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From 1 to 3 months. Spread the baby on the floor not only before feeding, but also in the middle of wakefulness, periodically substitute your palm at the feet of the baby (support when crawling).
From 3 to 6 months. Talk with him, causing a babble. Often, and for a longer time, put the child on the table or in the arena on his stomach, stimulating crawling, stretching him toys. Showing them on the side, to achieve turning over. At this age, in no case should not put or plant a child.
Of the recommended toys, functional rings that are comfortable to grip are functional.
From 6 to 12 months. To imitate pronounced syllables and simple words. Call surrounding people, objects, actions. To teach you to perform some movements and actions according to the adult's word, reinforcing it by showing. Encourage crawling, rising, walking with support, and later without it. To enrich the child with impressions and the development of his speech, show animals, clockwork toys, and from 10 months. and pictures. Do not hang toys, but put them in the playpen, in the crib, on the floor. Perform elementary tricks with objects that are visual to follow.
Recommended toys: multicolor, sounding, balls, easy-to-open boxes, folding dolls, small pyramids.
Air baths, hardening and gymnastics of infants. Air baths are carried out in summer in the air, and in winter indoors, in any case, the air temperature should not be lower than 22-20 ± С. They start from 1-1.5 months., Leaving the child naked for 1-2 minutes., 2-3 times a day. Then this time is gradually increased by 6 months. adjusted to 8-10 minutes, and by the end of the year - up to 12-15 minutes. During the air bath, you need to change the position of the child, at the same time you can carry out massage or gymnastics. In summer, air baths are carried out in the shade, as in children under 1 year old, direct sunlight can easily cause overheating (heat stroke or skin burns).
Water procedures usually begin at 3-4 months of age with wet wiping, gradually and carefully. Initially, within 1.5-2 weeks, the baby's skin is rubbed 2 times a day with a dry flannel or a piece of soft wool until redness. After dry wiping, they start wet. To do this, it is recommended to use a mitt made of soft terry cloth. It is moistened in water, squeezed and evenly rub the skin of the trunk and limbs. Gradually rubbing certain parts of the body, the rest at this time are under the covers. At first, the water temperature is 3536 ± C, after a week 32-33 ± C, then every month the temperature is reduced by 1 ± C, but not lower than 30 ± C. Rubdowns are usually carried out after a morning sleep for 4-6 minutes. Hardening should cause only positive emotions in the child. With a disease, a stop in weight, increased irritability, the procedure should be stopped. After the break, they are resumed from the initial stages.
Under the influence of physical exercises, the activity of all organs and systems of the body improves, motor skills develop better, muscles and skeleton are formed correctly, the child grows faster. The main attention in gymnastics in infancy is given to the development of proper movements. Up to 3 months do not actively bend and unbend your arms and legs, because can stretch muscles and ligaments. Apply the so-called passive exercises: they run fingers on the spine, which causes it to flex, lay the child on his stomach - he tries to raise his head when he touches his feet, is repelled by his feet. It is useful, stroking it, to cause active movements of the legs, arms and the whole body.
At the age of 3-6 months. they introduce movements with the child’s limbs - crossing arms and legs to stretch the extensor muscles of the back, and at the end of this period - active exercises that stimulate crawling and arm movements that are carried out with bright toys.
At the age of 6-10 months. The main attention is paid to crawling: it strengthens many muscle groups of the trunk and limbs. You should talk as much as possible with the child during the exercises, fixing them with the word-indication. Fixing the reflex, at the same time develop his speech. The complex of exercises involves turning from the back to the stomach and back, circular movements of the hands, arching, squatting, etc.
In 10-14 months. the child begins to get up and walk, understand speech. Therefore, such exercises are introduced into the complex as raising legs, squatting while holding hands, tilting and straightening the body, etc. Classes contribute to the acquisition of motor skills, develop activity and independence of the child.