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Classification of fungi

Классификация грибов

In terms of nutritional value, mushrooms are divided into four categories

The first category includes the most valuable and delicious - white, red, real grapes, yellow mushrooms;

To the second - a boletus, a poderezovik (except the marsh form), an oil dish, a champignon, a wave, a white forklift, aspen and bluish, gladysh;

To the third - a goat, a fox, a line, an apron, a moss, a whiting, a pile, a black pear;

To the fourth - all the others, used mainly for salting.

White mushroom (Boletus edulus Fr. ex Bull.)

White mushroom (Boletus edulus Fr. ex Bull.) , Grows from May to October inclusive in deciduous forests rich in humus, overgrown with grass and moss, as well as in pine forests and spruce forests. Under favorable conditions, small fungi begin to grow from the mycelium in groups and one by one, brownish hats of which (semicircular shape) touch the legs with their edges. Over time, the hat lags behind the leg and takes the shape of a small pillow. White mushrooms sometimes reach 3 kg or more, but rotten. During drying, they do not turn black, so they are called white. There are several varieties of white fungus: oak - with a small hat and a thick short stem; spruce - with a long stem and a small cap, which at a young age has a pink color, and then a pale red, pine - with a short leg and a brownish-purple hat; birch - with a light brown bonnet, often with a touch.

Among the mushroom mushrooms, the white mushroom is considered one of the best for its taste and nutritional qualities. Taste qualities of the cap and legs at a young age are the same, but later the stalk is made firm, digests worse, loses its smell. In addition, the foot has fewer nutrients and it is more damaged by worms. The legs of the fungus as a commodity product are usually valued much cheaper than hats. White mushroom is used in a variety of dishes, it is brewed fresh in soups and broths, fried, stewed, dried, made of mushroom eggs and mushroom flour, very tasty and valuable preserves.

The timing of the appearance of fungi depends on the location of the mushroom areas and meteorological factors. In some years, white mushrooms appear in July, in others - in late May. The most intensively they grow in August - September.

The ecological areas of the growth of the white fungus are characterized mainly by fresh and moist types of conditions of the site of occurrence (A2-3, B2-3, C2-3, D2-3). The stand, in which ceps are found, usually have a fullness of 0.6-0.8. In aspen or alder, on moist wetlands, among moist and high moss cover, on bumps and covered with them, in very thick and tall blueberry and cowberries, the white fungus never grows. But it can be seen in pine forests (A2) with not very dense heather. Most often he hides among the low grass and moss, under the leaves or where the fallen pine needles lie on the ground with a thick layer. Of course, there are exceptions, but relatively rare.

White mushroom is often confused with the inedible mushroom bitter (Boletus felleus Fr.) - and the poisonous Satanic mushroom (Boletus satanas Lenz.). The gorchak from the white fungus is distinguished by the fact that its flesh blushes at the site of the fracture, and the satanic has a bright, greyish-tinged cap color and a somewhat unpleasant smell of pulp.

Factors affecting the collection and fructification of fungi

The main factors affecting the growth and fructification of edible fungi can be divided into conditionally constant, varying annually, but insignificantly, and variables. The first should include the composition of the soil and its surface layer, the acidity of the environment, the nature and age of the stand, the forest tree canopy and the illumination of the site of fungal growth, the nature of moss and grass cover; to the second - weather conditions, soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm, where the mycelium grows, its humidity. In the special and popular mycological literature, the issue of the prognosis of fruiting is weakly illuminated, often only indicating the dependence of fruiting on weather, but this dependence is not specified.

Determine the yield of fungi is much more difficult than field, meadow and other crops. In determining the productivity of fungi, the productive area is in many cases unknown and often changes along with the age of the stands and their species composition; harvesting stretches for spring, summer and autumn; The harvest largely depends on the temperature regime, and if there is a lack of moisture or its excess, the fungi do not appear at all.

Within each type of forest, the value of the plot with respect to the yield of fungi depends to a large extent on the age and completeness of the plantations. The most productive are the young at the age of 15 to 30-40 years, especially with the curative arrangement of trees. A thin layer of forest litter in young plantations does not prevent the rapid warming of the soil, so in the young the fungi appear earlier and their yield is greater.

