occurs in about 5% of people who have suffered a craniocerebral injury. More often observed as a consequence of severe open head injuries with damage to the frontal and temporal lobes. Injuries in childhood and later age cause more pronounced defects of intelligence. Repeated injuries, frequent psychosis, joining vascular lesions of the brain, alcohol abuse contribute to the development of dementia. The main signs of dementia are memory impairment, loss of interest and activity, disinhibition of impulses, lack of critical assessment of one's own condition, intrusiveness and lack of understanding of the situation, overestimation of one's own capabilities.
Treatment:In the acute period, traumatic disorders are treated by neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, otolaryngologists, and ophthalmologists, depending on the nature and severity of the injury (see the relevant sections). Psychiatrists, in turn, intervene in the treatment process in the event of the occurrence of mental disorders both in the acute period and in the stage of remote consequences. Therapy is prescribed in a comprehensive manner, taking into account the condition and possible complications. In the acute period of injury requires bed rest, good nutrition and caring care. To reduce intracranial pressure, diuretic drugs are prescribed (laeix, urea, mannitol), magnesium sulfate is administered intravenously (course treatment), lumbar puncture is performed (in the lumbar region) if necessary, and cerebrospinal fluid is removed. The use of alternate metabolic drugs (Cerebrolysin, Nootropics), as well as means that improve blood circulation (Trental, Stugeron, Cavinton) is recommended. When expressed vegetative-vascular disorders use tranquilizers (seduxen, phenazepam), pirroksan, small doses of neuroleptics (tercarazine). With strong arousal, antipsychotics are used in the form of intramuscular injections (chlorpromazine, tizercin). For hallucinations and delusions, haloperidol, triftazin, etc. are used. In the presence of seizures and other epileptic disorders, the use of anticonvulsants (phenobarbital, finlepsin, benzonal, etc.) is necessary. Physically, physiotherapy, acupuncture, various methods of psychotherapy are prescribed medically with medicinal methods of exposure. In cases of severe injuries and a long recovery period, painstaking work on rehabilitation and vocational rehabilitation is necessary.
Prevention of mental disorders in craniocerebral injuries consists in early and correct diagnosis of the injury, timely and adequate treatment of both acute events and possible consequences and complications.