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Principles of treatment for sexually transmitted diseases


Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases is carried out after a diagnosis is established and confirmed by laboratory tests. The arsenal of drugs is quite extensive, but at present the main ones are antimicrobials: antibiotics and sulfonamides.
For the treatment of syphilis, penicillin group preparations are most often used, which are administered intramuscularly or endolymphatically. Single, daily and course doses are selected by the doctor individually, depending on the stage of the disease, age, weight of the patient, and concomitant diseases. The duration of treatment is from several days to 1-2 months. In order to guarantee complete recovery after the end of therapy, patients undergo long-term (up to 5 years) clinical and laboratory dispensary observation. The final conclusion about the cure of syphilis is made by specialists only after this period: then patients are not forbidden to start a family and have children.
For each of the specific medicines there are indications and contraindications. The most serious complications of antibiotic treatment are anaphylactic shock. Of other complications, it is necessary to keep in mind - toxidermia, dizziness, fainting, thrombophlebitis, toxic-allergic conditions. In such cases, antihistamines are prescribed. In case of penicillin intolerance, erythromycin or tetracycline drugs (tetracycline, olethrin, doxycycline) are used. Side effects from erythromycin are rare (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and with prolonged use - jaundice). Tetracycline should not be prescribed to pregnant women, and during treatment in the summer they should avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight due to the possible manifestation of photosensitizing effects.
Bismuth preparations are used in the late stages of syphilis, they are administered simultaneously with antibiotics. Side effects are rare, they are usually limited to the appearance of the so-called. bismuth rims - a narrow strip of gray on the tooth edge of the gums, as well as bismuth cells in the urine - degenerated renal epithelium.
Iodine, not acting on pale treponemas, is only an adjuvant that promotes resorption of infiltrates and is prescribed during breaks between courses of treatment, as well as for night pains in joints, bones. A 3-5% solution of potassium iodide is taken orally by 1 tablespoon three times a day after meals, preferably with milk, soda or mineral water. In some cases, iodine preparations cause side effects - damage to the mucous membranes and skin (conjunctivitis, runny nose, swelling of the tongue, larynx, bronchitis), gastrointestinal upsets, and also toxidermia, more often in the form of acne.
Although antisyphilitic drug therapy has a high effect, it is advisable to combine it with stimulants. This primarily applies to late forms of the disease, to patients with concomitant pathology, including alcoholism. Non-specific treatment methods include: pyrotherapy, ultraviolet irradiation, injections of biogenic stimulants (extracts of aloe, placenta, vitreous, splenin), immunomodulators (levamisole, diificin, methyluracil, pyroxane, etc.), vitamins, especially C and group B.
External therapy in most cases is not advisable to apply, it is resorted to only in certain cases. Local treatment is reduced mainly to the hygienic content of the affected areas. If the patient has large ulcerative, multiple chancres with significant infiltrates, warm baths, lotions with benzylpenicillin solutions in demixide, application of Acemine ointments, yellow mercury, heparin are prescribed. To accelerate the regression of weeping papules in the genital parts and near the anus, powders from calomel in half with talcum powder or ointments with antibiotics are recommended. In the presence of rashes in the oral cavity (papular-ulcerative tonsillitis) - rinse with solutions of rivanol, 2% boric acid or grimitsidin (1 ml per glass of water). Treatment of pregnant women and children, as well as recipients (people who have received the blood of a patient with syphilis) and preventive treatment (in order to prevent infection of people who have had sexual or close household contact with patients with syphilis) have their own characteristics and are carried out in accordance with them.
Treatment of patients with gonorrhea and other diseases with a primary lesion of the urethra (chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureoplasmosis) is carried out by venereologists and gynecologists. Methods depend on the cause of the inflammatory process, its stage, localization, type of infection and tolerance to drugs. Use various antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, cephalosparins, etc.), sulfonamides (sulfadimizine, sulfaxine, biseptol, etc.) imidazole drugs (trichopolum, fazijin, tinidazole), antifungal agents.
After the end of treatment, medical observation is necessary for up to several months with a periodic laboratory examination. The final recovery is established after provocations - means and substances that exacerbate the process. Duration of treatment: if the process is acute - several days, chronic - weeks.
