This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.


Institutional foundations of central banks have been laid down for sale. By the successors of the central banks it is possible to respect the available banks, since the winery is recklessly merciless - at the 19th century Trivial hour in private banking didn’t cause the bank to lose money on business. The bankers took deposits, handed money, insured bills, let out banknotes to the skinny. Vypuschenі banknotes were often secured with gold, because mali banks had a reserve of gold sufficient to pay only a part of vipuschennyh banknotes. The first part of the issue of banknotes of Bula Fiduciary. Proteus banknotes were stringless goiters, banknotes exchanged for gold for pre-occurrences. In these minds, banknote and banknote banknote have a significant amount of deposits, because the rich banknote policy of the banknote is 100% permissible banknote sums of banknotes and gold reserves.

The other half of the XVIII century. and Persian half of the XIX century - as a result of the era of the industrial revolution, the yak was supervised by the rapid development of the machine industry, the appearance of new gadgets in the economy, the growth of commodity circulation, and the active banking of banks. The mustache in the Kintsev pid bag led to a significant expansion of the groshovo masi and to the increased value of the banknote obg. In these minds, the issue of banknotes is decentralized, if practically small banks have the ability to issue banknotes, she has entered into superachnity with the needs of the economy. Rinok, a kind of quick-witted, vimagav unі-

a versal, above-the-word buying and paying plague, a kind of biography wrapped up in the territory of the whole country and corridor by the irregular population.

Banknotes okremich, often malovidomih banks in such vimogam not vіdpovіdali. In addition, the decentralization of bank notes was poorly controlled and regulated from the side of the state. Tse argued with banks the right of banknote emisi. Banks snapped up a big jigsaw, vypuskayuchi banknotes, the food of an acceptable rivia, money and money, that the stinks weren’t unpleasantly satisfying to normal (not seeming to be too much about money), the banknotes were swapped for gold, and the result was a little too much. However, in the whole bank system, the system was able to grow up, the banknote was issued and became unavailable economy. Banknotes have been reimbursed for free coins.

At the XIX century. it became evident that the power is guilty of the singing rank of regulating penniless money and grabbing a depositor of banknotes and holders of banknotes of banknote collapses, and there were a lot of growth.

Part of the entire regulatory process was centralization, and the concentration and concentration of banknotes between the banks. Tsey process dragging on trivial hour. On the spot, bulo is dealt with by the number of banks, as the Mali has the right to receive banknotes, - as a rule, as a rule, they are the most convenient and the most banks. For an hour, the power closed the bank right for one bank, which gave it the status of an bank. The managers of the concentration and monopoly banknote emissive power have distilled the ability to add money to the proposition of pennies and the vikoristovuvati emisyu for the financing of sovereign vitrats.

Thus, in the historical plan itself, the need for centralized banknote emails was due to the winnings of bank emails.

The classic butt of a winnings bank є becoming and distributing to the Bank of England, one of the oldest and most reputable banks in the world. Vin Buv of the Foundations of 1694 p. Yak is the first English bank of shares. Opening a jar, like a vignette, on a regular basis, it became possible to run a long way, as a squad having wiped out a vid jar for financial vіyni іz Franzієyu. Spatchatku Bank funktsionovav yak zvaychayny komertsіyniy. The prototype action form of moisture, the yak made it possible to quickly increase the capital, and also the closeness to the order allowed me to take an hour to spend more time in the banking system of the country. Postupovo Bank of England monopolized the right to issue banknotes. Згідно з Laws on Banking Privileges 1833 p. і 1844 p. the rights of private private banks, as well as the rights of newly created banks to issue banknotes boolean banknotes, at that time the Bank of England has a reminder for non-payment of banknotes. For a new boulevard, there is a set of interconnections. The sum of fiduciary arno emissy is not guilty, Bula perevischuvati 14 million f. Art., protein could have been affected, as a rule, banks for quietly and for no good reason lost the right to receive banknotes. For example, XIX century The volume of banknote bank notes may be extended to the Bank of England. The remaining status is to the Bank of England at the expense of 1928 sec. Згідно з Law on Currency and Banknotes.

Similar evolutsiyiy shlyah proyshov and Bank of France, foundations at 1800 p. yak aktsionerna kompaniya. At 1803 p. Bank davast monopoly the right of banknotes in Paris, and in 1848 p. - in the state of France. At the Russian State Bank, foundations in 1860, having gained the status of an esmiy one as a result of a penny reform from 1895-1897, for which Russia went over to the gold coin standard.

On the cob of XX century. The centralization of banknote emisi bula has been completed with the leading rank in Europe. In the majority of the Ukrainian countries, the process was completed at the 20th century. I will already have obligations from the central banks.

