arise from direct exposure to the body of high temperature (flame, boiling water, burning and hot liquids and gases, hot objects and molten metals, etc.). Particularly severe burns occur when exposed to flames and pressurized steam. In the latter case, burns of the oral cavity, nose, trachea and other organs are possible. Most often, burns are observed in the arms, legs, eyes, less often - the body and head. A burn 1/3 of the surface of the body often ends in death.
The larger the area of the burn, the more damaged the nerve endings and the more pronounced are the phenomena of traumatic (pain) shock. Violations of the functions of internal organs are associated with copious release of the liquid part of the blood (plasma) through the burn surface and poisoning of the body by the decay products of dead tissue absorbed from the affected area (intoxication). This is manifested by headache, general weakness, nausea, and vomiting.
First aid for thermal burns. First of all, it is necessary to extinguish the clothing covered by the flame (especially if flammable liquids get on it), pouring water on it, wrapping the victim in a thick cloth (rug, blanket, cloak, coat, etc.), and then remove the clothes from the surface of the body. This must be done very carefully (for speed it can be cut), so that rough movements do not violate the integrity of the skin. It is not recommended to take off all clothes, especially in the cold season, since cooling contributes to the development of shock.
Then the burn surface is covered with a dry aseptic dressing to prevent infection. If not, use a clean cotton cloth ironed with a hot iron.
You need to know that any additional damage and contamination of the burn surface is dangerous. Therefore, you should not touch the burn site with your hands, pierce bubbles, tear off adhering parts of clothing, and also grease the burn surface with any grease (petroleum jelly, animal or vegetable oil, etc.) and sprinkle with powders. The applied fat (powder) does not promote healing and does not reduce pain, but it facilitates the penetration of infection and greatly complicates further treatment.
With minor burns (1 degree) on the skin appears redness, swelling, soreness, passing through 2-3 days. The burnt place should be immediately placed under a stream of cold water or immersed in cold water for 15 minutes. Then apply lotions (dressings) with alcohol, cologne, a solution of potassium permanganate (manganese-acid) or with rivanol. These dressings slightly reduce pain.
With extensive burns, general phenomena, shock, develop fairly quickly. The victim, wrapped in a clean, ironed sheet, must be placed in a position in which pain is least disturbed, sheathed warmly, and a large amount of liquid given. To relieve pain, if possible, inject drugs, you can give hot strong coffee, tea with wine, a little vodka. Arrange urgent delivery to a medical institution.
It should be transported with extreme care, lying on the part of the body that is not damaged (on the side, abdomen, etc.) and ensuring such a position of the burned areas in which the skin is least stretched. Under the patient, it is necessary to put a strong fabric (tarp, blanket) in advance, holding it easier to transfer it to a stretcher. During transportation, carry out measures for the prevention of shock, and with developed shock - anti-shock (see).