This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.

9.2. Bank system of land

The credit system of the United Kingdom as a result of economic and historical features of the country є one of the most accused in the world. There’s a wide range of special credit institutions. The main 17 lanks are Bank of England, commercial banks, special FCI. Legal separation of functions is provided by credit institutes of the West German, while traditional bars in the remaining towns are progressively flailing. The result is a trend of D1 about universal credit institutions.

The main FCI of Great Britain in the mid-90s is shown in fig. thirteen.

Fundamental Financial and Credit Institute of the United Kingdom

Fig. 13. Fundamental financial and credit institute of Great Britain

Bank of England of the Foundation in 1694 p. yak is a private company. From the middle of the XVIII century Having found out the functions of the central bank, having monopolized the banknotes and having acted as a banker. At 1946 p. they nationalized labor labors, they paid a generous wickup to the youngest people: in exchange for shares in the State Commission, state powers were allocated for the sum, and she re-rated the nominal share capital of 4 times. Bank of England for all the functions of the central bank:

• є bank for commercial banks;

• є bank, through which pass the state power and vitrati pass;

• Hello banknotes;

• service staff members;

• Zdіsnyuє foreign exchange operations and control їх, від від імені скарницки керу к ofitsіnymi gold and currency reserves of the country;

• health review of credit facilities, foreign exchange and credit markets;

• Consulting department with food and credit policy and health policy (it’s important for the additional purchase and sale of commercial bills, valuable folders;

Bank of England does not fall into the warehouse. Lines of priority are important for the Bank of England not to lie down in front of the order (all the same to the bank).

Vzєmovidnosini Bank of England with the Parliament and the Department of similar matters, as well as in the regions of Western Europe, and in the city of France and France.

In the minds of the market economy, an important form of control over the activity of the central bank is the internal and external audit. In the United Kingdom and the countries with different marketplace interest rates, the role of the central bank in the system is important. Dosvidom Bank of England can speed up Ukraine, formu-

Organizational internal audit to the Bank of England - a special structural audit - audit department. The director of the department (the head internal auditor) is in order to be open-minded to the members for the sake of the director for the sake of auditing and the Sam Radi. Such a method has been made independent of the audit service.

Internal audiences to the Bank of England to kindly reckon with the best auditors, to freely exchange information. Zavdyaki tsomu:

• it is possible to write the most optimal system, if you can get more robots with internal audit systems of the latest classes;

• official auditors are able to clearly and appraise the internal audit system of the Bank of England;

• stink here the international audit, after you receive the money from the service of the internal audit service to the Bank of England.

For the sake of such an understanding, it was agreed by the parties of the memo that is a note on the optimal distribution of functions and obov'yazkiv. The Bank of England audiences to conduct such transfers:

• finance;

• computer-based measures;

• Efficiency of vitrachis koshtіv.

Audiences do not drown in detail at the right of the conference, respect the damages, as they can lead to global negative insights.

In order to achieve positive results in robots, the audience emphasize respect on such points:

• Reliable planning;

• Rosumіnnya system, scho і іt;

• Optimal estimation of rizikіv and mehanizmіv control;

• secure zvyazku;

• Report on information.

At the Department of Audit, the Bank of England will be given an overhaul of a comprehensive approach to good staff (auditors should be assigned third-party special services, and bank employees will be required). Pracnivniks will be able to understand the functional requirements for the indivisible regulations on the landing. Auditors are guilty of complete and diligent, hastily bring them to their logical conclusion, but of tact, diplomatically come up with difficult situations, analyze and understand how to formulate them, and also change them.

Submitted by the auditors форма information став presentation for the adoption by the Radova of the Director of the Bank of England of optimal management decisions that is fully based on the principle of the function of the bank.

The Bank of England to fight against the rizikas of a high level (a waste of pennies of the same reputation) and secondary riziki, to some of which:

• fraud (lead to the destruction of the law);

• pardon (to do business with the bank);

• hijacking (a waste of non-bridge);

• wrong decision (you can bring it to a bank without payment);

• pardon the strategic plan (cause a lack of information to the bank);

• ineffectively secure computer systems.

Shchob manage cyzizami, Bank of England live singing in control.

For the bank representatives:

• the availability of adequate income;

• adequate preparation.

Behind the camp are robots with documents:

• reappearance of two letters for rebooking;

• conversion of statistics for indicators of accuracy of figures.

For the holidays:

• rozmezhuvannya zd_ysnennya ter and vikonannya rozrahunkіv;

• transfer of land;

• control of the instrumental design of the rozrakhunkіv (right up to recording the telephone rozmov dealers).