In plantations older than 30-40 years, the soil is warmer because of the large thickness of the forest litter. In such plantations, mushrooms should be looked for through thin out areas and forest glades. As the ripe and especially overmature plantings are thinned, the conditions for fungal growth are improved. Fungi include felling. On the felling of all types of forests with unheated soils, the ordinary line grows. In the second - third year after the cutting of coniferous or deciduous plantations, there are estimates.

Effect of felling on the appearance of fungi

Coniferous forest reaches maturity in 80-100 years. During its lifetime it changes continuously, and consequently the ratio between different breeds also varies. Thus, in the spruce forests the participation of deciduous species decreases with age. Between the woody species in the forest, there are complex relationships, largely dependent on the fertility of the soil. In subots and sudubrava birch often oppresses pine, slowing its growth and contributing to disease. On poor sandy soils, on the contrary, the presence of birch usually positively affects the growth and condition of the pine.

When felling care, 15-35%, and sometimes even more, of trees are removed, so that the remaining ones can create better growth conditions, increase access to light, heat and moisture to the soil surface. Conditions for fungi growth are also improving. Mushrooms here appear a few days earlier and grow more abundantly than on uncharted areas of the forest. Ripe forests are usually cut down in one step. After cutting coniferous or deciduous forests, the light and temperature conditions on the soil surface change dramatically. In the second year, the felling is cut. Such places are interesting for mushroom pickers only in the spring during the growth of lines. Beginning in the third year on the stumps and the earth fall groups fallen autumn.

Most forest mushrooms appear later, when the felling begins to form a young forest. Usually, for the fifth to sixth year, grow whites, pads and oil cans. At this time, the fungi must be searched in the densest groups of young animals, as well as in the places of burning felling residues - fireplaces. On the fireplaces usually grow oil and butterflies. After 8-12 years, when young trees begin to close and a forest environment is created under their canopy, there is a boar, a wave, a serushka, a russula, a real mushroom, and finally a white mushroom.

In ripe pine forests on poor and relatively poor soils, trees are rare and the shading of the soil is weak. Therefore, after cutting the stand, there is no such dramatic change in the conditions for the growth of fungi, as in spruce and deciduous forests. The vegetation of the soil does not change. On such felling, in addition to lines, in the early years, typical forest mushrooms appear: pads, green mosses, bitter grubs, oil cans, boletuses and even ceps. Preservation of pine undergrowth during felling promotes more abundant growth of fungi. With the formation of a new stand, the number of fungi increases, with the exception of the butter can, autumn and autumnal stems, which are stored near roads, along the outskirts of forest glades.

Climatic factors affecting growth and fruiting of mushrooms

It turned out that the spring abundant warm precipitation was the phenomenon from which the seasonal development of the mycelium began. The duration of each species was different.

Studies have shown that some species of fungi begin to develop not simultaneously and the beginning of the development of mycelium is significantly affected by the heat reserve in the soil at the time of heavy rainfall, measured usually as a sum of air temperatures. The air temperature is summed up from the day when the soil temperature rises above +1 ° C. Early fungi begin to develop with a sum of air temperatures of at least + 500 ° C, summer - not less than +800 ° C, and late - not less than + 1000 ° C (sometimes even at 1350 ° C).

The causes of fluctuations in the development of one species of fungi in different years are also determined. They were deviations from the average daily air temperature and precipitation during the development of mycelium. When the deviations from the average data were upward, the period of development was reduced, with a decrease in the direction of decrease - increased, with the primary, decisive significance was the amount of precipitation.

Each mycelium fructifies for a season 1 time. But the mycelium of one or another type of fungus grows in different conditions and the same meteorological factors differently affect its development. In general, this depends on the unconventional depth of the growth of the mycelium. There are cases when, with multiple abundant precipitation, dropped out after the end of the development of fungi, they appear again and as many times as heavy precipitation fell out. Such a phenomenon mushroom pickers are called "layers" or periods of appearance of fungi.

Favorable side factors affecting the fruiting of fungi are high air humidity, precipitation falling before or during the fruiting period. Fruit body is not protected from evaporation of moisture and therefore high humidity of air contributes to its better development. Precipitation in the process of fruiting contributes to the formation of fruit bodies on the tips of young hyphae of mycelium and their development and therefore affect the degree of fruiting fungi. The beginning, duration and termination of fruiting are determined, on the one hand, by the biological properties of the fungi, on the other hand, by the weather conditions of the current year, partly preceding, and perhaps even several, preceding years.

