Herbalist medicinal plants
Long ago, people used plants to treat a variety of diseases.
Interesting information about the use of the healing properties of plants can be found in the monuments of the most ancient culture - Sanskrit, Hebrew, Chinese, Greek, Roman.
Extensive material on the use of medicinal plants was discovered in the study of papyrus, found in the XIX century by the German Egyptologist Georg Ebers, - "The book of preparation of medicines for all parts of the body . "
It contains a number of recipes that the ancient Egyptians used to treat many diseases .
They used various ointments, lotions, mixtures , which had a rather complex composition.
In Egypt, fragrant oils, balsams, resins were widespread. Already at that time, the healing properties of aloe, plantain, juniper, castor bean and many other plants were well known.
LIST OF PLANTS AVAILABLE IN THE REFERENCE BOOK
- Find the desired plant in the list below (Use Ctrl + F to search for a word on the page).
- Click on it to open a detailed description and photo.
- Common Apricot - Armeniaca Vulgaris
- Spring Adonis - Adonis vernalis l.
- Marsh Marsh - Acorus calamus L.
- Actinidia - Actinidia L.
- Alexandria Leaf (senna, olfactory cassia) - Cassia acutifolia Del.
- Aloe Trees (Agave) - Aloe arborescens Mill.
- Althaea officinalis - Althaea officinalis L.
- Amaranth (schiritsa) - Amaranthus L.
- Anise ordinary - Anisum vulgare Gaerth.
- Aralia - Aralia L.
- Edible watermelon - Citrullus edulus Pans.
- Mountain arnica - Arnica montana L.
- Sowing Artichoke - Cynara scolymus L.
- Astragalus woolly-flowered - Astragalus dasyanthus Pall.
- Astragalus - Astragalus
- Atractylodes oval - Atractylodes ovata Dc. B
- Ledum rosemary - Ledum palustre L.
- Berberia - Bergenia crassifolia L.
- Sweet Basil - Ocimum basilicum L.
- Berberis vulgaris - Berberis vulgaris L.
- Small periwinkle - Vinca minor L.
- Velvet Amur - Phellodendron amurense Rupr.
- Stonegrass femur - Pimpinella saxifraga L.
- Belozor marsh - Parnassia palustris L.
- White birch - Betula albosinensis L.
- Flat birch - Betula platyphylla sucacz.
- Immortelle sandy, Cmin - Helichrysum arenarium L.
- Hogweed - Heracleum L.
- Blood Hawthorn - Crataegus sanguinea Pall.
- Cowberry - Vacciinium vitis idaea L.
- Whistling bells - Adenophora verticillata fisch.
- Budra ivyhsevidnaya - Clechoma hederacea L.
- Black elderberry - Sambucus nigra L.
- Initial letter - Betonica officinalis L. AT
- Weida dyeing - Isatis tinctoria L.
- Valeriana officinalis - Valeriana officinalis L.
- Blue Cornflower - Ceintaurea cyanus L.
- Stinking Basil - Thalictrum foetidum L.
- Small Basil - Thalictrum minus L.
- Three-leaf watch - Menyanthes trifoliata L.
- Lyzvatnik monstrous (meadow tea) - Lysimachia nummularia L.
- Verbena officinalis - Verbena officinalis l.
- Common Heather - Calluna vulgaris Hull.
- Veronica - Veronica L.
- Cultivated grapes - Vitis vinifera L.
- Vitex sacred (Abraham tree) - Vitex agnus-castus L.
- Water chestnut (rogulnik) - Trapa natans
- Volodushka - Bupleurum L.
- Red-headed Sparrow - Lithospermum crythrorhizon L.
- Field bindweed - Convolvulus arvensis L. R
- Galega officinalis (Kozlyatnik) - Galeca officinalis L.
- Galenia horned - Halenia corniculata L.
- Garmala vulgaris - Pecainum harmala L.
- Carnation - Dianthus L.
- Geranium - Geranium L.
- Blueberry vulgaris - Vaccinium uliginosum
- Highlander serpentine (cancerous cervix) - Polygonum bistorta L.
- Highlander Pepper (water pepper) - Polygonum hydropiper L.
- Highlander pochechuyny (pochuchuynaya grass) - Polygonum persicaria L.
- Highlander (knotweed) - Polygonum aviculare L.
- Bearded Gentian - Gentiana barbata
- Gentian - Gentiana L.
- Drug plant - Peucedanum officinalis L.
- City Gravilat - Geum urbanum L.
- Wintergreen red (meat-red) - Pyrola incarnata F.
- Medicator - Sisymbrium officinale Scop. D
- Elecampane high - Inula helenium L.