For values:

• a vivid glance at the access at the monster, de values ​​are preserved (two keys at the highest praznikov);

• distribution of zberigannya values ​​and іх the region;

• systematic pidrahunki і zvirki;

• possession of monsters by video art. For computers:

• duplication of information on a VIP card at a time at the central computer;

• password protection for access to the computer system and software security;

• security of computer systems with technical documentation, so that I can know if there are any inaccuracies;

• vikoristannya mezh iz with encrypted hobbies to change the risen of unobtrusive penetration into them.

The Bank of England has the greatest incentive for the stability of national currency, the higher banking standards, the effectiveness of the payment and rooted mechanism, and the general recognition of the effectiveness of the economy of the country.

At 1979 p. It was done to the depositor of deposit in the Bank of England , which guaranteed 75% of the compensation for the deposit not exceeding 10,000 f. Art. (for compensation with a contribution of 8000 f.st. compensation became 6000 f.st., and for a contribution of 25000 f.st. - tilki 7500 f.st.). At 1987 p. the deposit amount, for a certain guarantee of 75% compensation, became 15,000 f. Art. At 1999 p. I am glad to save deposits guaranteed 90% compensation by the Bank of England deposits, but do not override 20,000 f. Art. (tab. 33).

Table 33

Indicators that characterize the process of deposit insurance in private properties in other countries

Kraina

Amount to deposit, what to insure

Chastina deposit, a certain pidlyagaє compensation,%

Rozmir vidrahuvan vid sumi

insured deposits in banks with the insurance fund,%

Great Britain

20,000 p. Art.

90

minimum insurance fund 5 million f. Art.

USA

$ 100,000

100

0.23

Luxembourg

25,000 marks

100

0.50

Belgium

20,000 Euro

100

2.00

Polshcha

1000 euros

100

0.40

The Bank of England is constantly changing the reserves of commercial banks and healthy banks with a low-interest credit policy without the provisions of the reserve. The norm of the reserve reserve ratio (0.35%) is not high, so as to secure income security for the Bank of England (table 34).

Table 34

Norms of the Obligation Reserve Bank of England

Deposits

1989 p.

1992 p.

1996 p.

Transaction,%

0.45

0.35

0.35

String%

0.45

0.35

0.35

In the minds of the on-going vidmovi vid obov'yazkovogo reserve Bank of England direct credit for managing interest rates. Tsyogo reach for ancillary operation on a vidkritomu market.

Banking establish the United Kingdom to have a look as well as established by the law of the law The Bank of England will deny audit auditors and auditors with instructions for auditors (1994 p.) Before the law on banks adopted in 1987 p.

Provision No. 3 to the Regulation on the coordination of the banking system, seen from 1992 (friend Radi Europe directive), Bank of England has the right to account for accounting records and internal control systems of bank accounts.
A wide range of global banking offers a wider range of financial services, the Bank of England, a large share of commercial banks, and a small share of regular, 8% - a certain number of assets). (The Basel Committee of Banking Regulatory and At-A-Glance has set the standard for capital adequacy of 8%, the share of Nimetchin's door is 5.56, and that of Ukraine is 8%.)

For an assessment of the wealth of capital, the Bank of England vikoristovu term "capital base", reservations from the Basel Committee. The base is stocked with two tiers (Table 35).

Table 35

Buttock to the capital base of the Bank of England

Tier I

million pounds Art.

Tier II

million pounds Art.

Sertsevinniy capital

Dodatkovy capital

Aktsionerniy capital

84

Unbroken Lines of Stream Rock

6.6

Ogoloshenі reserves

16.8

Foreign reserves

12

Ogoloshenі industrial benefits

7.2

Subordinate String Borg

72

Zagalny admissible sub-ordination string Borg

54

At once

108,0

At once

72.6

Sertovinny capital is designated as the main part of Vlasny koshtіv. Until then, it is imperative to ensure that they are consolidated together with sound promotions, non-cumulative line-free prizes (including cumulative privileges) and unclaimed reserves. On the vidnіm vid vkhovosheny nakoloshenny reserves formed with a clean surplus after the payment of taxes.

Dodatkovy capіtal maє so elementi:

• unabated profits of stream rock;

• foreign bank reserves to cover the total loan credit, which can be used at Maybutnuyu, but not identifiable at the moment of singing;

• subordination of string borg, which is to clean the sound and unburdened instruments of fixed capital to the bank with the minimum payable line paid off 5 times, which can be redeemed for banknotes to the bank;

• the most permissible permits of subordination are the string borg (give them more space for warehouses and capital, may change the lines, it’s unbecoming to have a short time for close coverage, do not need to be provided) - a whole lot of tools are available.

