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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest

Zmіni in the Russian Federation

At the middle of the XIX century. The empirical device of Russia, such as Austria, having recognized a pre-school strike, having generated summons in its effectiveness and mica. We are succumbing to the regime, which, by stretching out its 30th czar’s tsarvuvannya, so obtrusively wrapping Mikola 1, became Krimska vіyna 1854-1855 pp. It seemed like a kind of typical conflict of great powers, a certain Russia came up against the union of England, France, Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire. All this union, having been frightened by the repeated attempts of Russia to expand the flow of energy to the Balkans and the Bosporus, and trading hats in the Middle Sea, it was especially important to look at the port in that way trading through the Black Sea ports.

The occupation of the allied Powers of Crimea became the leading theater of the war, and therefore the conflict spent more on Ukraine, lower on the part of the empire. Ukrainian gubernias were the main dzherel of the royal army, and in the great population the soldiers were recruited - for service in the forefront, for security of the cordons, and for robots for business. About the effort, what could be done in Ukraine, to be called the so-called Kyiv goat 1855 p. If that roku, the Tsar’s detachment, having dismissed about the approval of the militia for volunteers, the Ukrainian villagers, who had been guiding for the renewal of the Cossacks, as well as for their free communion, were free to do so. The stanische became more critical in the Kiev governorate, de ponad 180 yew. villagers of 400 syl were surrounded by Cossacks; The order was verified by Vіyska, and by the way viaducts virally demonstrated one of the internal twigs, but they had to be experienced.

More obvious tsi ailments bully on the front, de pripri all heroism zishisnikov Sevastopol rosіyskі vіyska vreshti-resht recognized the defeat. In addition, since the defeat of Russia’s prestige has been significantly won, it has rekindled, because far away behind modernized industrial lands, Russia has lost its entrance. The appearance of the rosiyans manifested itself in the utmost: їхhnі rushnitsі built in closer proximity, lower in English and French; The system of posting and communication is less effective, lower than those of Western Europeans, independent of those who have stayed for thousands of miles over their bases; for a few prominent vignettes, the command of the rosiyan appeared incompetent, and the tsarist soldiers, I want to finish the horror, rejected the initiative, so the tech um. The priestly prizes, Mikola 1 died in 1855 p. Yogin Oleksandr II of Zishov to the throne, a whole group of assurances that are impudently necessary for reforms.

Zvіlnennya krіpakіv . At 1855 p. in a promo to the Moscow nobles, the new tsar said: "More than skasuvati krіpatstvo zgori, lower chkati, docks krіpaki skasuyuyu yogi from below." Navigate the arch-conservative father of the new Tsar Mikol 1 by giving zrozumіti, but it’s too early to get rid of it. Radically, that liberal mood representatives of the noble intelligentsia with a stretch of bagatyh ten years have grown in the area of ​​the Kinets' non-independent practice. Ale coli Oleksandr II hanging the qiu dumka, it became clear that he had accepted the historic decision to carry out a series of reforms, directing us ahead of time to save money.

Like a leather turning point in history, the reasons for the reforms became an object of the state superintendent of science. Acting in complete reconciliation, they were completely at the forefront of the reforms made by bureaucrats and officials. You’ll have to look at them, because they’ve seen the chornomorsk ports and the dedication of the activity of the Russian landowners at the svitovye trade and have seen the obvious shortcomings of the land. So, the productivity of prazі rosіyskogo krіpaka in 1860 p. expensive productivity of the English farmer in 1750 that Central European peasant at 1800 p. In a word, krіpatska pratsya for all the cheapness of the bula nastilki maloyakisnyu’s cheapness, she didn’t economize on herself. Until then, competition and power were not thanked, and they redirected bagatokh zemlevlasnikіv to borzhnikіv. At 1848 p. Bigger than two thirds of the landowners in Ukraine are small and big Borgs, who are not good enough to keep their villagers safe and sound, not even the same as those who are shukati grooms and half-married. The inheritance of all the previous years until the reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan became overwhelming. About the price and such a fact: I have 1811 p. of usіkh villagers of the Russian Empire nearly 58% were bullied, then until 1860 p. іхній відТСок having fallen to 44.

