1980 marked the whole progressive world, wrote the "Canon of Medical Science" in five volumes. It was translated into many languages of the world and in the Middle Ages was a reference book for Arab and European doctors. In his book Avicenna described about 900 species of medicinal plants .
Scientific medicine begins its development since the time of the famous doctor of Ancient Greece Hippocrates (460 - 377 BC). In his medical activity, he widely used numerous herbal preparations . A number of them were, apparently, borrowed from Egyptian medicine. Hippocrates described 236 species of plants recognized as ancient medicines by Greek medicine .
The first edition of the medical encyclopedia, or medical manual , belongs to the ancient Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus (the end of the first century BC - the beginning of the 1st century AD). In eight books on medicine, he summarized all the medical literature of his time from the Yajur Veda of the ancient Indian doctor Sushruta to the works of Asklepiad. In this work a lot of space is given to medicinal plants . It describes the methods used to treat various diseases; recommendations on the use of certain plants are given. In the works of Celsus, you can find not only botanical descriptions of plantain, poppy, cumin, wine berries, plant gums , but also practical ways of their medical use .
In the middle of the first century AD, the doctor of the Roman army in Asia, Dioscorides, made up the most extensive herbalist , including most of the known medicinal plants, about 500 species. This book was not only herbalist, but also a kind of information on the pharmacy and pharmacology of that time.
The author of the new theory of medicinal plants was the famous physician and pharmacist of Ancient Rome Claudius Galen (129 - 201 AD). He wrote about 200 works on medicine. The most important are his two herbalists, who played a big role in medicine. They were repeatedly translated into Arabic, Syriac, Persian and Hebrew. The author was one of the initiators of obtaining preparations from vegetable raw materials - tinctures, extracts and other medicinal forms . And now they are called galenic preparations and have not lost their great practical importance in medicine.
In the IV century appeared the most famous of the Latin herbalists , compiled by Apuleius. Travnik was so popular that when he invented printing, he was the first among the medical books. In the 9th and 10th centuries the first translations of the herbalists Dioscorides, Galenus and Apuleius appear in European languages - Italian, French, English, German. Original European herbalists appear later - in the XV and XVI centuries, and the information cited therein is largely borrowed from Greek and Latin herbalists.
The present Black Sea coast was famous for its medicinal herbs. Hippocrates, after visiting these places, wrote about wonderful medicines from the Scythian root (rhubarb), the Pontic absintia (wormwood), the rooted root (ayr) , etc. Ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Theophrastus (372 - 287 BC) repeatedly in his works he mentions Scythian grass , which was widely used to treat wounds.
In ancient Russia, the use of plants for medical purposes was reflected in the remarkable monument of ancient Russian culture "Izbornik Svyatoslav" (1073), compiled for the Grand Duke Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich by some deacon Gregory. In this manuscript a lot of space is given to the description of the plants used at that time to obtain medicines.
With the adoption of Christianity, the dissemination of writing and literacy in Russia, there are also the first medical books , the so-called herbalists, medical institutions. A copy of the first Russian medical manual "Mazi" , which was compiled by the granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh - Evpraksiya, is preserved. Of particular interest to physicians is the fourth chapter of this work, devoted to the treatment of "external" diseases.
For the treatment of internal and external diseases in Russia, the application of plants and their intake were readily used (for example, cabbage, flax, mustard, hazel, or drank their juices). Along with herbal medicines, the Russian people have used honey for a long time in medical practice. It was prescribed in its pure form and in mixtures with broth of herbs , with oil, vinegar, lard, beer, baked onions and many other substances.
In addition to herbalists and medical institutions, so-called "helicopters" with numerous descriptions of plants and their medicinal products have spread. "This book, a verbose cool helicopter or a medical aid to Nicholas the Miracle-Worker" ("Cool Vertograd") - one of the fairly common ancient medical institutions . It is a translation of a very popular Western European medical encyclopedia of the XV-XVI centuries. The text of the helicopters changed over time. They described rational empirical remedies from herbs, trees and minerals .
Great interest in the study of domestic medicines was manifested in Russia after the reforms of Peter I, who paid much attention to the collection of medicinal herbs . By his order, state-owned pharmacies and so-called "apothecary gardens" (1713) were created. One of them, the St. Petersburg Apothecary Garden, later turned into a botanical garden, now transformed into the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation .
The collection and application of medicinal herbs were practiced throughout Russia , including in Siberia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Of course, there could be no talk of any systematic study of the medicinal flora of Russia , of course. Single pharmaco-chemical laboratories and plantations of medicinal plants were organized.
Only much later the study of flora and plant resources of Russia is developed. Prominent Russian scientist academician PS Pallas wrote: "Many home medications, by ordinary people or wild unenlightened people, are open to the public, in the hands of a doctor they eventually become salvage means . " With the deepening of medical knowledge, the ideas about domestic medicinal plants, their collection, cultivation and practical application are expanding. A number of scientific expeditions are conducted in various parts of Russia, books with a description of a large number of medicinal plants growing in different regions of the country are published.
With the opening of the Medical Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg (1798), it became a center for the study of medicinal plants . Although the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century were marked by significant successes in the field of synthesis of new chemical preparations, herbal medicines have not lost their significance . Nevertheless, the nineteenth century is already marked by a certain decline in interest in the medicinal plants of the native flora.
Only with the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution have radical changes in all aspects of the life of our people. They touched on the use of medicinal plants. It was decided to create a pharmaceutical industry on its own raw materials, to strengthen and develop the plant's raw materials base , taking into account the needs of the pharmacy network and exports.
In 1919, work was begun on combining the procurement of medicinal raw materials and transferring them to the state. In subsequent years, special legislative acts were adopted on the collection and culture of medicinal plants. In 1930, specialized experimental stations of medicinal plants were established in different geographical regions of the country (in Lubny, Mogilev, Olgin, Bitza, Sukhumi, etc.). Since 1931, all of them have come under the jurisdiction of the newly organized All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (VILAR, since 1969 - VILR) , in which all research and research and production activities in the field of medicinal plant growing have been concentrated. The Institute has also become a center of botanical resources and chemical research.
A great importance is attached to the study of the centuries-old experience of the people in the use of plants with a curative purpose . In addition to VILR, a number of other scientific research institutes, departments of medical and pharmaceutical universities, universities and pedagogical institutes are engaged in this and the search for new medicinal preparations from plants. Успешное изучение лекарственных растений как источника биологически активных веществ позволило получить и широко внедрить в медицинскую практику целый ряд новых высокоэффективных лечебных препаратов.