The timing of the onset of fruiting, which in this locality is repeated annually at a more or less certain time, determines the biological properties of each species of fungi. At the same time weather conditions postpone or approximate the terms of fruiting, conditioned by biological properties. Thus, a combination of these two factors ultimately determines the timing of appearance of fruit bodies in certain years, the period of fruiting within 1 year, as well as the size of the yields. However, the relationship between the timing of fruiting, weather conditions and the biological properties of certain species of fungi is not always clearly manifested.

The same year in one place could be relatively yielding, and in another place - poor harvest and vice versa. This discrepancy becomes clear when one considers that different species of mushrooms grow in different localities with different soils and stands, the yields of which may not coincide by years for biological reasons. In addition, in one area there could be rain, but in another - no, but rain can be favorable for one type of mushroom and useless for another.

Thus, the decisive significance for the yield of fungi is found in precipitation, which fall out at high temperatures in July and August. September precipitation at low temperatures does not matter. To determine the relationship between mushroom yields, the average temperature and precipitation data should be taken monthly or, better, a decade. Average data for the entire growing season or for 3 months together will prove to be non-indicative, leveled. In order to reveal this dependence, the data on temperature and precipitation need not be considered in isolation, but in their interrelationship, and not only for the moment of fruiting, but taking into account the previous relationships of these factors. Thus, the white fungus gives the maximum yield when the average monthly air temperature reaches 16-18 ° C with sufficient precipitation. This fact can later be taken into account in the artificial cultivation of white fungus.

The mushroom harvest is affected by the meteorological conditions of the autumn of last year. In particular, the abundant accumulation of mycelium in the soil is promoted by higher humidity and temperature than in the norm. Since mushroom yields are often repeated on the same territory for several consecutive years, it is possible that abundant precipitation and elevated temperatures of late summer and early autumn are both positively positive both for the current harvest and for subsequent years. However, cases of deviation from these rules suggest that the dependence of good harvests of fungi on the weather condition during the vegetative period is manifested in complex ways that have not yet been studied. Of great importance is not only the magnitude of the deviation from the long-term norm of the monthly sum of precipitation and mean temperature, but also the intensity of precipitation, and the nature of the temperature fluctuations, their minimum and maximum in combination with the relative humidity of the air, and other elements of a complex whole called weather. Only long-term observations of vegetation and the fruiting of fungi will allow us to penetrate deeper into the essence of the phenomenon under consideration and to develop a simple and reliable method for predicting the timing of fruiting fungi.

Growth rate of mushrooms

Perhaps, none of the plants widely used by man for food, grows so quickly to a ripe state, like a mushroom. Hence the expression "grows like a mushroom." However, mushroom pickers usually exaggerate the growth rate of fungi. This happens because part of the mushrooms during the collection is not noticed. When you re-visit the site every other day, two mushroom pickers detect fungi already of considerable size.

Observations show that most fungi grow to medium size in 3-6 days, and their growth can last for 8-12 days. Infection with larvae of flies and mosquitoes slows or stops the growth of fungi. Therefore, in bad years, when the worminess of fungi increases, large specimens are rare.

For a day the hats of mushrooms grow at an average height of 1-1.5 cm on the average height and diameter. However, even among fungi of one species, for example, the boletus, the daily growth varies widely from 3 mm to 3 cm, which is due to their individual characteristics and state.

In the first 5-8 days, the growth of mushrooms in height and the growth of the cap along the diameter are uniform. However, the growth of mushrooms in height stops 1-2 days earlier than the growth of the cap by the diameter.

There are no significant differences in the growth rate of fungi at night and in the daytime. Sometimes the growth of fungi is markedly increased after precipitation. In summer, regardless of their size, there was a cessation of growth of all fungi. The cause of this phenomenon was mainly low air humidity and dryness of the soil. The growth zone of the mushroom cap goes along its edge, so it sometimes gets foreign objects; often the hats of two or more mushrooms, located side by side, grow together. It is believed that the first layer of fungi occurs in the second half of May - beginning of June, when there is a boletus, poderezozovik, a white fungus and a buttercup. The first layer of fungi in time usually coincides with haying and chopping rye. It is not by chance that these mushrooms are called "haymakings or kolosovikami." Senkovosniki appear in small quantities and grow 7-10 days. At this time, the soil has moisture reserves since the spring, but little heat. Conditions for good and sustainable fruiting are not yet available. Mushrooms of the first layer should be looked for in well-lit places: forest clearings, wide clearings, abandoned forest roads and under the canopy of rare coniferous-deciduous young.