Учен I’m also a scientist, I’m important to respect, I don’t have to change the importance of economic officials, as long as I don’t play the role of social media. Radyansky historians cherish the fact that the villagers were agitated to stir up a “revolutionary situation”, as if it were overtaking the king and the nobles, having condemned them to the deed. For your tribute, less in Ukraine between 1856 and 1860 pp. Mali mice 276 overwhelming, about 160 yews took their fate. villagers. The American historian Alfred Riber should be informed that it was necessary to redefine the pragmatic modernization of the imperial army, at that time the Englishman Bernard Peirz was motivated to see the rest of the country. The mainstream history is to play a role in the reform of the liberal intellect, as well as in your own best-selling prose, interest (secrecy, Shevchenkovy) and polemic in moral education. All of it converges in one thing: the shock that the Tsar’s impoverished wounded about the defeat of Russia at the Krimskiy Vіynі, having been violated by the postman, which would require a lot of unreasonable reforms.

Rozumіyuchi, Yak potenzіnnu nezbezpeku crylo in their own hands rivals krіpakіv, Oleksandr II dіav carefully. At 1857 p. With the method of negotiation, please inform me of the specific statements and declare the specific propositions of the win, having designated the commission ”(renamed it the Headquarters for the year), before the official representatives and the larger public. Remember the headquarters, who was in St. Petersburg, were sent to Ukraine. One of them is the Boug Grigory Kalakan - the crossings of the horror of the special and special friend Shevchenko. The last Ukrainian - M.P. Posen, bahatiy, vliviviy, want and unprincipled kriposnik from the Poltava province - robbing a mustache, abi rewrite any progress. Shchob vivchiti mood on missions, a troop was seized from the leather provinces of the nobility komisis. In Ukraine, 323 noblemen took part in the robotic comic strip, representing the interests of such regions, as Slobidska Ukraina, Livoberezhya and Pravoberezhya, Pivdenna Ukraina. I wasn’t happy with the villagers.

Although bagato noblemen didn’t catch the joy of driving the villagers, they’ve stole the rosy deceitful croc. That is, from the cob itself, to the main nourishment bulo: if I and I carry out the reform. For the sake of calmness, the tsar’s detachment has beheld, but in the first place, the interests of the nobility should be secured — the main support for the regime. Schodo zvіlnennya krіpakіv in Mali, two problems have been seen: special status of krіpakіv and land overland. I want to vote for Mali voted by strong people, the food was delivered: who did it seem to obmezhuvatitsya хhnya in la? Bagatyokh noblemen and bureaucrats were fond of thinking about those who won’t be a villager with a rap to lose their will and be able to drink, where to get lured, and to rob oneself. Delivered as well folding power supply zemlevolodіnnya. Yak zvіlnyati krіpaka: in the land of Chi without it? But what about the earth, then on what kind of minds do you push?

Oskilka in the small parts of the empire rivaled the unique form of landowner, not marvelous, but the middle noblemen won the roses in glances on how to transfer the land to the villagers. In the middle of the native lands of Russia, the main dzherel pributkiv pomіshchіv-krіposnikіv buv obrok, tobto a groshiny chinsh. The zmushuvati zamushvat villagers to irrigate non-fertile soil, the nobles in these lands wanted to hear shukati work in villages and towns, so that they could be guilty of grishmi. The land is not a place for local commemoration in a single jerel for a little while, and the stinks have come to their senses to date the generosity of generosity. Prote for the benefits, to the participation of the peasants in the village, the helpers have raised a small amount of compensation. In Bagatoy, the Black Sea region of Ukraine regained the last name. Here helpers volunteered, shch kr_paki v_dbuvayuchi panschinu, to labor obedience, the fragments of their own stinks of the stench were canceled by the head office of the із сільськограспантаських вожаїв. It’s not marvelous that the stench didn’t care for any minds to give land to the villagers. Varianti of the "pіvdennogo" pіdhodu passed the same way in the upper parts of Ukraine. On the Liberation Coast, especially near the Poltava governorate, helpers poured in to give the villagers more than an adequate tribute. Recently, the development of Pivdenny Ukrainy, which was rejected by the workforce, was celebrated by the great landowners for the advancement of the most important law for 10 times. And on the Right Bank of Poland, the magnates did not want to give land to the villagers. However, independent on pereshkody, for the troubles of the tsar Golovna, the comisia prodjuzhivala dіyati.

