occurs in about 5% of people who have suffered a craniocerebral injury. More often observed as a result of severe open craniocerebral trauma with damage to the frontal and temporal lobes. Injuries in childhood and later cause more pronounced defects in the intellect. Repeated trauma, frequent psychoses, joining vascular lesions of the brain, alcohol abuse contribute to the development of dementia. The main signs of dementia are memory impairment, decreased interests and activity, disinhibition of drives, lack of a critical assessment of one’s own condition, importunity and misunderstanding of the situation, reassessment of one’s own capabilities.
Treatment:In the acute period, traumatic disorders are treated by neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, depending on the nature and severity of the injury (see the relevant sections). Psychiatrists, in turn, interfere with the treatment process in the event of mental disorders both in the acute period and in the stage of long-term consequences. Therapy is prescribed in a comprehensive manner, taking into account the condition and possible complications. In the acute period of injury, bed rest, good nutrition and caring care are necessary. In order to reduce intracranial pressure, diuretics are prescribed (laeix, urea, mannitol), magnesium sulfate is administered intravenously (course treatment), if necessary, a lumbar puncture is performed (in the lumbar region) and cerebrospinal fluid is removed. The use of alternating metabolic drugs (cerebrolysin, nootropics), as well as drugs that improve blood circulation (trental, stugeron, cavinton) are recommended. With severe vegetative-vascular disorders, tranquilizers (seduxen, phenazepam), pyroxan, small doses of antipsychotics (etaperazine) are used. With strong excitement, antipsychotics are used in the form of intramuscular injections (chlorpromazine, tisercin). For hallucinations and delirium, haloperidol, triftazine, etc. are used. In the presence of seizures and other epileptic disorders, the use of anticonvulsants (phenobarbital, finlepsin, benzonal, etc.) is necessary. Along with medicinal methods of exposure, physiotherapy, acupuncture, various methods of psychotherapy are prescribed. In cases of severe injuries and a long recovery period, painstaking work is needed to restore disability and conduct professional rehabilitation.
Prevention of mental disorders in traumatic brain injuries consists in early and correct diagnosis of trauma, timely and adequate treatment of both acute phenomena and possible consequences and complications.