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Herbalist medicinal plants

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Лечение натуральными растительными средствами

Long ago, people used plants to treat a variety of diseases.

Interesting information about the use of the healing properties of plants can be found in the monuments of ancient cultures - Sanskrit, Hebrew, Chinese, Greek, Roman.

Extensive material on the use of medicinal plants was discovered in the study of papyrus, discovered in the XIX century by the German Egyptologist Georg Ebers, - "Books of cooking drugs for all parts of the body . "

It contains a number of recipes that the ancient Egyptians used to treat many diseases .

They used various ointments, lotions, mixtures , which had a rather complex composition.

In Egypt, fragrant oils, balsams, resins were widespread. Already at that time, the healing properties of aloe, plantain, juniper, castor bean and many other plants were well known.

Information is for reference only!

LIST OF PLANTS AVAILABLE IN THE REFERENCE BOOK

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In the oldest library of the world - the library of the Assyrian king Ashshurbanipal in Nineveh (about 660 BC.) On clay tablets, written in cuneiform, also contains extensive information about medicinal plants. Along with their description, diseases are indicated in which medicinal plants are used and in what form they should be used.

In the medicine of ancient China one can find references to many human diseases. The collection of medicinal plants and various means of Lee Shih-cheng (1522 - 1596) “Basics of Pharmacognosy”, which contains a detailed description of numerous medicinal products from medicinal plants, is widely known.

The doctors of ancient India believed that most diseases stemmed from the deterioration of the “body juices”, therefore bloodletting, vomiting and other remedies were recommended for treatment, including a large group of herbal medicines . Many Indian plants (especially spices) were imported into the Roman Empire. Some of the Indian plants have long entered the European medical practice - chilibukha, rauwolfia, and others. "If you look around with the eyes of a doctor who is looking for medicines, you can say that we live in the world of medicines ...", says one of the commandments of ancient Buddhist medicine .

An eminent representative of the Arab Medical School Avicenna, whose millennium since his birth in 1980 marked the entire progressive world, wrote The Canon of Medicine in five volumes. It was translated into many languages ​​of the world and in the Middle Ages was a reference book for Arab and European doctors. In his book, Avicenna described about 900 species of medicinal plants .

Scientific medicine begins its development from the time of the famous physician of ancient Greece Hippocrates (460 - 377 BC). In his medical practice, he widely used numerous herbal preparations . A number of them were apparently borrowed from Egyptian medicine. Hippocrates described 236 plant species recognized by ancient Greek medicine as therapeutic agents .

The first edition of the medical encyclopedia, or medical textbook, belongs to the ancient Roman physician Avl Cornelius Celsus (the end of the 1st century BC - the beginning of the 1st century AD). In eight books "On Medicine", he summarized all the medical literature of his time from the Yajur-Veda of the ancient Indian physician Susrut to the works of Asklepiad. In this work a lot of space is given to medicinal plants . It describes the methods used to treat various diseases; Recommendations on the use of certain plants. In the works of Celsus you can find not only botanical descriptions of plantain, poppy, cumin, wine berries, plant gums , but also practical ways of their medical use .

In the middle of the first century AD, the doctor of the Roman army in Asia, Dioscorides, composed a vast herbalist , including most of the medicinal plants known at that time — about 500 species. This book was not only a herbalist, but also a kind of collection of information on pharmacy and pharmacology of the time.

The author of the new doctrine of medicinal plants was the famous physician and pharmacist of Ancient Rome, Claudius Galen (129 - 201 AD). He has written about 200 medical works. Of greatest importance are his two herbalists, who played a large role in medicine. They were repeatedly translated into Arabic, Syriac, Persian and Hebrew. The author was one of the initiators of obtaining drugs from plant materials - tinctures, extracts and other dosage forms . And now they are called herbal preparations and still have not lost their great practical value in medicine.

In the IV century, the most famous of the Latin herbalists appeared , composed by Apuleius. Travnik was so popular that when typography was invented, it was he who was the first among medical books. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the first translations of the herbalists Dioscorides, Galen and Apuleius into European languages ​​— Italian, French, English, German — appeared. The original European herbalists appear later - in the XV and XVI centuries, and the information contained in them is largely borrowed from the Greek and Latin herbalists.

The current Black Sea coast was famous for its medicinal herbs. Hippocrates, having visited these places, wrote about wonderful medicines from the Scythian root (rhubarb), Pontic absinthia (wormwood), the irroot root (calamus) and others. The ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Theophrast (372 - 287 BC) in his writings mentions Scythian grass , which was widely used to treat wounds.

