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|home Banking Books Credit rozrahunkovі operations - Milay A.O.|
Credit rozrahunkovі operations - Milay A.O.
I appreciate respect in the process of building real market minds of state donations in Ukraine to give food and energy to the mechanics of the implementation of the programs in the sphere of traditional economy. Forms of foreign trade razrahunkіv , scho ryloblenny international practice, є their own overseas hardships of all kinds of foreign currency and reznizhnee between themselves for the mechanism, the degree of guarantee of the form of participation in the banks.
Civil law regulation of these laws and regulations shall be governed by the legal norms of the national legislation (Decree of the President of Ukraine "On entering order in law and laws on contracts, which requires submission of state liabilities as follows. 9 turnover of Ukraine "), as well as international, to some extent enforce the unified norms, establish the order of the internationally-contractual uniformed rights as a whitewater and codification of the international orders. The price of the International Chamber of Commerce, as well as: "Uniform rules for encase" and "Uniform rules and sound for documentary letters of credit." These rules should be extended in business practice to unified banking and contractual standards, so you can take advantage of the light trading.
The main forms of international rozrahunkіv є bank repayment, letter of credit, insurance.
Naybilsh by the widespread and cheap form of international razrahunkіv є bank repayment, which is the handing over of one bank to the present payment of a signaled sum for the payment for the payer for a piece of pay for foreign possession (beneficiary).
There are two ways to see a bank order :
• advance payment;
• for the fact that the product has been replaced.
Vibir currencies and forms of rozrakhunіv viznachayutsya for Uzgodzhennyam parties and fiksuyutsya in the minds of the contract.
Advance payment for payment to import is recommended to choose the right rate, as long as there is absolutely no need for acquiring the product in the legislation of the terms of termination (90 days).
Payments for payment of imported goods and services for non-resident reckoning can be realized through correspondent rahunka - loro and nostro, which will be maintained at the head bank. The increased payment for re-arranging through the Loro-rakhunka is made out in Russian (Ukrainian) by my, through the nostro-rakhunka - in Russian -foreign.
Commissions and SWIFT-Vitrati get together more than once to the bank’s tariffs, the total commissions are indicated at the paid commission.
Letter of credit є universal and dual instrument security payments.
A letter of credit shall be indicated for the sake of favor, for a certain bank-item (scho vidkriva є letter of credit) for handing over a loan to a client in order to pay a singing sum to an exporter (beneficiary), to redeem a certain credit document, a certificate of acceptance letter of credit documents at the terminology.
Rosrachunks on the basis of a letter of credit transfer the homeownership of an importer and a bank about those, a bank of an importer and a credit card and an exporter (beneficiary) sheet, please guarantee that the goods are covered.
When a letter of credit is drawn up by the issuing bank for the assignment of its client (letter of credit applicant) goiter’s obligations:
• Visicati payment of the third person (beneficiary) for the delivery of the comrade, vicon robots and allotted services;
• Reassignment to the Bank of Ukraine (Viscous) Bank of Payments.
There are two types of operations є with the main letters of credit operations. When drawing up letters of credit in an economical business, enter into such sub-acts:
• payer - applicant for a letter of credit, such as being handed over to a bank, which can be serviced, for a letter of credit;
• issuing bank - a bank of a payer, who will issue a letter of credit to his client;
• Beneficiary - a legal person, on the basis of a certain type of letter of credit (seller, viconavez robot or servant tochno);
• Viscous Bank - Beneficiary Bank, or the Bank, which is for the assignment of an issuing bank to a Viscount Letter of Credit.
You can see the main types of letters of credit : legal and non-legal, financial and non-financial, transferable, revolving, uncoated, accredited, “reserved worm”, reserve Tsei perelіk types of letters of credit are not acceptable. Bankers have a practice of storing and seeing letters of credit, but they have more to do with them.
An original letter of credit , but we may amend the terms and conditions of cancellations by the bank com- pent without the prior benefit of the benefit (for example, at the time of the absence of pre-approval, transferred by the contract, additional payment to the bank for the guarantee).
Non-personal letter of credit , but a few changes, but cancellations of benefits for the benefit year, on the basis of a certain kind of benefits.
We approve without a letter of credit, for a bank that has an interest in an important bank (often an aviating bank) to take an uninterrupted share in an accredited transaction by granting a full-bodied contract to a free-of-charge bank.
By transferring a certified non-personal letter of credit for an exporter є those who are in front of him are not authorized bank, but the first bank, a kind of approved letter of credit. The exporter will reject the guarantee of any kind of transactions, so we can’t buy a bank-property (for example, a package, a loan and a fence in the country of importing foreign currency for trading).
We are indefinitely indefinite є a letter of credit - a letter of credit, for an aviazuyuchy bank to disburse only loans to an exporter who is required to pay a letter of credit and pay less if the bank-issuer has exceeded the amount of interest.
