Alcoholism (chronic alcoholism)
A disease with a progressive (progressive) course, which is based on addiction to ethyl alcohol. In social terms, alcoholism means the abuse of alcohol (drunkenness), leading to a violation of moral and social norms of behavior, to damage to one's own health, material and moral condition of the family, and also affecting the health and well-being of society as a whole.
According to the WHO, alcohol abuse is the third leading cause of death after cardiovascular and oncological diseases. First, severe intoxication (alcohol poisoning) is a common cause of death at a young age. Secondly, alcohol abuse can cause sudden “cardiac” death due to primary cardiac arrest or cardiac arrhythmias (for example, atrial fibrillation). Thirdly, alcohol abusers are more susceptible to injuries - domestic, industrial, transport. Moreover, they suffer not only themselves, but also can contribute to injury to others. In addition, the risk of suicide among patients with alcoholism increases tenfold compared with the population. About half of the killings are also committed in a state of intoxication.
For the early stages of alcoholism, diseases such as peptic ulcer, trauma, cardiovascular disorders are more characteristic, for the later stages, cirrhosis of the liver, polyneuritis, and brain disorders. High mortality among men is associated mainly with an increase in alcoholism. 60-70% of men who abuse alcohol die before the age of 50.
The reasons for drinking are different. One of them is the psychotropic effect of ethyl alcohol: euphoric (uplifting), relaxing (relieving tension, relaxing) and sedative (soothing, sometimes causing drowsiness). The need to achieve this effect exists in many categories of people: people with a pathological nature, suffering from neurosis, poorly adapted in society, as well as working with emotional and physical overload. In the formation of addiction to alcohol, a large role is played by the social environment, the microclimate in the family, upbringing, traditions, the presence of traumatic situations, stress and the ability to adapt to them. Undoubtedly, the influence of hereditary factors determining both characterological features and predisposition to metabolic disorders.
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