The route of administration in the body of medicinal substances or diagnostic agents with a syringe with a needle. Injections are produced mainly intracutaneously, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously. Injections are also made into arteries, into organs (for example, intracardiacly), into the spinal canal — these types of injections are complex and are performed only by specially trained medical personnel.
Injections are used to quickly achieve the therapeutic effect and accuracy of dosing of the drug, to create the maximum concentration of the drug in the desired area, when it is impossible to use the drug inside (no dosage form for oral administration, dysfunction of the digestive tract), as well as special diagnostic studies.
Subcutaneous and intramuscular injections should be made in certain areas of the body where there is no risk of damaging blood vessels or nerves, for example, under the skin of the subscapularis, abdomen, outer surfaces of the upper extremities, into the area of the outer outer quadrant of the gluteal region (buttock is mentally divided into 4 parts - 2 upper and lower 2, the injection is made in the one of the upper parts, which is closer to the sides). For injection it is best to use disposable syringes and needles, in their absence, it is desirable for each family member to have their own syringe.
The reusable syringe is washed with soap and running water, and it is desirable to disassemble the piston into parts. After that, the piston is collected, the needle is placed on the cannula, water is drawn into the syringe and the needle is washed. To sterilize a syringe, you must have a special metal box - sterilizer, as well as tweezers for assembling a syringe. Washed syringe, needle, tweezers (syringe - disassembled, separate piston, separate glass cylinder where the solution is collected) are placed in the sterilizer, almost boiled water is poured in and boiled for 40 minutes after boiling water (the time before boiling is not considered ). After the sterilization is completed, gently drain some of the water, wash the hands with soap, wipe with alcohol, and pull out tweezers from the water, without touching the parts of the syringe and needle. Tweezers first remove the glass cylinder, then the piston. The cylinder is held in hand, the piston is gently pushed into the cylinder with tweezers. The needle is then removed with tweezers and put on the cannula of the syringe (if it is intended to introduce an oil solution, the needle is put on when the medicine has already been collected in the syringe). Hands can not touch the needle.
Liquid medicinal solutions are sucked into a syringe from a glass ampoule or vial through a needle, and oil solutions without a needle. Having collected the solution, hold the syringe with the needle up, and, slowly pushing the piston, push the air and part of the solution out of it so that there are no air bubbles in it, because even a small vial of it can cause suppuration with intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection and blockage of the vessel (embolism) with intravenous injection. The area of the skin, intended for injection, is carefully rubbed with cotton wool moistened with alcohol or iodine. After any type of injection, the skin puncture site is treated with iodine solution or covered for 2-3 minutes with cotton wool moistened with alcohol.
The technique and place of injection depends on its type. With intradermal injection, a thin needle is inserted into the skin at an acute angle to a shallow depth. When the needle is correctly set, after injection of the solution, a small rounded elevation resembling a lemon peel is formed. With a subcutaneous injection, the needle is inserted to a depth of 2-3 cm in the skin fold, sandwiched between the fingers. Medicines prepared with a physiological solution are absorbed quickly, and slowly with oil.
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