For the XX century characteristic є the process of demonetization of gold and the change of the penny system of the gold coin standard to the system of the exchange of pennies not exchanged for gold.

Gold-coin system as standard - the self-regulating groshov system. Vona transferred non-repetitive obig of gold coins, I freely minted and non-interchanged exchanged banknotes for gold in monetary form, even though the amount of pennies to be refunded was verbally unstoppable due to the fact that the price was insignificantly needed. The system of the gold-coin standard vimagala the minimum hand in power of a penny, the top rank, the price is the establishment of a gold coin of a penny and the secure function of the system of coin minting. For an hour, as already indicated, at the XIX century. sighted the need for central banknote emisi.

A system for the treatment of pennies that are not subject to gold and the addition of high-powered cards, doesn’t have to do with mechanics, it’s a kind of biased role of a spontaneous regulator of pennies for pennies, and that’s why we need to regulate the organ. Such a body is the central bank, a certain power is granted a special status and a delegation of specific functions, which are secured for secure stability of pennies, as well as a bank system.

The doorstep of the central banks in two-door houses with their hats.

The first gentleman, you can call Yevolyutsinim - on the other hand, you re-created the bank, which is the status of the bank, at the central bank. The provision of the bank in the role of the central bank was won in the middle of that, as if taking it upon themselves, some rewarding (function) delegated.

Thus, the largest bank in Great Britain, the Bank of England, has a large number of private banks for safe custody of penniless reserves on the bank of the bank. Yak has already been indicated, in the XIX century. The banknote allocation seemed to concentrate with the Bank of England, which caused the centralization of cash servicing of the bank with the Bank of England. All the same, we were able to provide the bank with the banks of the Russian Federation at the Bank of England and saving them large reserves. Pіznіsche tse co-developed the system of bank interbank loans through the Bank of England. Yakshcho bankіvskih reserves appeared inadequate for the satisfaction of the depositor and creditors, the banks were wrapped up for pozdichki to the Bank of England і such a rank didn’t miss their love. At the result, the Bank of England steadily re-branched into the bank bank. Vrakhovuychi is a special bank function of the Bank of England and the significance of the establishment of proper control over the banknote banknote is guaranteed by the Banking Law of 1844r. The Bank of England was reorganized into two independent departments: the bank department, the banknote department, the bank department, the bank department for all aspects of the bank's business. Vid Bank felt vimagati office public bank banking, a kind of balance sheet of both departments, which should be broken and dos.

small 68

Balance to the Bank of England

For the remaining completion of the process of becoming a central bank, you can check the statutory status of the special bank status of the bank, the bank regulating the penny market. The Evolution’s nobility є is characteristic of the Krai, on the ear of the 20th century. later there were insured banks (Great Britain, France).

Another way is the establishment of a central bank on the basis of a special law, such as the transfer of the special status of a newly opened bank from the moment of its sleep.

Tsei shlyah є characteristic:

* for more than one country, for whatever reason, there wasn’t one Unified Bank;

For example, the United States until 1913 p. not a bulo of a single bank. On the cob 1913r. the right of banknote banknotes were registered with the national commercial banks, as well as banks were established with the national bank act of 1863 p. (ix bulo 7475). Behind this act of the Bank of Mali, the right to issue banknotes between the sums of the state capital invested in the regional state bonds. The American bulk was put to the centrality of power more often and to the centralized financial power, to the separate banks of the central bank, and the lock. Such a shutter will take leave from the bad luck of the first two people to approve the US Bank of America. The first bank was bulo unformed at 1811 p., And the other was liquidated at 1836 p. At the XIX century. i on the cob of XX century bankruptcies of banks and banks in the borders of the whole country have become a regular witness in the USA. Panika 1907 p. I ended up with such significant expenses for bank depositors, who got American money, lost it, got over it at the need for opening a special bank, the activity of a certain bank was fixed for security of a penny system and a bank. Zgіdno with the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 p. 12 federal reserve banks were established in the USA, as well as to assume the role of the central bank in the Federal Reserve (as has become the Keruy Radha). Federal banks have the right:

- emіsії banknotes;

- nadannya to commercial banks a little poem for a half-time of third-party;

- accumulated portions of the reserves of commercial banks at the inter-banks are established by the norms for the provisions of reserves with the method of guaranteeing deposits.

* for the majority of colonies, as a result of winning political independence, they were completely in control of the national banking system, and they’ve got the right amount of insurance. The stinks won over the principle of the dignity of the night, for only one of the banks to be given central status;

* For post-socialist countries, as in the minds of transformational economies, in the market ambushes, the banking system was reformed according to the principle of encouraging the yard.