For the currency of payment, a letter of credit shall be paid in such a way that they will rally:
• at national currencies beneficiaries (exporters);
• at national currency of an importer;
• in third currency.
As a rule, the payment was transferred to the foreign currency for the letter of credit, less than that, to the same credit as the letter of credit, the mindful exchange rate of the currency of the letter of credit and the currency of the payment are clearly indicated, which is required to be paid at the same time.
For the nature of the payment (the possibility of healthy frequent deliveries of products), a letter of credit will be given and that is not guaranteed.
We give a letter of credit, so that the exporter’s bills will be transferred to the contract to the singing sum contract for leather private delivery.
Such a letter of credit є to finish with a subtle form of roses. The largest exporters.
We will indefinitely ив a letter of credit, so that it can be transferred, so that the whole sum, so that it is subject to exporters, will be paid after completion of deliveries, or after delivery of private delivery.
Such a letter of credit is victorious when agreed upon by the parties in large numbers, technologically quietly, so long as the delivery is unavailable, so long as it is earlier, I have passed before. Otzhe, a genuine letter of credit for the interests of the importer.
For a message and a submission, a letter of credit shall be granted so that I can understand:
• issuing bank at the Ukrainian importer;
• Avisuyu abo pіdtverdzhuyuyim bank near the country beneficiaries;
• for the fate of a third party.
At quiet hops, if there is a wise bank є bank-emitent, term іn dіі of the letter of credit, you must pay at the country bank іnіmіntіta і він pay for the only amount of money that the documents are undone and the documents are required to be re-signed.
As a vicarious bank є an aviizuyuchy bank, you can choose the form of payment for documents in any way to the payment method specified in the brains of the contract.
Behind the type of official dues of sub-sectors of the State Diversity (for export and import of goods and services) letters of credit are granted for letters of import and letters of credit for export.
A letter of credit for import is granted for roseraising for importing foreign companies of comrade and overseas servants.
Vіn vіdkrivaєsyatsya Ukrainian banks for the handing over of Ukrainian companies-importers. When razrahunok for import fully vikoristovuvati letters of credit, so much was transferred to the Ukrainian bank-emitenti proti dokumentiv, who should be the kind of foreign exporter. As a result, I can protect you from freezing currency currency sub-branches of the state subsidiary of Ukraine and bankers in banks in foreign banks for upcoming payments for letters of credit. The remaining rocks of the NBU do not recommend vikoristovuvati such a letter of credit.
One of the types of letters of credit for import and transit letters of credit . It’s possible to stink out of business, to redeem and redeem oneself with better banks for handing over foreign bank-correspondent banks, as well as to declare letters of credit in foreign countries. As a rule, transit letters of credit are avaible for the rachunas of an foreign bank-emitent.
A letter of credit for export is open for export for exporting foreign companies, comrades and servants and foreign banks for commissioning foreign companies, international companies.
At the razrakhunah for Ukrainian export letters of credit, you can provide the best foreign banks with available loans through Ukrainian banks. Nayvigіdnіshim for the whole time є Appointment as a viconuy bank of an approved Ukrainian bank.
Besides, at the International Banking Practice, the specificity is specific and you see letters of credit .
Resubmission (transferable) letter of credit . The exporter can showcase the right to often transfer his rights under a letter of credit to the other parties, as a rule, not by the goods dispatcher, but by the intermediary of both the postal dispatcher and the importer.
A resale letter of credit may be used to the beneficiaries (exporters) to transfer my private rights under the letter of credit to the other parties, and I must continue to accept the terms of the letter of credit to deny the payment.
Let’s remind you that we need to extend the letter of credit, the exporter is home with an importer about those who, when the letter of credit is received, will be obov'yazkovo cluttered. Such terms, like "podilny", "prybnyuvany" for nothing to stasis. Persh nizh zdіysnyuvati transfer, exporter maє nadislati to the bank, scho pokazuє, written letters. Protect yourself from the bank, without fail to confirm that you have confirmed the letter of credit, do not have to ask for a refusal, wait a minute for the loan, wait a bit, and the bank does not pay any bank charges.
Uniform rules of that documentary documentary letters of credit (ІГСР) signify the mind to the order and establish the rights and conditions of the parties. Sokrem, transfer of a letter of credit is possible only once. From now on, a letter of credit cannot be used for transferring another beneficiary-ara to the third beneficiary.
Compensation letter of credit . In the case of a refundable letter of credit, the exporter can be the middle man or the post-agent and the importer. You can make a loan to the third bank to issue another letter of credit on the basis of the postal loan as an alternative to a return letter of credit, a guarantee for securing a letter of credit, and an exporter to exporter.
Compensation letter of credit for guarantee as a guarantee for the issuance of another letter of credit for the sake of protection of self-interest.