Prevention:
The surest remedy against sexually transmitted diseases and especially AIDS is marital fidelity. Indeed, only relations with one partner can be considered truly safe - monogamy, understood as loyalty to one companion all his life. However, in real life this is a rare exception. And the main threat to health is related to unfamiliar partners.
If you notice that your underwear is dirty for some reason or if you have discharge from the genitals (sometimes with itching, pain or burning), frequent and painful urination, pain during sexual intercourse, consult a doctor.
This should be done when the body, head, mucous membranes of spots, nodules, sores, vesicles, etc. appear, hair loss, skin discoloration. All these are signs of sexually transmitted diseases. Over time, they can weaken without treatment. However, the apparent improvement does not in any way mean that the disease has passed, but the right time for effective treatment is lost. To avoid this, you must adhere to the following rule: if you suspect that an infection has occurred or after sexual intercourse with an unfamiliar partner, even if there are no signs of infection, you should immediately contact a venereologist. Usually, the study helps to detect syphilis, venereal warts, genital herpes, gonorrhea of ​​the rectum and pharynx, however, an asymptomatic infection is very difficult to diagnose. This may require repeated tests, sometimes in a hospital. All this, of course, is unpleasant, but it seems a trifle next to the really unpleasant consequences when time is lost.
So, if you have any suspicions, you must first consult a doctor (and not try to be treated on your own or with friends); secondly, consult a doctor without delay (do not wait until everything goes by itself); thirdly, if possible, consult a specialist doctor (so as not to waste a lot of time establishing a diagnosis); fourthly, before clarifying the nature of the disease, do not take antibiotics (since this complicates the diagnosis and contributes to the development of resistance of microorganisms, worsening the possibility of cure).
And if there are no symptoms of the disease yet, but there was an accidental sexual intercourse and individual preventive measures were not taken? Is it necessary to be examined, in what terms and where is it better to do this? Necessarily - either in the district dermatovenerological dispensary, or at the points of anonymous service. A single analysis is not enough, since the latent period of sexually transmitted diseases can range from 2-3 days to several months. The first examination can be done in the absence of any manifestations of the disease in 10-14 days. At this time, gonococci and Trichomonas in smears can be detected, as well as information about syphilis infection. The study should be repeated 2 months after suspicious contact, when the Wasserman reaction becomes positive when infected with syphilis. If there is reason to be afraid of becoming infected with AIDS, then it is advisable to conduct a blood test no earlier than 3-6 months after a possible infection. Other sexually transmitted diseases (herpes, genital warts, infectious mollusk, etc.) are detected only if there are symptoms of the disease.
“People don’t need to become monks. They just need to not do anything stupid,” writes one Swedish specialist. For example, do not enter into fleeting sexual contact with a stranger when leaving home, or do not sleep with someone who is ready for this after the first glass. These people, whether male or female, are usually not the first to do so.
The most reliable means of protection against all sexually transmitted diseases is a condom. It reduces the risk of infection by dozens of times, but, unfortunately, does not give a one hundred percent guarantee for promiscuity. For example, with a kiss, the mucous membrane of the mouth can be damaged, and the causative agents of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases that are in the patient’s saliva are introduced through this damage.
And if there was a random connection without a condom?
A man should wash his hands, urinate, then thoroughly wash his penis, scrotum, thighs and crotch with warm water and soap, dry them with a towel and wipe with cotton wool soaked in a disinfectant solution. In the urethra, you need to enter 6-8 drops of gibitan or cidipol (gibitan and cidipol are available in special bottles with tips), while lightly massaging the external opening of the urethra. After this, you must try not to urinate for 2-3 hours. Underwear is recommended to be changed.
A woman should also wash her hands, urinate, wash her genitals, hips and crotch with warm water and soap, dry them with a napkin or towel and thoroughly wipe with a swab soaked in gibitana solution. Then you should douche the vagina with a solution of gibitana, 150-200 ml (glass). Processing should be done no later than 2 hours after sexual intercourse.
If you are unable to resist risky adventures, try, but at least protect yourself from their harmful effects.