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Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.

6.3. Development of a credit system in a country

Persian banks in Japan appeared before the bourgeois revolution of 1868. As a result, they exchanged a private office exchange, as they did the exchange exchange with a bank reference. Ale tіlki pіslya revolutionary initiative is formulated by the Japanese credit system.

The banking system was based on the laws on national banks of 1872 and 1897 p., Commercial banks were sorted out with different types of banks according to the type of banks in Europe. At the same time, the private bank was established with private banks and the main banks and the state credit institutions.

Later, before the first private bankruptcy, immediately at the beginning of the year, the bank institutes were at the forefront of the main supply of bank loans in the hands of the small bank. Pislya Persona Svitovo Vinii The process of concentration of banks was settled, especially at the sound of a bank crisis in 1927. At the result of bankruptcies and repayment by great banks, there were fewer banks in 1928. since 1918 p. udvіchі has changed.

At the bottom, the process of concentration of banks was seen very well, while in the rocks of the Other World Bank, there was more active control over the sovereign control. Zagalna kіlkіst bankіvskih institutіv s 327 at 1941 p. it passed to 125 at 1945 p.

With the help of other private credit systems, the system is developed according to the line of the widespread credit institutions, as well as the existing bank, the bank, the bank, and the bank. Bank, as well as 10 financial and credit corporations), so and sovereign regulation of the activities of private institutions, and above the power of various services.

One of these services is the sovereign insurance of loans, which were given to exporters of Japanese goods, private Japanese banks, and commercial companies. In Japan, the insurance of such loans is covered by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Industry. Continuous insurance function; insure insurance companies and commercial banks for the power of the state, which is called ministry. Japanese exporters are insured for all kinds of rizikіv: political, commercial, financial.

The credit system of Japan is stockpiled from private, sovereign and cooperative institutes. For the nature of the functionality of the stink, you can subscribe to the bank (Bank of Japan), commercial banks and special FCI.

Bank of Japan, foundations of 1882 p. Yak Akcіonerna Kompaniya, є Credit System Center, local bank of the country; the main shareholder є power. Private shareholders do not have the right to take part in the form for the sake of the bank. All members are designated as a detachment. Bank є sovereign order.

The Bank of Japan is pleased to have all the functions of the banks, who want to have the opportunity to go to the bank and see the best bank cards available for singing special features. We characterize, for example, є those with a stretch of the 50-60s of the main yoke of the Bula, not a power, but commercial banks. A portion of the sovereign goiter'yazan and credit in the assets of the Bank of Japan went from 72.2% in 1949. up to 37.4% in 1970, a part of the regional-posikovy operations was completed. Such an asset in the bank’s assets during the whole period meant a higher percentage of the loan and loan process and an extended process, which resulted in a significant increase in the budget.

Widely, commercial banks of credit to the Bank of Japan can help to effectively save money by regulating penniless loans and credit. This method is the same as the rate of regional interest rate. The system of obov'yazkovyh reserves, yaku vikoristovuyut 1959 p., And that operation on a vidkritomu market tezh vidigrayut important role in the mechanism of penny-credit regulation.

Skasuvannya in 1965 p. fence the position of the sovereign in the country for covering the deficit of the sovereign budget in order to finance the deficit in favor of the status of the sovereign poses and argued that the state became the main partner for the Bank of Japan. At 1982 p. The regional power poses in their assets became 78%.

Functions to the Bank of Japan were recognized by a special law in 1942 and one in 1979 and 1998. modernized. Under the law, the main capital bank was set at rosma 100 million ((55% of the capital belong to powers, 45% to private shareholders: private individuals, financial institutes, insurance companies and others). Shareholders are guaranteed 4% of dividends at Rosmiri. Rasht go a little to the sovereign budget.

Згідно із Law 1998 p. the latter is promptly reimbursed for the correct bank (according to the law of 1979 p. the bank was politically happy), it can be stored for nine (the number of members included before the warehouse), and I am very glad to cancel it. The head of the two legacy defenders is designated as the Cabinet of Ministers for the benefit of both chambers to the parliament. There are six members of the Executive Board of the Cabinet of Ministers with the opportunity to have more songs and knowledge in the field of economics and finances (the law of the Republic of 1979 provides for the improvement of the number of employees of the authorized representative). Termіn іхніх it is more important to become a rock ’(Bulot Chotiri). Representatives of the order may be present at different times in order to correct (they’ll have the right to submit the right to present their own proposals for review).

The Bank of Japan, headquartered in Tokyo, has 45 branches and offices in Japan, as well as representative offices in New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt-on-Main and Hong Kong.

The Bank doesn’t interfere with the monopoly on the issue of banknotes. Basically, the main goal is stability and stability, so that you can take into account the balanced development of the national economy. Whatever is reached by the managers of the competition and the implementation of the individual pennant-credit policy, the issue of the grant.