The second "layer" of fungi appears in the first - third decades of July. It is made up of most species of fungi, including those going to salinity. It lasts 2-3 weeks, but the yield is usually low. Mushrooms of the second layer mainly grow in open places, but they are found in coniferous-deciduous young growths more often than mushrooms of the first layer, and russules can be found under the canopy of ripe forest. Since at this time harvesting of winter bread begins, the mushrooms are called winter or winter crops.

The third layer of mushrooms is the most numerous in terms of the number of species and yield and long-term. Mushrooms grow from the second decade of August to October. At this time, almost all edible mushrooms grow, except for the ordinary line and all kinds of morels. Thanks to cyclonic rain (rainfall is prolonged and even, and not stormy, as usual in spring and in the middle of summer), the soil moisture rises and remains at a stable level, the air temperature begins to drop. The greatest harvest of mushrooms of this period is in September. Mushrooms of the third layer first appear in open places, but after a few days they can be seen under the canopy of deciduous young growth and ripe pine plantations.

Harvest in the first and second layers is usually of low value due to the large worminess of the fungi. For industrial purposes, they are almost never harvested. In all areas of the Volyn region. the first white fungus appears mainly in the first decade of June, approximately in the same period are shown from the ground and the first oiler. The appearance of the first birch and buffalo in different areas varies from June to August, depending on the amount of precipitation and air temperature. There are species of fungi that bear fruit for 1-1.5 months, but the majority grows for a long time. Sometimes they are few or they disappear for a while, especially in dry weather. The climatic characteristics of individual years can change the number of layers and the time of their appearance.

Phenological phases of the appearance of fungi

Классификация грибов

For practical purposes, it is necessary to know the approximate time of the appearance of fungi. The timing of fruit-bearing fungi is most expedient to associate with the seasonal development of trees and shrubs. Thus, the beginning of the flowering of the mountain ash serves as a signal for the appearance of the first layer of fungi, the flowering of the willow-tea (kipreya) determines the beginning of the second layer. When the birch leaves begin to turn yellow, a third layer of mushrooms usually appears.

Different states of trees (leaf opening, flowering, fruiting) or, as they say, different phases of their development, can signal to some extent the appearance of certain species of fungi (phenophobic alarm - a phenomenon signaling the onset of a subsequent phenomenon). So, the aspen began to fall and the man's earrings began to fall off the tree - you can wait for the appearance of the first morels. The same aspen, when the fluff will fly away from it, that is, the seeds will ripen, can serve as a phenosignaling device for the appearance of the first boil-mers. During the mowing of winter rye, mushroom pickers find the first podborozoviki and white mushrooms. Podberezoviki begin to grow 5-6 days after the beginning of flowering rowan.

The signal for the first appearance of the grease can be the beginning of the flowering of the pine. Fenosignalizers of the appearance of such late fungi, as openki, may be autumn phenomena, for example, the first yellow leaves of birches, but the bulk may turn out to be a worm. In the warm season, the conditions for the development of insects are most favorable, therefore, the worminess of the fungi is higher.

Forecasting the fruiting of mushrooms

The availability of information on the yield and timing of edible mushroom ripening, depending on the weather conditions, is of paramount importance in the organization of their harvesting.

To make a prediction of the fruiting of fungi using the method of short-term prognosis, it is necessary to establish the dates when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm will exceed 1 ° C. Recording from now on the daily average air temperature, it is necessary to mark the days when the sum of temperatures is 500, 800 and 1000 ° C, as well as the dates of spring abundant (at least 10 mm) warm (at least 12 ° C) rains. The date of precipitation after the sum of temperatures of 500 ° C has been received will be the date of early development of early fungi: 800 ° C - summer, 1000 ° C (sometimes 1350 ° C) - late. Adding to the last date the average period of development of the fungus, which in each zone has its own characteristics, it is easy to determine the date of the beginning of its mass fruiting.

