arise from direct effects on the body of high temperature (flame, boiling water, burning and hot liquids and gases, red-hot objects and molten metals, etc.). Particularly severe burns occur when exposed to flame and steam under pressure. In the latter case, burns of the mouth, nose, trachea and other organs are possible. Most often there are burns of the arms, legs, eyes, less often - the trunk and head. A burn 1/3 of the body surface often ends in death.
The larger the area of the burn, the more damaged the nerve endings and the more pronounced the phenomenon of traumatic (pain) shock. Violations of the functions of the internal organs are associated with the abundant secretion through the burn surface of the liquid part of blood (plasma) and poisoning of the body by sucking dead tissue from the affected area (intoxication). This is manifested by headache, general weakness, nausea, vomiting.
First aid for thermal burns. First of all, it is necessary to extinguish the clothing engulfed in flames (especially if flammable liquids have got on it), having poured it over water, wrapping the victim with a thick cloth (rug, blanket, raincoat, coat, etc.), and then removing clothing from the body surface. This must be done very carefully (for speed, it can be cut) so as not to disturb the integrity of the skin with rough movements. It is not recommended to take off all clothes, especially in the cold period of the year, as cooling contributes to the development of shock.
Then the burn surface is covered with a dry aseptic dressing to prevent infection. In the absence of its use of clean cotton fabric, ironed hot iron.
You need to know that any additional damage and contamination of the burn surface are dangerous. Therefore, one should not touch the burn site, pierce bubbles, tear off adherent parts of clothing, and lubricate the burn surface with any fat (petroleum jelly, animal or vegetable oil, etc.) and sprinkle with powders. The applied fat (powder) does not promote healing and does not reduce pain, but it does ease the penetration of the infection and makes further treatment very difficult.
With minor burns (grade 1), redness, swelling, and soreness occur on the skin after 2-3 days. The burned place should be immediately placed under a stream of cold water or immersed in cold water for 15 minutes. Then attach lotions (dressings) with alcohol, cologne, permanganate solution (manganese acid) potassium or rivanol. Such bandages reduce pain a little.
With extensive burns, general phenomena and shock develop fairly quickly. The victim, wrapped in a clean, ironed sheet, must be placed in a position in which pain is the least disturbing, warm cover, give a large amount of fluid. To relieve pain, if possible, to introduce drugs, you can give a drink of hot strong coffee, tea with wine, a little vodka. Arrange urgent delivery to the hospital.
It should be transported with extreme care, lying on the part of the body that is not damaged (on the side, abdomen, etc.) and ensuring that the burnt areas are in such a position that the skin is least stretched. Under the patient it is necessary to put a durable fabric (tarp, blanket) in advance, holding it easier to put it on a stretcher. When transporting, carry out measures for the prevention of shock, and in the event of a developed shock - anti-shock (see).