- Lythrum salvaria - Lythrum salicaria L.
- Descurainia Sofia - Descurainia sophia L.
- Dioscorea Nippon - Dioscorea nipponica M.
- Melilotus officinalis Melnikotus officinalis Pall.
- Drema (smolyovka) white - Melandrium album (Silene alba)
- Red grouse - Genista tinctoria L.
- Common Oak - Quercus robur L.
- Dubrovnik vulgaris - Teucrium chamedrys
- Angelica Angelica officinalis L.
- Cocktail Cocktail - Xanthium spinosum L.
- Origanum vulgaris - Origanum vulcare L.
- Dymyanka medicament - Fumaria officinalis L. F
- Yellowstone - Erysimum cheiranthoides L.
- Ginseng ordinary - Panax ginseng S.A. Mey
- Zherukha Pharmacy - Nasturtium officinale R. BR.
- Honeysuckle edible - Lonicera edulis L.
- Zhoster laxative (buckthorn laxative) - Rhaminus cathartica L.
- Crane (stork) cycuta - Erodium cicutarium L. H
- Zaytsegub (lagokhilus) intoxicating - Lagochilus inebrians bunge.
- Zamaniha high (echinopanax high) - Echinopanax elatum Nakai
- Starfish average (woodlouse) - Stellaria Media L.
- Hypericum perforatum L. (pierced) - Hypericum perforatum L.
- Wild strawberry - Fracaria Vesca L.
- Wintergirl - Chimaphila R.
- Snakehead - Dracocephalum L.
- Goldenrod - Solidaco vircaurea L.
- Golden mustache (Callisia fragrant) - Callisia fragrans
- Centaury small (umbrella) - Centaurium minus Moench. (S. umbellatum Gilib)
- Erythraan Centaury - Centaurium Erythraea Raf.
- Zopnik spiny - Phlomis Pungens Willd.
- Serrate - Odontites Vulgaris L. AND
- White willow (willow) - Salix alba L.
- Goat willow (bredina, rakita) - Salix Caprea L.
- Ginger - Zingiber
- Fig ordinary - Ficus carica L.
- Hyssopus officinalis L.
- Source - Polygala L.
- Kakalia spear (underseeding) - Cacalia Hastata L.
- Kalanchoe pinnate - Kalanchoe pinnata
- Calendula officinalis (marigold medicinal) - Calendula officinalis L.
- Kalina ordinary - Viburnum Opulus L.
- Saxifraga L.
- Cabbage (white) - Brassica oleracea L.
- Horse chestnut - Aesculus hippocastanum L.
- Kiprey narrow-leaved (Ivan-tea) - Epilobium angustifolium
- Meadow clover (red) - Trifolium pratense L.
- Cranberries - Oxycoccus Palustris Pers.
- Cranberry four spawn (marsh) - Oxycoccus quadripetalus (Oxycoccus quadripetala)
- Codonopsis Lanceolate - Codonopsis Lanceolata Benth.
- European claw
- Skeptic Mullear (Tall)
- Stinging nettle - Urtica dioica L.
- Burnet drug
- Buckthorn brittle (alder)
- Common corn (maize) L
- Laminaria sugary (sea kale)
- Lily of the valley
- Silverweed goose
- Potentilla erect (uzik, kalgan)
- Leuzea safflower - Rhaponticum carthamoides
- Flax seed
- Common Hazel - Corylus avellana
- Lemongrass Chinese
- Heart-shaped linden (small-leaved)
- Burdock (burdock) - Arctium lappa L.
- Onions (General)
- Onion - Allium cepa
- Lovage medicinal - Levisticum officinalis Koch. M
- Magnolia grandiflora
- Raspberry ordinary
- Melissa officinalis
- Common Juniper - Juniperus communis L.
