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Credit rozrahunkovі operations - Milay A.O.

2.5.2. Methods of managing a bank loan portfolio

Diversification

The method of diversification of the loan in the distribution of the loan portfolio in the middle of a wide range of posits, one is one for one for the characteristics (one for capital, one form of moisture), and one for the mind (lack of economy, geography). I see three kinds of diversification: galusev, geography and portfolio.

G aluzev’s diversification means credit among clients, as well as business in the open economy galleries. In order to change the portfolio that’s ignorant, the most important thing is that there are galobes, some of which are grounded on the results of statistical reports. The most important effect can be reached at different times, like at the galleys with the protracted phases of the pitching cycle. Corelized analysis gave me the opportunity to find such a galuse, in such a way as to lay the foundation for the economy. There is only one galaxy of interruption at the stage of economical growth, then we are experiencing the stage of decline, and with an hour of their position, they are protected. In this case, lower income in one group is compensated for in income, while additional stability and income should be given to the bank and lower risk.

Geographic diversification of the pole in the distribution of credit resources among those who are graduates, as well as interchange with the regions, geographic areas, territories of the world with more rational minds. Geographic diversification is a method of lowering credit risk that is available only to the great banks, so I can buy and sell less money and pay attention to the significant territory. Allow me to revive the climate and weather minds, the political and economic shocks, and to help the creditworthiness. Small banks have a fixed method of geographically diversifying their interests in the process of formulating a portfolio of valuable folders, which may help to reduce the size of the bank.

Portfolio of diversification means red-light credit among the small categories of representatives - great and medium-sized companies, small business enterprises, individuals, government and large government organizations, household goods. Credits, given to the sphere of small business, often are superconducted with one another, we want to buy another one. Such loan holders are often disbursed from the vibration of the creditor, so the bank can dictate the power of credit. Yakshchoschichnik є great company, credit risen otsіnyuєtsya insignificant, but ale ydhіdnіst such credit is not too high.

INODI BANK NADA credit at home from private companies at interest rates, so as not to bring you more money. Alya zdіysnennya such operations spriє zrostannyu popularity and rated the bank. Zagalom small provincial banks do not have a lot of trouble zmogi widely stiffen the method of portfolio diversification, which can lead to higher credit portfolio. Such portfolios, formed on the front for the credit card, for small business enterprises, as well as for living loans, are characterized by a higher level of profitability from the middle and great banks. Portfolio diversification so that I can balance the risk and reach the loan portfolio of the bank.

The method of diversification of demands for stagnation is dearly guarded, flirting with a statistical analysis and forecasting, more than the bank itself and the best preparation time. Diversification will require professional management and knowledge of the market. That is why the supramirna of diversification should be brought not to change, but to increase credit credit. Even if you don’t wait for a great bank, don’t wait for a lot of money.

Concentration

Concentration є in understandings, which lie behind the economical serpent of diversification. Concentration of a loan portfolio means the interim credit operations of a bank in a song hall and a group of borrowed halls, in a geographical area, or credit to singing categories. Concentration, as well as diversification, may be of Galusev’s, geographical and portfolio.

Formuyuyu loan portfolio, varto dvoduvati singing rivnya concentration, oskilki leather bank pratsyu in a particular segment of the market and specialize in servicing the singing kliynturi. The water hour of concentration above is significantly higher than credit risk. Often, banks concentrate their loan portfolio in the most popular sectors of the economy, such as energy, naphtha and gas industry, and investment. As a result of the increase in international credit, the very concentration of the loan portfolio became the reason for the financial failure and bankruptcy of a number of banks at the ruins of 70-80s of the last century.

Recognition of the optimal match between the diversified diversification of the loan portfolio and the concentration of the loan to the bank, management, management of the skin bank, different types of strategies, opportunities and specific economic situations.

Installed Limit

The limiting method is to control the credit rating of a credit card with the maximum allowable credit card, so I can freeze the credit card. Zavdyaki establishing credit lines to banks will manage to unravel critical costs, due to their thoughtless concentration of any kind of rizika, as well as a diversified credit portfolio and secure stable incomes. Limits can be set for types of loans, categories of individuals, and for groups of loans for loans in areas that are geographic, territorial, for the most reliable credit terms, such as in foreign currency. Limit the number of days to be redeemable to pay more attention to credit cards in the current ranks of the rozmіrіv nadanih position. Credit risen to the bank get rid of established credit limit for loan portfolio, credit to the size of credit resources to the bank is so thin.

