Alcoholism (chronic alcoholism)
The disease has a progressive (progressive) course, which is based on addiction to ethyl alcohol. In social terms, alcoholism means alcohol abuse (drunkenness), leading to a violation of moral and social norms of behavior, damage to their own health, the material and moral condition of the family, as well as affecting the health and welfare of society as a whole.
Alcohol abuse, according to the WHO, is the third cause of death after cardiovascular and oncological diseases. First, severe intoxication (alcohol poisoning) is a common cause of death at a young age. Secondly, if alcohol is abused, a sudden "cardiac" death may occur due to a primary cardiac arrest or cardiac rhythm disturbance (for example, atrial fibrillation). Thirdly, alcohol abusers are more susceptible to injuries - domestic, industrial, transport. Moreover, they suffer not only themselves, but may also contribute to injury to others. In addition, the risk of suicide among patients with alcoholism increases tenfold compared with the population. About half of the killings also occur while intoxicated.
For the early stages of alcoholism, such diseases as peptic ulcer, injuries, cardiovascular disorders are more characteristic, for later stages - cirrhosis of the liver, polyneuritis, brain disorders. High mortality among men is mainly associated with an increase in alcoholism. 60-70% of men who abuse alcohol die before the age of 50 years.
The reasons for drinking are different. One of them is the psychotropic effect of ethyl alcohol: euphorizing (enhancing mood), relaxing (relieving tension, relaxing) and sedative (calming, sometimes causing drowsiness). The need to achieve this effect exists in many categories of people: people with pathological nature, suffering from neurosis, poorly adapted in society, as well as working with emotional and physical overload. In the formation of addiction to alcohol a large role is played by the social environment, the microclimate in the family, upbringing, traditions, the presence of stressful situations, stresses and the ability to adapt to them. There is no doubt the influence of hereditary factors that determine both characterological features and susceptibility to metabolic disorders.
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