For razrahunku capital base Bank of England vikoristovє such obov'yazkovі standards:

• not less than 50% of the capital base to the bank of economy level I (our application has a standard to keep in mind);

• the line boss cannot subordinate 50% to line I (in our application 72 • 100% / 108 = 66.67%). That’s the norm, you can’t go too far, let the string borg become subordinate 108 • 50% / 100% = 54, and the sum is actual (It’s acceptable to insure the capital base, but not the actual sum of the in-line row borg, 54, not 72 million pounds). .) dorіvnyuє 72 million f. st .;

• foreign reserves cannot overtake 1.5% of the assets of a bank.

Such is the capital of the Bank of England Bank of Victoria since 1990 1990 p. I would like to state that the number of foreign reserves (1.5%) is determined by the Basel Committee and the Bank is regulated and by sight, a member of a certain United Kingdom.

Commercial banks. See the commercial banks indicated in the table. 36. Naymenuvannya "bank" is clearly from the law on banking dyalnist 1987 p. get too much money for banks, save money, and I’ll overwhelm 5 million f. Art., but for banks registered for the cordon.

Table 36

See commercial banks

Bank

Kіlkіst

1987 p.

1995 p.

Clearing banks

18

6

Discount houses

8

10

Merchant banks

34

71

Foreign banks

374

559 *

Tribute for 1996 p.

The basis of the English banking system is to become clearing banks - reliable deposit banks, which are included in the warehouse of the largest banks in the world. Stink є members of the London Clearing House, actively engage in international operations and take care of a smaller company as a cordon, as well as representations (represent representatives of the CIS countries).

From the middle of the 80s, there was a vested interest in the liberal trading rules for London stock exchanges outside of Latvia, as well as through increased competition from traditional bank transactions, which are always open to large banks. bank servants. Organizational price has appeared in the growth of clearing banks in unlimited special subsidiaries (with trade in valuable folders, leasing, factoring and other financial loans).

Zokrem, Lloyd's can be more intellectually respectful corporation. Actually, the market sector. Ale yakshko at 1989 p. the number of individual contributors to Lloyd's became 31329, then in 1993 p. - 19537. The prototype is independent of the indefinitely corporation utrimu positsії. HSBC Holdings Bank for $ 27,392 mln. Capital Having visited the first place at St. Petersburg in 1997

British Clearing bank as a universal bank Take care of the guarantee of the most valuable folders. Protein vіdrіznyaetsya vіd such well nіmetsky universal bank for such signs:

• Viocremenly vіddіlennya bіlsh traditsіynі;

• a part of banks in the joint-stock capital business of companies;

• day-to-day bank and insurance company type. Oblіkovі domi (Discount Houses) - establish, what function on

to a penny market. Look at the tradition of getting resources before feeding (on-loan) and investing them at the commercial treasury bills, state governments, gambling funds, deposit and deposit certificates. Until the 80s of the regional elections, the houses were unified, like the Mali eligible for loans to the Bank of England in exchange for mid-term loans from the treasury bills of exchange. The Bank of England and Dalіnі zdіsnyuому operations on a penny market in one of the regional houses, even though you don’t have to change such privileges and their significance. In the minds of the Shvidko awaken the penniless sphere and the university-specialized specialties, middlemen-diversified diversification, that in 90s rocks went up to 10.

Merchant banks - trading banks (a small number of ten establishments), the main sphere of business is connected with international trading and international credit and financial operations. The strength of these banks is in the possession of a position, they’re traditionally borrowing money on the market for posic capitals, the security of the valuable folders. Trading banks to renew the deposit and postal operations for deceased customers with a separate account, as well as consulting services. Stink to organize consortiums, to manage portfolios of valuable shares, to act as intermediaries in operations of evil and to repay companies, to play important role in currency market and gold market.

Merchant banks enter up to bank issuing houses Association (55 banks) and Accepting Houses Association (16 banks). In addition to Merchant banks, in order to receive valuable shares, enter the British Merchant Banking and Security Houses Association. Naybilshi trading banks in the 90s have become banks of a universal sight.

Foreign banks (foreign banks) - the largest and most numerous banking group of the United Kingdom. Of approximately 800 credit institutes in Ukraine, 350 ponad - foreign countries. The foreign balance sheet of foreign banks is overwhelming 800 billion f. Art., but to become ponad 60% of the balance of the entire banking system (in 1989).

At 1996 p. London has a large number of invested European companies and 559 foreign banks (there are more American banks, lower banks in New York itself, and more banks in Japan).

British overseas banks (Banks Spіvdruzhnostі_) - ofіzііna nazva colichnyh British colonial banks. Infections are not viral, shards of them have gone to the warehouse of the great bank groups. Vіdmіnnіst of such attitudes - dyalіnіst at the EU countries, is important, although they want their headquarters and those acting in front of the UK. A typical representative of the group - Standard-Charted Bank - behind the cordon ponad 1300 відділеньі and enter up to the top ten banks in the UK. At the warehouse of clearing banks in the number of colony banks, the functions of the special international banks are randomly allocated.