In addition, daily daily air temperature and precipitation records should be recorded and, if they deviate from the mean in the area, amend the forecast. For example, in the conditions of Volyn Oblast, according to long-term observations, the average terms of development of fungi are as follows: white (summer group) - maximum 45, minimum 27 and average 36 days; oiler - maximum 44, minimum 27 and average 34 days; boletus - maximum 46, minimum 24 and average 37 days. Having information about the weather, knowing the date of the beginning of mass fruiting for several years, it is possible to establish the average terms of development of all types of fungi in any geographical area.

Mushroom procurement rules

Mushrooms are collected in any weather. It is desirable to cut or tear them without damaging the mycelium and not disturbing the forest floor. Only young and healthy mushrooms should be taken, leaving old and worms in place, thereby promoting the reproduction of mycelium. Cut or chopped mushrooms cleaned of debris and put them in baskets with their hats down. Mushrooms with long legs (boletus, podberezoviki) are best laid sideways. Lamellar mushrooms that go to salting, the legs are cut off. Keep the legs only in red, fox, russula and freckles. As a rule, collectors collect all edible mushrooms together, and before surrendering to the harvesting center they sort out the types and sizes of the caps that affect the grade of mushrooms.

Measures for the rational exploitation of mushroom deposits and increasing their yields

Organizational events. Until now, neither in literature nor in practice have been proposed effective methods of rational exploitation of fungal resources and increase their productivity. The existing in nature fungal deposits are out of the attention of business executives. For their condition, no one responds, since this type of use of the forest is still "stowaway", and hence it is difficult to control. Harvesting is conducted by the population spontaneously, unorganized, with the use of all kinds of, and sometimes unacceptable methods. All this leads to depletion of raw materials. As analysis of organized mushroom preparations shows, over the last 5 years the volume of production has decreased by more than 50%.

The resources of some species of edible fungi, especially white, have been depleted lately. Visiting the forest by the population over the last 20-25 years has increased many times over the previous years. The collection of mushrooms is becoming increasingly popular. Many collectors, collecting mushrooms, break trees and bushes, tear up the grass, destroy the mycelium.

The mushroom pickers should remember that the fruit bodies of numerous edible fungi, in particular mycorrhizal fungi, grow in the forests only as a result of obligatory (obligatory) connection of them with the roots of woody plants. To ensure the continuous connection of the mycelium with the growing roots of the trees, spores of fungi are needed, from which it develops.

Complete collection of fungi leads to a decrease in the amount of fungal spores in the forest, as a result of which the restoration of mycelium and their contact with the roots of trees and other higher plants are violated, and in many cases ceased altogether. This leads to the disappearance of many types of valuable edible fungi.

In the rational use of non-timber forest products, the promotion of environmental protection activities is of great importance, in particular the wide and in-depth explanation of the role of fungi in the life of the forest and its inhabitants, the rules for the collection of fungi, and the culture of behavior in the forest among the general public.

The most new and effective measure ensuring the development of valuable edible fungi in forests and optimal conditions for forest plantations in all areas covered by them is the creation of numerous micro-locations in which the collection of mushrooms will be prohibited. An actual problem in the conservation and reproduction of fungal resources in forest lands is the cultivation of the most valuable edible fungi in artificial conditions. If this issue is successfully addressed, the need for edible mushrooms will decrease. Unorganized gathering of mushrooms causes considerable damage to forestry, because forest fires occur due to failure to comply with fire safety rules due to fault of collectors, forest cultures are trampled down.

The grower, creating a favorable environment for the growth of trees, should also take care of the good conditions for the growth of edible fungi. An important organizational measure is the execution of works on the inventory of mushroom areas on the principle of forest management, which primarily includes the examination and accounting of all fungal areas, determining their yield and reserves by quarters and tracts. The area of ​​raw materials of fungi must be determined taking into account the density of their colonization (dense, medium, rare, curtain) and taxation description of the upper tiers of plantations. The final stage of this event is the mapping of the mushroom areas, taking into account the mapping of the distribution of all the species of fungi studied.

Inventory of the forest taking into account changes in the environment should be repeated every 5 years. Such work is carried out by forest inventory expeditions.

The collection and procurement of mushrooms must be organized, through the forest districts, on special seasonal tickets of the established pattern for the right to collect certain types of wild fruits free of charge, followed by a note in the special journal of the amount of harvested products. Such a method of harvesting wild-growing raw materials refers primarily to specially created on the basis of their natural thickets of semi-cultural plantations. In addition, it is necessary to establish legal protection and determine the degree of responsibility for destruction and damage to them in the same way as is customary with respect to woody vegetation.

