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|home Cultural studies Culturology - T. Gritsenko|
Culturology - T. Gritsenko
First of all, suspension - having found a period of an hour, which has signified the appearance of people and the transition from the uncivilized to the cultural. For one hour, there is an industrialized generation of people of a homogeneous type (homo sapiens), approval of an exodus, a transition of a predominant type of statehood prior to the beginning of industrialization, and of redundancy.
Schob to understand the essence and law of development of the culture of the first suspension of the most convenient way to complete a folding periodization. At present, there are three views: archaeological, cultural and civilization that is historical, and that is the formation and development of suspension-economic formations.
Archeologist of periodization , which can be run on the basis of material knowledge, has added a period for three periods: stone, bronze and middle. Kam'yaniy vik buv also has three periods: paleolithic (ancient abo "lower" stone), mesolithic ("middle" stone) and neolithic (new abo "upper" stone), which were characterized by a singing technique, Yanich zadryad pracі. The skin of the period is based on archeological culture, the name of which is the most characteristic characteristic of the names of the wise men. However, due to its good merits, such periodization did not heal the reach of historical and cultural development, architects are less than the material and technology of processing, and so on, praise, life, ministry, etc.
To a friend, culturally and civilizing periodically , having sensed the American historian and ethnographer Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881), a kindly, well-known publicist person who has a shared opinion from group forms to individual forms, by demonstrating a significant kind to the main series of primary suspension. At the book “Old-age suspension” there is a great deal of history of primary suspension for two periods - “savage” and “barbarism”, giving the skin complex characterization of material and spiritual culture.
Nowadays, there are also third and third periods, the basis for which is laid out on the basis of the suspension-economic formation, which is based on the basis of a comprehensive list of virobnitz. All the primary communal and slavish ways, feudalism, capitalism and communism.
Scientific-archaeologists see the decile of significant periods in developing the first fret, and traditionally call it the old ones: kam'yaniy, medno-bronze, zalizny.
Kam'yaniy vik - who has found the period of an hour in the history of humanity. Win trivia, bring people to the top of the ear of the wider metal - midi, bronze and gold. Paleolithic is divided into three main hours: paleolithic, mesolitic, neolithic, leather, and their own little one has their age and period.
Through the irregularity of historical development, the cob of a stone ’viku, as well as the district’ s epoch and period, is not accessible at the time of the earth’s territory. As a matter of fact, in Africa ludin appeared to amount to 2 million rock to that, then in Europe - about 1 million rock to that. Kam'yaniy vіk u закvropі ending in 3 yew. BC, and in the indigenous peoples of Asia, Australia, on the islands of the Pacific Ocean, trivially to the Great Geographical Indices (mid-15th - mid-17th centuries).
Paleolith , at his cherkil’s turn to early, middle і pіznіy. Early Paleolithic warehouse є two archaeological cultures: Shelsku and Ashelsku. The Middle Paleolithic Industry Mustard Culture. Nosiami cultures of early Paleolithic boules Homo habilis (lyudina umіla), petecanthropus and synanthropus. A new type of people is called the Neanderthal for the Municipal era. At the period of the Paleolithic period, such as the Orynakska, Solytreyska and Madelenska culture, a ludina of the most common type — Cro-Magnon and grimaldas — formed.
An important period in the history of humanity is the Bouve Neolith , a kind of tearing with a length of 8–7 yew. BC at the lands of the Old-Time Descent і vіd 6 to 3 yew. BC in Europe. The main particularity of Neolithic society is that it belongs to the type of statehood (love affection, tribalism, zbiralnitstvo) to vvidvoryuyuchygo (cattle farming, digging). At period 40 to 35 yew. rock BC a ludin of the type Homo sapiens is born. Clay pottery is declared, at the technician’s processing of the cam'yanah, the order is repaired to fix new ones - shlifuvannya, razpilyuvannya i sverdlіnnya. There are first great burial grounds. Neolithic sites of the roztashovuly settlement were overprivileged on the banks of the river and lakes. Myslivtsiv and ribalok parking lots were noisy, short hours, and the settlement of land-digging-cattle tribes was more trivial. Inkoli Zhitla will be scorched on water. In the cultures of the front Immediately z'yavilisya Pershi ukrіplenі settlements Єrihon, Çatalhöyük in Malіy Azії i Mislivsky-ribalskі Culture - Kampіnіyska, Ertebelle in Zahіdnіy Єvropі, culture-hole course at grebіntsevoї Keramiky lіsovіy smuzі Shіdnoї Єvropi, zokrema on teritorії pіvnіchno-skhіdnoї Chastain Lіvoberezhnoї Ukraine and that. In addition, in Ukraine there are a number of neolithic sites, as well as Mariupolsky and Derievsky burial grounds.
