Group of vector-borne diseases. Characterized by acute bouts of fever and anemia. Plasmodia are the causative agents of malaria, carriers are blood-sucking female anopheles.
The source of infection is a sick person and a parasite carrier. The disease is common in countries of Southeast Asia and Africa.
Symptoms and course:The duration of the incubation period for three-day malaria is 14-20 days in the south, 7-14 months in the north, and 8-16 days for tropical malaria. In many patients, prodromal (initial) symptoms often appear: weakness, weakness, loss of appetite, sleep, chilling with a slight fever, headache, and pain in muscles and joints. It lasts 2-3 days. Then comes the characteristic febrile seizure. A typical attack begins with a chill: cold extremities, the tip of the nose and lips are bluish. Awesome chills after 30-40 minutes gives way to heat. The temperature rises to 4041 ± C. The patient's condition worsens. There is anxiety, shortness of breath, severe headache, dizziness, pain in the lower back, limbs. The skin is dry, often greyish yellow, the tongue is coated with white bloom. Palpation of the abdomen is painful. After 6-12 hours, the heat is replaced by sweat. Temperature drops to subnormal. There is an interictal pause, the duration of which is related to the frequency of the process of schizogony - asexual reproduction in the human body of malaria parasites: 1 day for 3 days or 2 days for 4 days malaria.
Attacks can occur at any time of the day. The number of paroxysms in fresh, primary malaria reaches 8-12. In some cases, the parasites die out, recovery occurs, in others, the pathogen circulation in the blood continues and early and late relapses are possible.
Since the first attacks of malaria, the size of the liver and spleen has increased. Anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia increase, ESR increases. Tropical malaria is the most severe, in which there is a threat of malaria coma (severe general intoxication, impaired consciousness, meningeal phenomena) due to the effect of the parasites on the central nervous system.
Recognition:The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical and laboratory data and epidemiological history. All patients with suspected malaria undergo microscopic examination of blood (thick drops and smears). Detection of plasmodia is the only indisputable evidence. Serological methods of research are also used (XRF, RNGA).
Treatment:Directed to stop acute attacks, to destroy gametes - the germ cells of malaria parasites to stop transmission and relapse of the disease. The drugs quinine and 4-aminoquinoline derivatives (primaquine, delagil, fanzimif, etc.) are used according to certain schemes.