- deep mental retardation with an almost complete or complete lack of thinking and speech. Such patients respond to external stimuli primitively or do not react at all. Sounds are made instead of speech; they do not understand the speech addressed to them. Patients do not even have simple self-service skills, are untidy, cannot eat themselves, sometimes they swallow food without food (they are fed only with liquid food). Persons with idiocy do not always distinguish relatives from outsiders. Emotions are elementary, associated only with pleasure or displeasure. Discontent is often expressed in screaming, becoming vicious, aggressive and self-harming. Left to their own devices, they are either passive, listless, lying in bed, or excited, making stereotypical movements (swinging, clapping, etc.). Gross defects of the psyche are accompanied by gross defects and physical development. If these vices are incompatible with life, then such patients die, sometimes shortly after birth. Such patients require constant care and supervision. They usually live in special boarding schools.
Treatment and prevention. The treatment of oligophrenia depends on its cause and is purely symptomatic. To improve metabolic processes, nootropics, cerebrolysin, glutamic acid, lipocerebrin are prescribed, vitamin therapy is carried out. To reduce intracranial pressure, infusions of magnesia are made, glycerin, diacarb are prescribed. With severe inhibition, stimulants are used (sydnocarb, ginseng, Chinese magnolia vine, aloe, etc.). When excited, antipsychotics are prescribed, in the presence of seizures, anticonvulsants. Primary prevention includes genetic counseling, early diagnosis of abnormal fetal development when monitoring a pregnant woman, careful prescribing of drugs during pregnancy, especially her first half, dismissal from work related to harmfulness, a complete cessation of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy , timely and proper treatment of diseases of the mother during pregnancy and breastfeeding and the baby in the first years of life. Secondary prevention consists in early detection of mental retardation and timely treatment, adaptation and rehabilitation.