19 fierce 1861 p. Oleksandr II having seen the manifesto, has shrunken the law right . Having deceitful for the significant document, declaring itself uncomplicated for its sutta, I was annoying the villagers with hostility, but I don’t have to soon be satisfied with the greedy zhilnenny.

The act itself zvіlnennya lіkvіduvav stagnation villagers vіd pomіshchіv. Ale, having redirected the number of points to the population, didn’t accept the principle of equality. On the other side of the rule of suspension of the villagers, the guilty parties paid for the full payment. The stinks were handed over to the jurisdiction of special courts, but for the small guilty party they were given the right to give them further penalties. Although the reform introduced self-determination for the villages of the countryside, the function looked at the top of the ranks for officials, as if they were appointed from the ranks of the noblemen. Who bazhav vihati from the village, guilty buv otrimati vid authorities passports. As a rule, the villagers didn’t see financial goiters in front of the state, Mali’s old age was more important than primacy.

More often rozcharuvali villagers of difficulty, pov'yazanі with the right zemlovolodіnnya. The reform basically allowed the helpers to deprive of about half of the land for the hairy corridor, and the decision to distribute more than half the amount of money. When tsoyu villagers goiters were called to pay for their nadili. Pieces of pennies among the villagers were few, but they didn’t get them, they got the job, they needed to pay 80% of the land for the treasury of the state treasury form, and the villagers got their hands on the job for 49 times at a stretch. Reshort of the land plots of the villagers of Mali Viplachuvati, without any interruptions, abo grishmi, abo, but it’s really real, having dominated by nibble.

For those who don’t have the strength to buy, the financial burden of such a period of rejuvenation, having sung a crunchy “darchy” nadil in 2.5 acres. Tim krpakam, who served under the Pansky sadibs, poured less, - in Ukraine, nearly 440 thousand were paid in Ukraine, - the fragments of ringing brought freedom to them, but it did not give land.

In case of land privatization, the reform of the insurance industry failed. The land has been broken up and divided into three categories: black soil, non-black soil, steppe soil. Moreover, the villagers in the two remaining categories (those who died for the yakistyu) were the largest, but in the black earth regions, such as, for example, Ukraine, they were smaller.

Looks like they’ve started to reform the villages of Mali in their own order of less land, down to 1861 p. On the Russian night, the stinks spent about 10% of their total income. In the Livoberezhzhі and Pivdenny Ukrainy іhіnі lands there was a slight change at ZO ° о. So, as a rule, the average value of selyansky nadil in the empire became 27 acres per day, then in the Liberated and Pivden Ukraine it was only 18.

Particularly profited from the reform helpers of Ukraine. Going into the most tricky tricks over the hour of negotiation and redevelopment of lands, the stinks were dominated by their own water, their bows and waters, and earlier they ignored the irresistible power. Own stench, they deprived everyone of their land, and hirschs were sold for farther values. In the process of redevelopment, the stench was often blown away by the villagers who were awaiting them, who were shy in the old days. Prior to this practice, we went all over the world, especially in Ukraine, especially when the struggle for land was determined. The lord of the entire village of Liberated and Pivden Ukraine suffered from reforms of a greater degree, lower than the Russian number of sousids.

Vignyak became Right Bank. Seriously summed up at the official Polish gentry of the whole region (without pardon, they were confirmed by the rebels of 1863), the detachment was reluctant to turn on the private base of Ukrainian villages more than 18%. Ale vigrauchi on the magnitude of nad_lіv, colossal money spent on a shower of enviable prices, as if they stoned they paid for the land.

Our special reform in Ukraine was zoomed in by the forms of land reclamation. In Russia, de ponad, 95% of the villagers lived in communities, a document on a well-established land at collective authority, and the fee for them was part of the community. Ale in the Ukrainian community Volodya Buli Ridkіstyu. Ponad 80% of the villagers Right Bank and May 70% of Livoberezhja carried on unanimous statehood. Viddak the majority of the Ukrainian villagers ’rights were denied the right to land and they were given special rights to the borg for paying for it. Such a situation has spoken about the already excused privatization to private power, which vidrіznilya Ukrainian villagers vid rosyyskih.