The primordial communion of the age of Neolith was characterized by a pink matriarchy. The process of the subtle form of the tribes and the folding group of tribes were seen. The mystery of the whole hour is represented by decorative and bagateln ornamental ceramics, realistic sculptures, and rock paintings.
Middle age, abo neolith , (5 thousand BC) becoming the period of the wisdom and the development of the metallurgical industry. With the first few metal virobes in the middle of the lead, the bullets are primitively embellished, wiggled for the help of the cold cold bath. The stench appeared on the anterior and the middle descent for an hour neolithic. On the cob in Europe, you need to give me a little home improvement, I’ve got metal and viral music, I’ve got a clean order, I’ve been victorious because I have viro stones and stone horn. The mining and metallurgical process was performed by professional professionals: gyrniki, metallurgists, and hammerwork. Thousands of ore were needed from the number of mines of the Balkan Peninsula, and melting operations from non-metal at the top of the watch and ready-to-play viols with a little hat were spent to the districts, but not the least of the big syrovini.
The basis of the economy in the era of enolism was the horne and cattle farming, and crafts and housekeeping were developed. New rice was filled with mystery and revelation. Skladnіshoyu became a suspension organization - the tribal top was visible. Surrounding the tribes, due to their viral and rozdovsjudzhennyam midi, piled significant meanings. After tearing the process of the assertion of the great controversial and secondary tribulations. Unaslodok prosuvannya part of the population of the Pruto-Dnistrovsk mezhirichchya here the triplica culture is famous for the wikila, as it spread throughout the whole territory of Moldova and Right-Bank Ukraine. Nosy tripe culture cultivated a lot of chances with the contending tribes of the Balkans and the Podunav'ya, postochayuchi obsessions of their metal to the tribes of the Middle East culture, neolithic Dnepro-Donetsk.
4 yew. BC after the taming of the horse, having taken care of the process of mastering by the cattle tribes of the wide swarthy of the Eurasian steppes. At the Pivnichny Black Sea, on Pivnі і Similarities, trips were delayed by the large groups of the population of the middle of the world, by the way to visit the Chaplinsky burial ground in Dnepropetrovschyna, the archaeological site of the Lower Tyumen area. In Krimu and adjoining areas of the steppe, Kemіobinska culture developed. In the middle of 3 yew. yew. BC all the Eurasian Stepov’s troubles were occupied by the tribes of the Yamkovo culture and the Afanasy culture. At the same time in the territory of the Pivnichny Black Sea Coast I was impressed by the Caucasian cultures of the early period of the Bronze Age.
Bronze vіk buv perіodom broader virobіv s bronzi, so that alloy mіdі s mish'yakom, tin, ідше - із lead and zinc. Perekhid vіd mіdі to bronze poured tim, scho bronze solid and light alloy for copper. Vinaydennya bronze and wider virobіv z neї in the lower parts of the earthly kulі vidbuvalos not at once: in 4 thousand. BC bronze is the same as a house of vidoma in the territory of Iran, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, in Egypt, in 3 thousand. BC - near the Sredzemnomory'І, Іndії, 2 yew long. BC - in Europe and Asia. The winery of metallurgical centers, the belt of maistries of the bronze flag and the zombies zomirili virobnichu specialization and speed up the process of another great vial of prazі - the indigenous handicraft craft and land cultivation. Extensive virobіv with bronze called up for a swap, which was shouted by the resurrection of the overshoot - ships on oars і with vіtrilam that number of vіzkіv. Winnings of the new pratsi zanyadrya spirited from their clerk for the fake development of ornate digging and nomadic cattle breeding. A buildup of values in the hands of okremikh osib, maynovnost led to the progressive decay of the primitive communal fret.
During the bronze hour at Mesopotamia and Egypt they win the first place and the state, early classrooms are formed. On the islands of the Yegheysk Sea and the adjacent territories of the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor, Krito-mikenska (Egeiska) culture appeared to be highly distant.