The Bank of Japan also provides a more efficient and functional system of credit and credit institutions (institutes).

Ministr financial securing budget of the bank. Two banks to the bank through the ministry of finance to the parliament about a penny-credit policy, however, to scrutinize and conduct a new institute, it is passed on by law.

At the table. 9 the balance of the main rakhunkіv the Bank of Japan in 1995-1997 pp.

Table 9

Balance of main accounts to the Bank of Japan *

million єн

Article

1995 p.

1996 p.

Січень 1997 р.

Lutium 1997 p.

Asset

Groshovі poses

23905

19834

19871

108400

Bills purchased

(in addition to the number of commercial)

104338

90407

57269

63066

Obligations of State Power (ODP)

375358

463422

424113

423856

Short-term government offices

162741

189596

150270

145135

Rahunka of backward assets

25309

29227

29440

29679

Passive

Bank notes

462440

506710

436264

443712

Contribute to the financial and credit institution (institute)

33101

34626

32718

34716

Potochny rakhunki

in

497

744

832

554

* Вісник НБУ. - 1998. - No. 4.

Violate such basic principles of Banking Japan :

• region of commercial and promissory notes and trade goiter'yazan;

• nadanny posik pid security of bills, birch goiter'yazan, sovereign regional organizations and valuable folders;

• buying and selling of commercial and promissory notes and trade goiter'yazan, the sovereign regions and valuable folders, as well as the largest regions;

• vipisuvannya bills of exchange for denial;

• acceptance of contributions;

• operations in national currencies;

• Adoption of zberigannya of values, purchase and sale of gold and gold from zlivka.

The Bank of Japan is a financial agent for the government managing all kinds of state-owned funds, engaging in foreign currency and financial activity, which is fixed for the stabilization of the exchange rate of the currency. Credits of government are rewarded through a subscription and underwriting of VIP loans and short-term power folders.

A bank for a long-term ministry of finance can buy and sell foreign currency, lend a loan and keep a loan on a regular basis with a third-party bank in order to get a loan and a loan

Bank of Japan зд zdіysnyuє control over the credit sphere and ensure stable function of the payment system and rozrahunkіv, lending credit to credit organizations for line exchanges.

Commercial banks are registered in Moscow and regional (regional). Іх operations legislative regulations. The Bank does not have the right to distribute its business without special licensing and finance ministry (remember the registration: active capital, active assets, and the necessary additional status). The Bank is guilty of organization of the form of joint-stock partnership and mother statutory capital not less than 1 billion є. The yogi has the name “bank”. For the bank account the bank needs the necessary number of the ministry of finance.

Categories of banks rivaled by the legislation of the 90s are shown in fig. 10.

Categories of banks iz from legislation of the 90s rock

Moscow banks - the top 10 most Japanese banks in Japan. The stinks roused the ponad of 1/4 of the igneous oath of the healed deposits. Qi banks give about 30% of posic. Many banks may have a chance to file a file (175 installs) from Japan behind the cordon. Kozhen z izno tіsno povyazaniy і with industrial and trading companies. Stink є the main participants in the foreign exchange market, the post-commencement of money at the galaxy economy, which are developing at a fast pace. Під їх control of interruption of the duty of the FCI.

An important, familiar Japanese economic system є revelation of a Keiretsu, or an industrial group. The skin of the keiretsu is stocked up from the swift group of FCI (the basis is Moscow banks and the main FCI), linked to a group of industrial companies, and it is easy to trade with others. The skin participant of the group є the bald man of the sound actions of the members. Mіsykі banks іdtrimuyut fіrmі іх keiretsu with above posik і volodyіyut a significant part of the trade goiter ’zazih ikh firm. The financial system of Japan is straightforward for investment and investment.

Until 1990 p. up to ten of the largest banks in the world included Japanese banks, and Dai-Ichi Kahguo was in front of the banks. Prote at 1997 p. “Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi” (capital of 18585 million dollars), having donated money, “Sumitomo Bank '(14737 million dollars) - devs, and“ Dai-Ichi Kahguo ”(capital of 14458 million dollars) - 10 a month.

For many banks, the characteristic is a high level of re-crediting and depositing in the Bank of Japan, which is a good credit to the credit policy.

Most (regional) banks are small and medium in size due to the large operating banks, which can be operated in a single prefecture and are dealt with in the first place.

From now on, on the basis of further development of the banking system of Japan, it is possible to viocre these characteristics of special merchant banks:

• a large number of companies with commercial and trading companies on a straightforward credit line (a part of the posichkovyh resources at the large capital of Japanese companies should be reduced by 80%, and at certain banks the credit of commercial banks will be exceeded);

• high level of concentration and large sum of assets. (With a camp in 1996, the average of 100 largest banks in the world is 26 Japanese, nearly a third of the total amount of deposits in 500 of the largest banks in the world will become a part of the banks in Japan.)