- Mordovnik ordinary
- Carrot Sowing - Daucus carota subsp. sativus
- Peppermint ABOUT
- Sea buckthorn - Hippophae rhamnoides
- Oats sowing
- Medicinal Dandelion - Taraxacum officinale
- Common Oleander - Nerium oleander
- Alder is gray
- Walnut - Juglans regia
- Stamino orthosiphon
- Eyebright P
- Nightshade Black
- Shepherd's bag ordinary
- Spring primrose (primrose)
- Parsley garden
- Common tansy (wild specks)
- Peony dodging (Marin root) - Paeonia anomala
- Plantain large - Plantago major
- Sunflower oily - Helianthus annuus
- Common Wormwood (Chernobyl)
- Motherwort five-bladed
- Pyrey creeping R
- Rhubarb Tangut
- Radish sowing
- Agrimony ordinary
- Rhodiola Rosea - Rhodiola rosea
- Crimean rose
- Rosemary - Rosmarinus officinalis
- pharmaceutical camomile
- Sorbus aucuparia
- Black ashberry (black chokeberry) WITH
- Common lilac
- Black currant - Ribes nigrum
- Licorice - Glycyrrhiza glabra
- Pine ordinary
- Asparagus - Asparagus officinalis
- Swamp cudgel (swamp) T
- Tatyarnik prickly
- Cumin ordinary
- Bearberry (bear's ear)
- Thuja western
- Yarrow - Achillea millefolium Have
- Dill garden F
- Common Beans
- Common fennel
- Violet tricolor (pansies, Ivan da Marya) X
- Common hops
- Horseradish - Armoracia rusticana C
- Chicory ordinary H
- Common Thyme (Creeping Thyme) - Thymus serpyllum
- Chaga (birch mushroom) - Inonotus obliquus
- A series of tripartite (scrofula grass)
- Bird cherry
- Blueberry ordinary - Vaccinium myrtillus
- Planting Garlic - Allium sativum
- Lentils - Lens culinaris
- Celandine large Sh
- Salvia officinalis
- White Mulberry - Morus alba
- Rosehip Cinnamon (May) - Rosa cinnamomea U
- Horse sorrel Uh
- Eucalyptus ball (spherical)
- Eleutherococcus Spiny (Loosewort) - Eleutherococcus senticosus
- Esparcet plant - Onobrychis viciifolia
- Echinacea purpurea - Echinacea purpurea I
- White Clearwood (Nettle Nettle)
In the oldest library of the world - the library of the Assyrian king Ashshurbanipal in Nineveh (about 660 BC.) On clay tablets, written in cuneiform, also contains extensive information about medicinal plants. Along with their description, diseases are indicated in which medicinal plants are used and in what form they should be used.
In medicine of ancient China one can find references to many human diseases. The collection of medicinal plants and various means of Lee Shih-cheng (1522 - 1596) “Fundamentals of pharmacognosy” is widely known, in which a detailed description of numerous medicinal remedies from medicinal plants is given.
The doctors of ancient India believed that most diseases stemmed from the deterioration of the “body juices”, therefore bloodletting, vomiting and other remedies were recommended for treatment, including a large group of herbal medicines . Many Indian plants (especially spices) were imported into the Roman Empire. Some of the Indian plants have long entered the European medical practice - chilibukha, rauwolfia, and others. "If you look around with the eyes of a doctor who is looking for medicines, you can say that we live in the world of medicines ...", says one of the commandments of ancient Buddhist medicine .
An outstanding representative of the Arab Medical School Avicenna, whose millennium since his birth in 1980 marked the entire progressive world, wrote the “Canon of Medicine” in five volumes. It was translated into many languages of the world and in the Middle Ages was a reference book for Arab and European doctors. In his book, Avicenna described about 900 species of medicinal plants .
Scientific medicine begins its development from the time of the famous physician of ancient Greece Hippocrates (460 - 377 BC). In his medical practice, he widely used numerous herbal preparations . A number of them were apparently borrowed from Egyptian medicine. Hippocrates described 236 plant species recognized by ancient Greek medicine as therapeutic agents .
The first edition of the medical encyclopedia, or medical textbook, belongs to the ancient Roman physician Avl Cornelius Celsus (the end of the 1st century BC - the beginning of the 1st century AD). In eight books “On Medicine”, he summarized all the medical literature of his time from the Yajur-Veda of the ancient Indian physician Susrut to the works of Asklepiad. In this work a lot of space is given to medicinal plants . It describes the methods used to treat various diseases; Recommendations on the use of certain plants. In the works of Celsus, you can find not only botanical descriptions of plantain, poppy, cumin, wine berries, plant gums , but also practical ways of using them .
In the middle of the first century of our era, the doctor of the Roman army in Asia, Dioscorides, composed a vast herbalist , including most medicinal plants known at that time — about 500 species. This book was not only a herbalist, but also a kind of set of information on pharmacy and pharmacology of the time.
The author of the new doctrine of medicinal plants was the famous physician and pharmacist of ancient Rome, Claudius Galen (129 - 201 AD). He wrote about 200 works on medicine. The greatest importance are his two herbalist, who played a big role in medicine. They were repeatedly translated into Arabic, Syriac, Persian and Hebrew. The author was one of the initiators of obtaining drugs from herbal raw materials - tinctures, extracts and other dosage forms . And now they are called herbal preparations and still have not lost their great practical value in medicine.