In the territory of Ukraine today, a bronze wrestle tearing off nearly 1 thousand rockies. The main occupations of the inhabitants of the territory of the steppe period of Ukraine, mostly from the 19th century. BC, Bulo Orne excavation. С It disappeared too quickly to clear the bronzolivar virobnitstvo, as if you were working on ore from kopalin close to the ordinary Artemіvsk. for example 2 - on the cob 1 yew. BC on the Chornomorskiy uzrezhzhі lived kimmerіytsі, yakі ymіyrno blasphemy with noses of cultures of the last period of the bronze age.
Zalіzniy vіk is characterized by the development of access to the entrance and the view from the main main range of virobnitz and zbroi. Absolute chronology of the cob of open air at different regions is not the same. At the same time, in general, archeological classics are not the same as in history, they are not in any kind, they are the same in one form, there are more pictures in the world, and there is more In the minds of the slave of the Slavasnitsa fret, in the greater part of Europe, Asia and Africa, at that time, if there was a first communion in the first place, I would have seen the process, and in America, the Australian Ocean, we had stolen it.
The bagatokh of the tribes of the climbing vіku already had the vіdbulosy and siliceous crafts. From the productive point of view, the win-win commodity and viral product is seamless for the exchange and the internal tribal and middle trade has been expanded. The closeness of the patriarchal and clan collectives of the Bula has been disrupted, the private power has been ruined, the power and the power of the tribal aristocracy, which have been lost in the main share of the community. Social heterogeneity to lead to internal and external conflicts and internal essence. Universally recognized winery ukr_plenikh settlement - settlements, to become centers of remnant virobnitsva and exchange, and most important of them - politechnym centers. For the new historical minds, the great alliances of the tribes were asserted, and they played a significant role in the formation of nationalities. On the territory of Bagatokh Krai, at all times, the residual distribution of the first fret was formed, the class-shaped suspension of power was formulated.
Culture at an early stage developed in the history of the historical type in the minds of the primordial community, a certain amount of music for about an hour about 2 million rockies up to 6–4 thousand. BC The first communal way was first in the history of humanity in a formally-economical form, which was based on the collective power of the communes in order to accommodate viral distribution during differentiated distribution of products. The history of primary suspension is divided into two periods: savagery and barbarism.
The savage nature of the most archeological archaeological periodicals and mesoliths is characterized by the following types of people from the past, knowledge of ready-made products that are better known. It’s possible to fix it with the appearance of people and win the wines of pottery. At the time of the winners' persh, the form of suspension-economic vodnosin is “the first flock of people”, which is a bag for the singing territory and is a small group of people without professional and social vidnimnos.
Barbarism is repaired from the wines of the pottery and ended by the drawing of the bow and page, the origin of letters. The main series of suspensions is quietly buv rіd, which has об inflated a group of people - blood relatives, that other form of suspension-economical vidnosin buv childbirth. Kіlka clans became tribes.
The period of the patrimonial fret of proyshes through two stages of development - matriarchy and patriarchy. Matriarchy , or the mother’s clan community, I’ll arrange the whole form of suspension, as it is characterized by the overwhelming establishment of housing in suspension. In the middle of maternal suspension of mother’s mother’s pool, there is a large group of close relatives by wife’s marriage. The patriarchy has disappeared in an hour of a middle and a bronze century, an early period of a closed century. Win priishov for winter matriarchy and pereduv class klasovomstvo.
The transition to patriarchy was seen from the result of significant development of productive forces. The development of cattle farming, plowing of earthquakes, ribalism of crafts, especially metal processing, opening the door for economical life of smaller families, a lower family community of collectives, a significant number of people. Rodovid on the mother’s side of the family.
The basis of virological articles of the primary communal fret of the Bulah is suspension of power on the part of the uncontrolled vision, collective labor, which was based not on the best practices, but on the basis of greater awareness. The head of the meta of the first community virobnitz did not fall into the agitated needs of the community members, but in the safe minds of all.
It is of great importance for the development of the productive forces of the Motherland that came from the predominant type of statehood, before which there was a kind of observance, a kind of tribalism, before that, it signified the appearance of earthmoving and firsthand, but it was called up to the first pasture. The price significantly increased productivity and improved the ability to increase the amount of product sales and development. Another great suspension of craftsmanship was the appearance of crafts, which led to the farthest cherished interest in craftsmanship and productivity. With the development of individual rights on the basis of advancing winery, private power and private statehood, which gave rise to mainstream operation and exploitation. So on the basis of new suspension-economical vidnosin vdbuvatsya classroom vilodilnosti, sho entered into a new stage of its development.