In ancient Russia, the use of plants for medicinal purposes was reflected in the remarkable monument of ancient Russian culture "Izbornik Svyatoslav" (1073), compiled for Grand Duke Svyatoslav Yaroslavovich by a certain diak Grigorii. In this manuscript, a lot of space is given to the description of plants, which at that time were used for the production of medicines.

With the adoption of Christianity, the spread of writing and literacy in Russia, the first medical books , so-called herbalists, healers, appeared. A copy of the first Russian medical book “Mazi” was preserved, compiled by the granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh - Eupraxia. Of particular interest to doctors is the fourth chapter of this work, devoted to the treatment of "external" diseases.

For the treatment of internal and external diseases in Russia, they willingly used the attachment of plants and their ingestion (for example, they applied cabbage, flax, mustard, hazel or drank their juices). Along with herbal medicines, the Russian people for a long time used in medical practice honey. He was appointed in its pure form and in mixtures with a decoction of herbs , oil, vinegar, lard, beer, baked onions and many other substances.

In addition to herbalists and medical practitioners, the so-called “vertogradogs” were distributed with numerous descriptions of plants and their medicinal preparations . “This book, the verb cool helicopter, or the Nicholas the Wonderworker's Clinician” (“Cool Vertograd”) is one of the rather common ancient Russian healers . It is a translation of the very popular Western European medical encyclopedia of the XV-XVI centuries. The text of the vertogradov changed over time. They described rational empirical remedies from herbs, trees and minerals .

Great interest in the study of domestic medicines was shown in Russia after the reforms of Peter I, who paid great attention to the collection of medicinal herbs . By his order, state-owned pharmacies and so-called “pharmacy gardens” (1713) were created. One of them, St. Petersburg Pharmaceutical Garden, later became a botanical garden, now transformed into a botanical institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation .

The collection and use of medicinal herbs was practiced throughout Russia , including in Siberia, Ukraine, and Belarus. But about any systematic study of the medicinal flora of Russia , of course, could not be, at that time, and speech. Single pharmacochemical laboratories and plantations of medicinal plants were organized.

Only much later does the study of the flora and plant resources of Russia receive development. A prominent Russian scientist, academician P.S. Pallas, wrote: “Many home remedies, by simple people or by wild uneducated people, are opened by chance, in the hands of a doctor over time become life-saving remedies . With the deepening of medical knowledge, ideas about domestic medicinal plants, their collection, cultivation and practical application are expanding. A number of scientific expeditions to various parts of Russia are being conducted; books describing a large number of medicinal plants growing in various regions of the country are being published.

With the opening in St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy (1798), it became the center for the study of medicinal plants . Although the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was marked by significant successes in the field of the synthesis of new chemical preparations, herbal medicines did not lose their significance . Nevertheless, the XIX century is already marked by a certain decline of interest in medicinal plants of the native flora.

Only with the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution did fundamental changes become possible in all aspects of the life of our people. They touched the use of medicinal plants. It was decided to create the pharmaceutical industry on its own raw materials, to strengthen and develop the vegetable raw material base , taking into account the needs of the pharmacy chain and exports.

In 1919, work began on the consolidation of preparations of medicinal raw materials and transfer them to the jurisdiction of the state. In subsequent years, special legislation was adopted on the collection and culture of medicinal plants. In 1930, specialized experimental stations of medicinal plants (in Lubny, Mogilyov, Olgin, Bitts, Sukhumi, etc.) were created in different geographical areas of the country. С 1931 г. все они перешли в ведение вновь организованного Всесоюзного научно-исследовательского института лекарственных и ароматических растений (ВИЛАР, с 1969 г. - ВИЛР) , в котором была сконцентрирована вся исследовательская и научно-производственная деятельность в области лекарственного растениеводства . Институт стал также центром ботанико-ресурсных и химических исследований.

Изучению многовекового опыта народа в использовании растений с лечебной целью в нашей стране придается большое значение. Кроме ВИЛРа, этим и поиском новых лечебных препаратов из растений занимается ряд других научно-исследовательских институтов, кафедр медицинских и фармацевтических вузов, университетов и педагогических институтов. Успешное изучение лекарственных растений как источника биологически активных веществ позволило получить и широко внедрить в медицинскую практику целый ряд новых высокоэффективных лечебных препаратов.