In ordinary minds, the main lank of the banking system of the country, as a rule, is the central bank. In other countries, a bank has a different name: national, central, reserve, national, state bank (Austrian National Bank, Regional Bank of Australia, People's Bank of China, Swedish State Bank, Central Bank of the Russian Federation) Bank of Italy, the key to the role of the banking system of the country.

In the other half of the 20th century, the yak is characterized by the globalization of grocery markets, so that we can do the re-creation of national grocery markets in the uninhabited area, the central banks grow in strength:

* central bank guarantees on mid-city banks;

* Compilation of central banks with international monetary and financial organizations;

* creation of supranational central banks.

We can use the croc on the hat of the middle dyalnosti of the central banks to win the goal of 1930 p. Bank of Interim Power Bank - BIS in the city of Basel, Switzerland.

The main functions of the bank:

* accept financial statements by central banks;

* keep safe and secure for central banks to carry out international financial transactions;

* visually at the role of an individual agent of an agent of central banks - members of the BMR at completed international visits.

Shareholders of the bank є even the whole of Europe’s central banks, as well as the central banks of Australia, Japan, Canada, the Pivdenno-African Republic. The USA is represented in the BMR not by the Fed, but by a group of commercial banks, the Federal Reserve of Belarus and the United States of America. Central banks є BMR shareholders and one-time customers, that is why BMR is often called the bank of central banks. More detailed information on BMR will be discussed in previous article 13.4.

In the mid-70s, rock and roll, the BMR had a meeting with a bank regulation look.

The initiators of the committee were the central banks of Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, Canada, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, USA, France, Germany, Switzerland, Switzerland and Japan. Neofitsynoy yogo call the Basel Committee (for the search), or the Cook Committee (for the one and the same director of the Bank of England, which has a clear mind about this committee).

The edges of the Committee are represented by central banks and other bodies, as before the national legislation, bear the responsibility for the regulation of banking activities and visibility. Juridically, the Committee is not at the highest national level of strict regulation of the bank’s bank and that’s a healthy look. On the basis of prior banking information, the principle of effective banking visibility and guidelines is recommended, in such a procedure, analysis of bank risks and financial management principles are available.

The committee is willing to provide us with quick recommendations and recommendations regarding the specifics of the national economy, the system, and the banking system. I appeal to the highest authority of the committee, prepared directives for it to be insured by central banks, regulatory and supervisory authorities and banking establishments in various countries of the world and so on, as a rule, by a certain amount of banking legislation.

The committee is traditionally experienced with the official professional bodies of the bank at a glance. At 1990 p. Bula is set up by the regional group of the Bank of Ukraine at a glance of the Central and Scheme of Europe. The Committee is on behalf of a group of special and expert recommendations on how to establish and function banks, organize bank views, prepare legislative frameworks in the minds of a market transformation economy. The NBU is actively in contact with the members of the group, take care of the robot organs of the group.

Central banks are actively cooperating with international monetary and financial institutions, ahead of the IMF, and as such, the role of the parent body of the foreign exchange regulation. Close contacts of the central banks in the IMF make sense in front of them, so that they can have similar values, and the very same: secure currency stability and pay attention to currency regulation. Proceedings of the IMF Statute: Viscous, Regulatory, Legal, Advisory, Credit and Credit Functions. With the whole following, there is a tendency to complete the credit to the functional fund, as the singing world has changed its very nature. Oskilki of the IMF overpayed their loans to central banks of the Republic of Kazakhstan, more securely overseeing their stable and regulatory functions, and in the future, you can redeploy them from your own Bank of Central Banks. More details on the IMF’s activities will be discussed in previous article 13.1.

With a characteristic drawing of complicity є development of regional economic integration in Western Europe, a certain reason for the increase in the number and role of central banks in the economy. The process of closeness and mutual interweaving of national economies is spread out at 50 years, if the func- tion is much more fun, you must undo the regional cooperation in Europe and the European Union. Nevid'nim component eco-

nominal integration Integration - the process of coordinating monetary policy, formulating the supra-national mechanism of currency regulation, establishing foreign monetary organizations.

The elements of monetary integration in Western Europe were formulated in a progressive manner. At 1979 p. Bula is set to the ськаEuropean currency system; in the country they took the fate of the EU (EC (the most important name is союзEuropean Union ЄC). The system is small on the European Union stability zone with the ECU вла s open currency and transferred the mode of total currency exchange rates to the Ukrainian ЄС members (so called superzmiya). Functions of the ECU and of the international currency regulation are charged to the European Fund for Foreign Currency Consumer Goods. The Fund provided loans to the central banks of the Krai членС members for conducting foreign exchange interventions using the method of transmitting currencies at the exchange rate at the boundaries of the marked corridor.