Slam pam'yatati, but not all the villagers were bulky . Approximately half became the power of the villagers; they were yielding to the largest public associations of the highest categories, including at least 1 million of the most numerous Ukrainian goats. The stinks lived nicely more beautifully for the help of the country (I wanted to give them a big pillow to give the powers, they actually were a feudal lord for them, but they could relocate without permission), Mali was in their own right to land, before they were left unarmed ( Often officials lived out life). Reform 1861 p. th, zokrem, law of 1866 p. rang the sovereign villagers shvidsha і on the minds of the tidy, nizh for krіpakіv. At once, they freed the stench of freedom, the payment for the yak’s pool was lower than that, which was paid in advance. Prote on Pravoberezhі the camp of the sovereign villagers has little to say on the face.

Zagaglі peasants and especially kolishnіh krіpakіv reform rocharuvala. The stink of rights to freedom was redeemed by their own natures - the kind of nadily was improved, and the villagers were numbed by the grave financial burden. The villages ravaged hvilya troubles, schopravda, dissimilar for the strength of the winter regions. In Livoberezhі and Pivdennyi Ukrainy, rebel was very good. Protea on the Right Bank, where I lived in memory of the gidamakiv and vorozhnecha, both Orthodox Ukrainian settlement and the Catholic Polish gentry, was respected by relational, ethnically and socially significant differences, other significant. Aly ikh, they shouted shvidko awaiting, the villagers sold their clothes for the last time, I want them for a lot of time.

Інші reform . Skasuvann of the law of law led to itself reform. Okremim aspect іmperskogo arrange, scho consuming inadvertent obscurely, Bulo misstse management. From the moment of suspension and the abovementioned rights to the bulk of society, the need for public administration has grown. Prote for the satisfaction of this warrior’s royal detachment is not mav nі people, ni pennies. Tom in 1866 p. letting the communities take away from the provincial and regional authorities so that they can look after their blessings, protect their health, postal servants, get rid of the nobility, and accumulate a reserve of famines for a hunger and for collecting statistical tributes. For financial assistance of these services to municipal committees, but to zemstvos, the right was granted to cover the population with zemsky donations.

A radical change in the practice of imperial practice called “hiding” all government officials was those who were members of the zemstvos, who were robbed of the number of voters, divided into three districts of categories: great servants, residents and villagers. The amount of vibration is proportional to the earth’s land, but it’s the smell of mali. Of course, significant bolshevism among the zemstvos belonged to the nobles. In Ukraine, the stench fell inappropriately at 75% of the members of the zemstvos; at that time, as much as 10% of the villagers lived there. Ale wants a zemstvo, but they didn’t blame them for the right representatives, the stench of vidigravali is more important. Okrym spryanyannya pidnesennyu zaglynnogo rivnya living in the village, the stench haunted the populace misevse to obmezhennogo samovryaduvannya.

In Ukraine, zemstvos were introduced to Livoberezhі and Pіvdnі. The protest on the Right Bank through the recent rebel of the Polish gentry was not introduced until 1911. Representing the interests of the Zemstvos, the zemstvos have evolved sensitive to cultural practices in Ukraine, lower official levels. So, at the other half of the table they became more visible Ukrainian trends, hidden at the zemstvos of the Poltava region, who served as the training arena for the baggage delivery service of the Ukrainian rukh. There is no need for more accurate system of shipbuilding. The problem was marked by a significant world in imperfections among the Russians respecting the rule of law. The empirical officials, who had a clear vision for the baggage of legal rulings, respected justice, the sphere of power, and judges, in their opinion, were disregarded in order to have a free state of mind. Права особи не мали до цього ніякого відношення чи в кращому разі вважалися другорядними. Судові відправи проводилися таємно, судді часто займалися хабарництвом, а їхні нерідко свавільні вироки виносилися з урахуванням класових відмінностей — нижчим верствам діставалися суворіші покарання, а легші вироки — дворянам. Цю ситуацію значно виправила судова реформа 1864 р ., зробивши судочинство незалежною сферою управління, закритою для втручання чиновництва. Відтоді суд засідав відкрито, розглядаючи позиції обох сторін. Одним із наслідків цього була поява нової групи фахівців — адвокатів-юристів.

