- deep mental retardation with an almost complete or complete lack of thinking and speech. Such patients react to external stimuli primitively or do not react at all. Instead of speech, sounds are pronounced, they do not understand the speech addressed to them. Patients do not even have simple self-service skills, they are untidy, they cannot eat themselves, sometimes they swallow food un-cooked (such people are fed only liquid food). Persons with idiocy do not always distinguish relatives from outsiders. Emotions are elementary, associated only with pleasure or displeasure. Discontent is often expressed in shouting, becoming vicious, aggressive and causing self-harm. Left to themselves, they are either passive, sluggish, lying in bed, or excited, making stereotypical movements (swaying, clapping their hands, etc.). Deep mental underdevelopment is accompanied by gross defects and physical development. If these defects are incompatible with life, then such patients die, sometimes soon after birth. Such patients require constant care and observation. Usually live in special boarding schools.
Treatment and prevention. Treatment of oligophrenia depends on its cause and is purely symptomatic. To improve the metabolic processes, nootropics, cerebrolysin, glutamic acid, lipocerebrin, and vitamin therapy are prescribed. To reduce intracranial pressure, infusions of magnesia are made, glycerin, diacarb is prescribed. With severe inhibition, stimulants are used (sydnocarb, ginseng, Chinese lemongrass, aloe, etc.). When excited, prescribe antipsychotics, in the presence of seizures - anticonvulsants. Primary prevention includes medical and genetic counseling, early detection of abnormal fetal development when monitoring a pregnant woman, careful prescription of drugs during pregnancy, especially its first half, release from work related to harm, complete abandonment of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy , timely and correct treatment of diseases of the mother during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the baby in the first years of life. Secondary prevention is the early detection of mental retardation and timely treatment, adaptation and rehabilitation.