elecampane high - inula helenium l.
Asteraceae Family - Compositae
Botanical characteristic. Perennial herbaceous plant. The rhizome is nodular, fleshy, thick with numerous outgoing roots. The stems are straight, furrowed, pubescent with short thick white hairs. The leaves are large, alternate, unevenly serrated and serrated, slightly wrinkled on top, diffusely pubescent, velvety on the bottom, sulfur-yellow. The basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, sometimes elongate-ovate, lower ones are short-petiolate, upper ones are sessile with a heart-shaped base, covering the stem. Flowers are collected in inflorescences - baskets. Marginal - reed, golden yellow, medium - tubular. Wrap with numerous tiled leaflets. The fruit is a brown tetrahedral achene with a crest. It blooms in July - August, bears fruit in August - September.
Spread. It occurs in small groups in the European part of the country, in the Urals, in Western Siberia, in the Caucasus. Prefers light edges, slopes of mountains and hills, floodplains of the rivers. It is bred as a medicinal and decorative plant in gardens.
Used parts of the plant. Medicinal raw materials are roots, rhizomes and the aerial part of the plant, collected in the usual way.
Chemical composition. The roots and the aerial part contain sesquiterpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates and related compounds: glucose, inulin, inositol. In addition, triterpenoids, essential oil, and higher aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in the roots: nonacosan; lipids; in the aerial part - carotenoids, phenolcarboxylic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, vitamins.
Application. Rhizomes and roots were part of the domestic pharmacopoeia of the 1-3rd edition. Official in the Netherlands. In scientific medicine, a decoction of the roots is used as an expectorant and disinfectant for acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, flu. The drug "Alanton" (the sum of sesquiterpenoids) - with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis. In practical medicine, a decoction of the roots is used for neurosis, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and diseases of the stomach, pancreas, liver, gall bladder; inhalations - for acute respiratory infections, with polyarthritis (with fish oil); in gynecology - with amenorrhea, for the prevention of premature birth, with hypomenstrual syndrome; infusion with honey - restorative and tonic for pregnant women; in dentistry - with periodontal disease, ulcerative gingivitis-stomatitis. The fees include hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, gastric ulcer with hypersecretion, hemorrhoids, cirrhosis, bronchial asthma, tonsillitis, pustular skin diseases, psoriasis, as a diuretic. In homeopathy, fresh roots are used for diabetes, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, bronchial asthma.
In Indo-Tibetan medicine, root preparations are used for nervous diseases, chronic infections, as an antipyretic, for bronchitis, hyposecretion of the stomach, anti-inflammatory; as part of complex prescriptions - for diseases accompanied by fever, with displacements of the spine, gout, neurosis of the heart, myocarditis, diseases of the spinal cord, hemostatic, improving liver function. In clinical trials, positive results were obtained in the treatment of tincture of the roots of acute and chronic bronchitis and chronic pneumonia.
In folk medicine, elecampane is widely used as a wound healing, expectorant, hemostatic, choleretic, diaphoretic, diuretic, anthelmintic and sedative agent, for diarrhea, diabetes, jaundice, rheumatism, polyarthritis, cystitis, malaria, goiter, hemorrhoids; externally in the form of ointments - with eczema, itchy dermatoses, purulent wounds, furunculosis. In Armenian medicine - with migraine, epilepsy, paralysis, facial neuritis, radiculitis; in North America, with typhoid fever, colds, and lung diseases; in European countries - an infusion of the aerial parts and a decoction of the roots - for cancer, whooping cough, pulmonary tuberculosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, female diseases, erysipelas, hypertension.
In the experiment, the extract and the amount of sesquiterpenoids exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal activity; root extract - anti-tumor, antiviral activity against influenza virus, causes a positive inotropic effect, reduces the excitability of the cerebral cortex and some subcortical areas of the central nervous system.
Fresh juice of leaves and flowers has phytoncidal activity.
Homeopathy. It is used in homeopathy Inula 3x, 3, 6 for diseases of the joints, neurasthenia, gynecological diseases. Typical symptoms: back pain, muscle twitching, urge to lower and urinate, pulling pains in the uterus.
- An infusion is prepared from flowers and leaves: 20 g of raw materials are taken, crushed, 200 ml of boiling water is poured, insisted on a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cooled for 45 minutes, filtered, adjusted to the desired volume, squeezing the remainder, and 1/3 cup is taken 2- 3 times a day before meals.
- For a decoction, 15 g of the roots are crushed, 200 ml of boiling water is poured, insisted on a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cooled for 10 minutes, filtered and taken 1/3 cup 3 times a day before meals.
- Tincture is prepared from the roots with 70% alcohol at a rate of 1: 5, insist 10-15 days in a dark place, take 40-50 drops 3-4 times a day before meals with a small amount of water (30-40 ml).
- Fresh juice should be diluted 1:10 and taken 1 teaspoon 3-4 times a day before meals.
- Preparation of ointment for external use: 180 g of root is poured 360 g of water, boiled, wiped through a sieve and mixed with 120 g of lard or with freshly made butter without salt.
- There are old methods for making elecampane. Preparation of wine from the roots of elecampane: 5 tablespoons of roots (about 30 g) are mixed with 30 g of alcohol, left for 24 hours. Then, 1 liter of dry grape wine is diluted, stirred, squeezed and filtered; drink 30-40 g before meals with poor digestion and lack of appetite.
Contraindications The internal use of elecampane is contraindicated in severe heart diseases, atherosclerosis, nephritis and pregnancy.