Важливі зміни також відбувалися в інших суспільних сферах імперії. Реформи в системі освіти 1860-х років відкрили для нижчих верств більший доступ до неї на всіх рівнях, включаючи університетський. Вони також удосконалили програму навчання й надали університетам більшу автономію. Водночас було послаблено цензурні утиски, хоч усе ще неясним лишалося те, до якої міри дозволялося обстоювати «підривні» погляди. У 1874 р. було введено зміни до суворих правил військової служби, згідно з якими військова повинність поширювалася на всі верстви суспільства. Скорочувалася також з 25 до 6 років тривалість служби і вводився ряд правил звільнення від військової повинності.

Значення реформ . Хоч ці «великі реформи» і не революціонізували умов життя українців та інших підданих Російської імперії, вони, однак, спричинилися до важливих змін. Західні вчені часто підкреслюють те, що реформи принесли кріпакам особисту свободу, сприяли розвитку земської системи місцевого врядування та піднесенню ролі закону й права. Зі свого боку радянські історики вважають, що реформи відкрили для Росії епоху переходу від феодалізму до буржуазного, капіталістичного .суспільства. Зрозуміло, реформи мали серйозні недоліки, але існує загальна згода, що без них подальша соціально-економічна модернізація імперії була б неможливою.

На Україні, де кріпаки складали близько 42 % всього населення порівняно з 35 % в середньому по імперії, звільнення селян мало ще більші наслідки. Вдосконалення системи освіти, поширення юридичного захисту, зміцнення й поглиблення місцевого самоврядування — все це примножувало можливості вираження національних особливостей і місцевих інтересів. Звісно, що віднині різноманітні ідейні течії, включаючи ідеологію української національної ідентичності, легше могли знайти шлях до широких кіл громадськості.

Зміни та реформи, що впроваджувалися в Австро-Угорській та Російській імперіях відповідно у 1848 р. та 1860-х роках, мали важливі подібні риси. Як захід, вимушений в обох імперіях, особливо Австрійській, ці реформи проводили «згори» режими, що продовжували утримувати політичну владу. Глибокі, хоч і не революційні за своєю суттю, вони лишили недоторканими старі засади. Однак реформи явно прискорили наближення нової ери, коли народ і його представники справлятимуть відчутніший вплив на політичне, соціально-економічне й культурне життя. Відтак і в Австрійській, і в Російській імперіях зміни середини XIX ст. були гігантським кроком на шляху до сучасної доби.

З точки зору того впливу, який справила ця епоха на українців, відмінності між австрійськими та російськими реформами мали таке ж значення, як і подібності. Революційний 1848 рік поставив перед українцями Австрійської імперії два головних питання: соціально-економічної долі селянства й національних прагнень церковної інтелігенції. Корінне значення мав той факт, що на Західній Україні ці проблеми перепліталися, позаяк поляки, які виступали проти українських національних прагнень, часто були водночас і шляхтичами, що визискували селян. Тому для західних українців національне питання з самого початку пов'язувалося з такими повсякденними справами, як освіта, місцеве врядування, соціальне законодавство. З часом цей зв'язок наповнить соціальне питання такою ж вагою у свідомості селянства, якої воно вже набуло в середовищі інтелігенції. Вимушена згода Габсбургів на введення конституційного правління, попри всі його вади й недосконалість, дала змогу західним українцям виражати й захищати у парламенті свої національні та соціально-економічні інтереси й сприяла залученню до цього селянства. Відтак західні українці, що населяли найвідсталіші землі Австрійської імперії та зазнавали соціально-економічних утисків, дістали можливості політичної, організаційної та культурної діяльності, яких не мали українці в Росії.

Глибокі зміни 1860-х років мало вплинули на розвиток національного руху українців Російської імперії. В Росії національне питання не могло досягти гостроти соціально-економічних проблем Австрії з цілого ряду причин, серед яких: культурне й демографічне панування в імперії росіян; ворожість царату до всякого плюралізму; небажання царя навіть розглядати питання конституції, що створила б умови для національного та місцевого самовираження; слабкість громадських організацій; жорстока репресивна політика уряду проти національних рухів серед неросійських народів імперії. Внаслідок цього був відсутній важливий зв'язок між соціальноекономічним становищем селян та національними прагненнями інтелігенції. Ця обставина значно перешкоджала зростанню національної свідомості українців Російської імперії.