Forest management activities

As a result of long-term observations and analysis of literary sources, it has been established that with the help of simple forest management measures it is possible to sharply raise the yield of fungi. To them, first of all, prohibition in the places of mass reproduction of fungi of logging operations during the growing season, since the forestry mechanisms used in this period completely destroy the mycelium of fungi. All logging processes should be conducted only in winter with snow cover. In addition, it is necessary to limit the unorganized collection of fungi, in which trampled down forest litter.

The role of forest litter in the life of the forest is enormous, especially on poor sandy soils. It serves for the forest as the main source of nitrogen and other nutrients, greatly improves the physical properties of the soil, its water regime, reduces the sharp temperature fluctuations in the soil, which is extremely important for optimal fruiting of the mycelium. Studies have established that the litter of oak leaves and decaying branches contributes to the increase of nutrients in the soil and positively influences the increase in the yield of fungi, especially whites. It maintains a high relative humidity in the ground zone of the mushroom sites. Fruit bodies of white fungus are formed at a relative humidity of air of not less than 60%; at 57%, even with all other favorable conditions, the growth of fruiting bodies of the white fungus ceases.

The negative influence of grazing is expressed in the destruction of living ground cover and litter. The exposed soil is heavily compacted, the upper layer is dried, the humidity and the soil air reserve decrease. Therefore grazing should be regulated.

The measures considered are of indirect importance for increasing the yield of fungi, but direct for their preservation, and therefore at this stage of the work they are decisive. To activities that have a direct impact on increasing the yield of wild fruits and fungi, in the first place are such as caring for the soil and the plants themselves. Persons engaged in the exploitation and management of mushroom deposits should, like the workers in agriculture, systematically monitor the soil and climatic conditions, the composition of the growing plants, the amount of incoming light, the density of the underbrush, and so on.

When the acidity of the soil changes, so does the yield of fungi. If the acidity is below the optimal (pH 5), the yield of a fungus such as a redhead is drastically reduced. Important is the loosening of the soil, which ensures the best growth and sprouting of spores of many species of fungi.

With the help of the care cleansers, it is possible to regulate the optimum completeness of the stands, to create a uniform degree of illumination for the fungi. When the plantations are thinned, the 2nd tier and shrubs are removed, the excessive competition existing in the forest complex between the individual components of the forest for light, moisture, air, and feeding area is eliminated.

There is an opinion that mushrooms do not need light and that it is even harmful to them. For the fruit body of a fungus that grows in a place open to the sun, light can be harmful, but with the development of the fetus for most fungi, in particular dark-colored (as an ordinary line), light is needed and is especially needed during maturation of spores.

Great importance for increasing the raw resources of fungi is involved in the forest fund land reclamation fund. They are not used in agricultural production and are subject to afforestation, mainly due to the pinning of pine ordinary, which from the age of 5 creates optimal conditions for the growth of oil cans.

For the development of the fungus requires a combination of three main factors: the presence of mycelium on the site of its growth, the necessary amounts of positive temperatures and moisture. If the first two factors can not be affected, then the third can be regulated by artificial irrigation. With the establishment of positive temperatures in the sum of 500, 800 and 1000 ° C, at which the development of early, summer and late mushrooms begins, an optimum amount of warm precipitation is supplied by a special sprinkler device, which causes an abundant fruiting of the oiler for a long period.

Mushroom grease nest abundantly populates young coniferous plantations, which facilitates work on artificial irrigation and increases its effectiveness. The method of artificial irrigation can also be used to increase the yield of other valuable species of edible fungi.

Comments

At a minimum, the division into food categories is taken from the Soviet literature of the last century ... In world practice, the minimum required heat treatment fungi is taken as a basis. Mlachniki, including mushrooms because of bitterness in their raw form, are often referred to as inedible or conditionally edible fungi, and the wavelet is generally considered to be poisonous, becomes suitable for consumption only after a long salting ... And umbrellas, for example, which are not on the list at all - are attributed to the best mushrooms ... But in the national economy there were their own quality measures)))

Literature

Классификация грибовКлассификация грибов

Via Vitalii Zabudko