The success of the function of the European monetary system has made it necessary to formulate the economic currency union ЄС (ЄВС). An important stage in the form of the Air Force was falling asleep in 1994r. Європейського валютного інституту для розроблення правил і процедур створення Європейської системи центральних банків (ЄСЦБ) і введення в обіг єдиної європейської валюти євро.

ЄСЦБ - це дворівнева банківська система, що складається із Європейського центрального банку - ЄЦБ (European Central Bank - ЕСВ) і національних центральних банків країн Європейського союзу. Створення ЄСЦБ було логічною передумовою запровадження єдиної європейської валюти - євро.

З 1 січня 1999р. в одинадцяти країнах ЄВС (Австрія, Бельгія, Ірландія, Іспанія, Італія, Люксембург, Нідерланди, Німеччина, Португалія, Фінляндія, Франція) установлено незмінний обмінний курс національних валют відносно євро і запроваджено євро в безготівковий обіг.

Відповідно до Статуту основне завдання ЄСЦБ - це підтримка цінової стабільності в ЄВС. Базові функції ЄСЦБ:

* визначення та реалізація єдиної монетарної політики в зоні євро (ЄВС);

* проведення міжнародних валютних операцій;

* зберігання офіційних золотовалютних резервів, що передані ЄЦБ країнами-учасницями системи, а також управління цими резервами;

* сприяння чіткому функціонуванню платіжних систем країн-учасниць ЄВС.

Крім того, ЄСЦБ повинна сприяти стабільності фінансової системи і проведенню уповноваженими національними органами ефективного пруденційного нагляду за банками.

Виконання завдань і функцій, що покладені на ЄСЦБ, забезпечує Європейський центральний банк (ЄЦБ) - самостійно або через національні центральні банки. При цьому ні ЄЦБ, ні національні центральні банки не можуть отримувати вказівки від органів влади ЄС та урядів країн-учасниць. Згідно зі Статутом ЄЦБ і національним центральним банкам забороняється надавати кредити органам влади ЄС і урядам країн-учасниць, а також купувати у них безпосередньо боргові зобов'язання.

ЄЦБ розпочав своє існування з 1 липня 1998р. Штаб-квартира банку розташована у Франкфурті-на-Майні (Німеччина). Статутний капітал ЄЦБ становить 5 млрд євро. Частка кожного національного центрального банку у формуванні капіталу визнача ється двома чинниками: обсягом внутрішнього валового продукту і кількістю населення в країні. Причому ці два чинники однаково впливають на обсяги внеску до статутного капіталу.

small 69

Частки національних центральних банків у капіталі ЄЦБ

Чистий прибуток ЄЦБ за рішенням Ради керуючих частково (не більше 20%) спрямовується для формування резервного фонду. Загальна сума цього фонду не повинна перевищувати капітал банку. Залишок прибутку розподіляється між національними центральними банками (акціонерами ЄЦБ) пропорційно частці сплаченого ними капіталу.

Керівні органи ЄЦБ: Рада керуючих і Виконавче правління. Рада керуючих складається з членів Виконавчого правління і голів національних центральних банків країн зони євро^ ЄВС. Рада визначає основні орієнтири монетарної політики й інструменти її реалізації. Рішення стосовно монетарної політики приймаються простою більшістю голосів членів Ради. Для прийняття рішень стосовно формування капіталу банку, офіційних золотовалютних резервів і деяких інших питань голоси голів національних центральних банків зважуються згідно з участю цих банків у формуванні статутного капіталу ЄЦБ. Рада керуючих є підзвітною Європейському парламенту і Раді міністрів країн-членів ЄС.

Виконавче правління складається з президента банку, віце-президента і чотирьох інших членів, які обираються за загальною згодою урядів країн-членів на рівні Глав держав або урядів. Термін повноваження членів Правління становить 8 років і не підлягає подовженню. Виконавче правління здійснює реалізацію монетарної політики відповідно до рішень, прийнятих Радою керуючих, і розробляє директиви для національних центральних банків згідно з покладеними на нього повноваженнями.

small 70

Організаційна структура ЄСЦБ

Для координації монетарної політики між країнами зони євро та іншими країнами ЄС (Велика Британія, Швеція, Данія, Греція) створена Загальна Рада. Вона складається з Президента ЄЦБ, віце-президента та голів національних центральних банків країн- учасниць ЄС.

Щорічно ЄЦБ направляє звіт про діяльність ЄСЦБ Європейському Парламенту, Комісії і Раді Міністрів.