In the IV century, the most famous of the Latin herbalists appeared , composed by Apuleius. Travnik was so popular that when typography was invented, it was he who was the first among medical books. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the first translations of the herbalists Dioscorides, Galen and Apuleius into European languages — Italian, French, English, German — appeared. The original European herbalists appear later - in the XV and XVI centuries, and the information contained in them is largely borrowed from Greek and Latin herbalists.
The current Black Sea coast was famous for its medicinal herbs. Hippocrates, having visited these places, wrote about wonderful medicines from the Scythian root (rhubarb), Pontic absinthia (wormwood), irish root (calamus) , etc. The ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Theophrast (372 - 287 BC) in his writings mentions Scythian grass , which was widely used to treat wounds.
In ancient Russia, the use of plants for medicinal purposes was reflected in the remarkable monument of ancient Russian culture "Izbornik Svyatoslav" (1073), compiled for Grand Duke Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich by a certain diak Grigori. In this manuscript, a lot of space is given to the description of plants, which at that time were used to produce medicines.
With the adoption of Christianity, the spread of writing and literacy in Russia, the first medical books , so-called herbalists, healers, appeared. A copy of the first Russian medical book “Masi” was preserved, compiled by the granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh - Eupraxia. Of particular interest to doctors is the fourth chapter of this work, devoted to the treatment of "external" diseases.
For the treatment of internal and external diseases in Russia, they willingly used the attachment of plants and their ingestion (for example, they applied cabbage, flax, mustard, hazel or drank their juices). Along with herbal medicines, the Russian people for a long time used in medical practice honey. He was appointed in its pure form and in mixtures with a decoction of herbs , oil, vinegar, lard, beer, baked onions and many other substances.
In addition to herbalists and medical practitioners, the so-called "vertogradhad" spread with numerous descriptions of plants and their medicinal products . “This book, the verb cool helicopter, or the Nicholas the Wonderworker's Clinician” (“Cool Vertograd”) is one of the rather common ancient Russian healers . It is a translation of the very popular Western European medical encyclopedia of the XV-XVI centuries. The text of the vertogradov changed over time. They described rational empirical remedies from herbs, trees and minerals .
Great interest in the study of domestic medicines was shown in Russia after the reforms of Peter I, who paid great attention to the collection of medicinal herbs . By his order, state-owned pharmacies and so-called “pharmacy gardens” (1713) were created. One of them, St. Petersburg Pharmaceutical Garden, later became a botanical garden, now transformed into a botanical institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation .
The collection and use of medicinal herbs was practiced throughout Russia , including in Siberia, Ukraine, and Belarus. But about any systematic study of the medicinal flora of Russia , of course, could not be, at that time, and speech. Single pharmacochemical laboratories and plantations of medicinal plants were organized.
Only much later does the study of the flora and plant resources of Russia receive development. A prominent Russian scientist, academician P.S. Pallas, wrote: “Many home remedies, by simple people or by wild unenlightened people, are opened by chance, in the hands of a doctor over time become life-saving means . ” With the deepening of medical knowledge expands ideas about domestic medicinal plants, their collection, cultivation and practical application. A number of scientific expeditions to various parts of Russia are being conducted; books describing a large number of medicinal plants growing in various regions of the country are being published.
With the opening in St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy (1798), it became the center for the study of medicinal plants . Although the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century were marked by significant successes in the field of the synthesis of new chemicals, herbal medicines did not lose their significance . Nevertheless, the XIX century is already marked by some decline in interest in medicinal plants of the domestic flora.
Only with the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution did fundamental changes become possible in all aspects of the life of our people. They touched the use of medicinal plants. It was decided to create the pharmaceutical industry on its own raw materials, to strengthen and develop the vegetable raw material base , taking into account the needs of the pharmacy chain and exports.
In 1919, work began on the consolidation of preparations of medicinal raw materials and transfer them to the jurisdiction of the state. In subsequent years, special legislation was adopted on the collection and culture of medicinal plants. In 1930, specialized experimental stations of medicinal plants (in Lubny, Mogilyov, Olgin, Bitts, Sukhumi, etc.) were created in different geographical areas of the country. From 1931, they all came under the jurisdiction of the newly organized All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (VILAR, from 1969 - VILR) , which concentrated all research and research and production activities in the field of medicinal plant growing . The Institute has also become a center for botanical and chemical research.
The study of the centuries-old experience of the people in the use of plants for medicinal purposes in our country is of great importance. Кроме ВИЛРа, этим и поиском новых лечебных препаратов из растений занимается ряд других научно-исследовательских институтов, кафедр медицинских и фармацевтических вузов, университетов и педагогических институтов. Успешное изучение лекарственных растений как источника биологически активных веществ позволило получить и широко внедрить в медицинскую практику целый ряд новых высокоэффективных лечебных препаратов.