Limits are identified as the maximum allowable rozmir posi chi direct credit and turn yak in absolute boundary values ​​(total loan in penniless turn), so and in the latest indicators (some, index, standards). You can take an oath to a bank, a loan portfolio loan, a currency balance sheet, and other indicators for the base of the hour of rozrahunkіv standards. For example, a credit limit for a singer and a singer can be used for the maximum amount of money, but the maximum amount of loans is up to the amount of the loan portfolio.

The first is to understand the extent of credit , the need for identifying the main sphere and factorization. For large banks, the territory of Ukraine and the region of keys and spheres, there is a need to take into account. I will take a look at the various specialties of the bank and establish a limited credit portfolio.

Limit method of lowering credit risk is widely secured by a practitioner in the same area as a commercial bank, as well as in a general bank system. Management of the bank may have received a loan with a specific credit policy and with specific situations. Organize your bankruptcy in the country of limitation, regulate the bank's bankruptcy, protect your credit, establish the required amount of credit, as well as at the highest levels. But with the help of Mogul Servants, the NBU standard “Maximum Rosmir Riziku per Pozichnik” (N7) and the Intermittent Credit Card Bank.

Reservation

Creating reserves for credit repayments for credit operations of commercial banks as a method of managing a credit loan in an acumulative part of a bank account for a special merchandise to compensate for non-repayable loans. Form of reserves є one of the methods for lowering the credit risk for a private bank, for servicing a depositor, a lender and a shareholder. Water hours reserve for credit operations to increase the stability and stability of the banking system in the country. Banks analyze loan portfolio and classify loan portfolio for skin credit operation fallow:

• the financial camp of the clerk (cherish the provisions of the Bank "On the assessment of the financial camp of the clerk", "Evaluation of the financial camp of the clerk - individual");

• I will become a serviceman as the clerk of credit bargaining;

• Rivne security of credit operations.

The results of the classification of the loan portfolio include the categories of leather credit operations :

• "standard";

• "pid control";

• "substandard";

• "sum";

• "beznadіyna".

It is irrelevant to trade in credit operations to establish gross credit exposure .

In order to draw up reserves for covering credit losses for credit operations, a clean credit riser (in absolute terms) is designated as a hat to change the gross credit risen, classified behind the steps of the loan, to open the accepted security.

The Bank is in the form of a reserve for business loans for a fresh loan of net credit loans for the main borg, borrowed for loans, and for all types of credit operations with national and foreign currencies.

There is no need to formulate a reserve for budget loans (budget loans - budget cards, as a bank with a credit card for a loan agreement, for which a bank does not carry credit).

Reserve for credit loans to reserves for standard and non-standard trade in credit operations. Provisions for non-standard bargaining are formed for credit operations, classifications like “pid control”, “substandard”, “total”, and also “loss-free”.

The reserve of credit loans is formed in the following currencies, and yachting is subject to bargaining.

The reserve of credit loans is less likely to be paid for paying back for not paid back by the clerks, stolen for credit operations, scho to stay with the main borg, tightened up is unfeasible.

Відповідні підрозділи и філії for the bank to assess the financial position of the clerk, the first to lower the position.

The financial stand of the clerk of the estimate is not less than once per month, but the same: not more than the rest of the working day of the cessation of the month, on the basis of the constant evaluation of the financial balance of the individual clerk,

The camp of the servants of the Borg is also considered to be schomіsyatsya.

Behind the camp, paid off by the clerk of the credit bureaucracy for the main borg and the bank after him on the bank of the credit card and those who got the loan from the bank, the bargain servants get involved:

"good":

• as a rule, bargaining for credit and loans (fees and payments for servicing the Borg) they will be tied up at the established term for a maximum of seven calendar days;

• because the loan was extended without lowering the class of the clerk and the bankruptcy officer, he will be paid for it at the established term, or with a maximum staggering of up to seven calendar days;

• because the loan was extended from the lower class of the clerk up to 90 days and the amount of money to be paid by him at the established term or the maximum deadline is up to seven calendar days;

"weak":

• as a result, the trade in loans is stitched from 8 to 90 days and the loan is paid to him for a maximum of 8 to 30 days;

• the loan was extended from the lower class of the clerk for the term of 91 to 180 days, Ale Vidotki rallying in the term for a maximum of 30 days;

"unreasonable":

• as a result, credit bargaining is stitched more than 90 days;

• Abo the loan was extended from the lower class of the clerk ponad 180 days.

As a matter of fact, one cannot deny the point of being dealt with by the skin point, which characterizes the group of credit operations, such an operation should be placed down to the group by one lower level.

Servicing a borg can’t be “kind,” as much as possible bargaining for credit operations, including a surplus of refinanced bargaining, so as to be able to bargain off old bargains for a type of new loan.

As soon as the principal is neglected at once for a loan, then the assessment of the servants by the initiator of the loan to the loan is credited to the lower group.

One day, before evaluating the financial position, I will become the principal and I will repay the main borg and the main part of the loan portfolio classification by the level of credit and categories of credit operations.

Klas of the clerk

Redemption of bargaining

Good

Weakly

Not bad

A

Standard

Pіd control

Substandard

B

Pіd control

Substandard

Sumnivny

IN

Substandard

Sumnivny

Beznadіyny

G

Sumnivny

Beznadіyny

Beznadіyny

D

Beznadіyny

Beznadіyny

Beznadіyny

Prior to the categories of "standard" and "control" credit operations can not get credit loans.

As a rule, we ask you for a loan for loans. For the sake of correcting the bank, you have a loan, for remembering the “good” service by the boss,, standard.

When a net credit loan is identified for a reserve, the gross credit loan amount for a skin credit operation is reduced by the wartime of the accepted care. Make the item’s wartime sign up for credit for the market wart. The outpost is drawn up by an agreement to make sure that the mind is laid out to the bank. Provided to the bank "About the work with outposts".

When razrahunku clean credit rziziku not outpost outpost, the subject of a є ц ц і ї, в в ущ ущ банком, by the bank.

Vidovidnі pіdrozdіli that file to the bank quarterly, and also with a leather prolonged loan agreement, re-revise the camp of the forced mine and at times consume it. As a rule, the camp of the forced mine has not been translated, and also there are two documents that are required to be manifest and a secure loan, then a reserve of credit loans is formed for the entire amount of the main borg.

Sum of the guarantee and warranty of the subject must be taken before the reserve reserve credit cards with the credit card number in the category of credit operation:

Відсоток вартостіbezpechenny, what should I take to razrahunku net credit risika for okremoy credit operations

Guarantor

Outpost

Classification of credit operations

CMU

Uryadiv in the Kategory category "A"

International Banking Banks

Bank with rating no lower than "Investment"

class ", secure bank guarantees in Ukraine

Mine rights to penny deposits

State Treasury

Invalid valuables, expensive metals, a ruined and unmanaged mine and the last major rights

"Standard"

100 %

100 %

100 %

100 %

100 %

100 %

fifty %

"Pіd

control "

100 %

100 %

100 %

100 %

100 %

80%

40%

"Substandard"

fifty %

100 %

100 %

100 %

100 %

fifty %

20 %

"Sumnivna"

20 %

20 %

20 %

20 %

100 %

20 %

10 %

"Beznadіyna"

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

On the basis of the classification of the gross credit loan and the acceptance of accepted care, a clean credit loan for a skin credit operation is indicated, which is called for a provision of a reserve provision.

Category of credit operations

Koefіtsієnt reserve

"Standard"

2%

"Pіd control"

5 %

"Substandard"

20 %

"Sumnivna"

fifty %

"Beznadіyna"

100 %

Відповідні підрозділи и філія bank for more than one thousand monthly inventory of stitched and total incomes of the unscheduled income and form reserves for the entire amount of the unpaid income of 31 days and additional. Income for active operations vazhayutsya in total more than once, as a rule, pay for the main bargain of stitching more than 90 days and even more than 60 days stitched.

Form a reserve for the loan granted is extended a month, a loan was given to a certain bulo. Reserves of the head bank and the bank account are formed in good faith, irrespective of the amount of income, for groups the loan is up to the amount of actual credit bargaining for the first month, which is closed for the second day.

Allowance for unscheduled accrual of money that has been reimbursed has been insured and earned form in total of the actual stolen goods for stitched 31 days more and the more unscheduled insured income for the previous month.

The rozmir of the actually formed reserve for credit operations of funds is controlled by the head bank for the monthly balance sheet payments. Since such a reserve is not formed, then spend more on credit operations for a bank to a bank. Significant credit loans can be raised up to a twofold decrease in capital and bankruptcy. Ozhera, the establishment of a special reserve for covering credit risks so that I can eliminate the negative influx of the regulatory capital and I have one way to self-insure the bank.

Cream special reserve, a kind of formuyte for rachunku side up to pododatkuvannya banks can nagalny reserve, jerel formuannyu yaky є pure sideway. Conclusion and vikoristannya of the igniter reserve are regulated by the dignified legislation of the skin region. For the most part, the ignition reserve is directly accessible for credit for loans, for example, win the bank, for the second door of the ship, for the loan for the total amount of money, as well as a special reserve for the whole lack of it.