Most banks are reluctant to take part in the pleases of the Republic of Kazakhstan in a compensatory letter of credit through an explicit loan. Ochukuvane the end of the mind and the residual payment for the first letter of credit to save the guarantee of payment for the other, however, the end of the mind of the first perpetuate through the second party, handing over for any reason. For example, the actual post-shareholder (beneficiary of another letter of credit) can apply for his letter of credit, who regulate the goods in the first place in Ukraine, and later, the right to pay. However, the planner (the exporter of the beneficiary of the first letter of credit) can get a good look at your letter of credit, for example, through the strike of the ship, you can transfer the goods through the cordon until the end of the term. All in all, one iz bugatokh of possible vipadkіv, if vantazhovіddravnik (middleman) can appear as an unappeasable viscounty of a letter of credit.
The intermediary bank, which has issued another letter of credit, has more rights to pay the beneficiary letter of credit, as well as all documents have been drawn up correctly, and can be compensated for in the form of an intermediary. As a rule, we cannot offer goods to foreign importers, we will not deny payment for a first letter of credit, and you may not be able to pay with your own bank. For the reasons, it’s possible the bank would like to issue another letter of credit, the most successful lawyer, the most indebted guarantee that we can use the exporter at the same time to compensate for the need for the basic financial loans.
With the help of a fellow who has gone to the bank to clean up my interest bank, I want to issue another letter of credit, we can put it in my possession to get a letter of credit bulletin before I can see the nutrition about the issue of another. For these most important reasons, there were more banks, so that they could have a good idea about re-ordering the transfer of credit, rather than compensating letters of credit.
Letter of credit with a worm Beneficiary may require financial support for the completion of the product; sale of the product on a specific basis. To reach the price of the additional credit letter of credit with the cheronym for zasterezhennyam. The name of the name of the winch is the sound of a recording in the letter of credit of the worm of chornylom, the name of the word of the past.
A quick letter of credit with a worn bill, an issuing bank for the assignment of an importer, I’ve uploaded an aviiable loan and a bank of interest, and a small advance payment of a written letter of attorney has been confirmed beforehand.
You have a letter of credit from exporters and I can win an advance from the total amount of the loan. Upon receipt of the letter of credit, the payee bank, the German bank, I’ll exaggerate the amount of the advance payment and pay the beneficiary. As a rule, the beneficiary will be able to redirect the goods; they can save the letter of credit, the payee bank, the German bank must be opened, the issuing bank has denied compensation for the entire amount in advance, and also the loan amount. Potim Bank-emitent Styagu Qiu Sum z rakhunka importer. I’ve got a first look at the pranks of the exporter of the vikoristovuvati letter of credit with the cronymy zherezherezhnenyam, the importer is pleased to have his own bank, so that you can manage the steps.
Revolving letter of credit for partial payment sums and automatically like for paying for party goods.
Such a letter of credit:
• to become victorious for the regular planning of the sale of goods by the extension of the trial period without issuing a new letter of credit;
• Obmeshuє sum of deliveries to the goods;
• I regulate the frequency vіdvantazhen i allow the amount of delivery of goods.
Automatically enter letters of credit cumulative and non-cumulative. Tsya klasifіkatsіya stosuєutsya regularity otrimuvanyh sum. For example, a letter of credit can help to comrade in the amount of up to 100,000 dollars. schomіsyatsya stretching one rock. All the same means one of two vipadkiv.
Cumulative letter of credit . As a result of the process of one of the thousands of monthly deliveries, goods were shipped for a sum of less than $ 100,000, then a deficit, like a winik, can be added up to the sum for the coming month. For example, as a rule, the beneficiary will send goods only for the sum of $ 80,000, the offensive sum of goods will become $ 120,000.
Non-cumulative letter of credit . Obviously, a comrade with him, not victorious in the singing month, can’t be buty dodimi before the offensive. From now on, as a matter of fact, in the singing month the goods were sold for the sum of $ 80,000, the beneficiary is not able to advance the goods in the bag for $ 100,000.
Vidnosini between the issuing bank and the vikonuychim bank are governed by correspondent agreements (pleases), in such cases the payment of fees for the advance payments and the payment of the same amount are paid out on a regular basis. The leather letter of credit is victorious for only one beneficiary and cannot be redirected.
For a credit certificate, I will declare the buyer, I will submit the bank to the emitter, denoted by: number of the agreement, for a kind of credit; term of the letter of credit (the number and the number of letters of credit of the letter of credit); naymenuvannya postochalka; type of letter of credit; think of the realizatsii letter of credit (documents, see the goods so thin); the amount of the letter of credit.
At the time of issuing a letter of credit deposited with a vicarious bank, the issuing bank will redeem the payee of the payee to the bank with the beneficiary bank and then confirm the letter of credit. An application for credit receipt was accepted prior to the weekend to be insured by the issuing bank for the off-balance balance sheet “Letters of credit before payment”.
More than a bank-emitent about a credit letter of credit and about a loan until a new one, the bank is stronger. It is necessary for a clear identification of the reassurance of a vicarious bank in the form of a letter of credit operation.
Payments for the letter of credit are as follows:
1) after the delivery of the products, the work of the winners and the after-service beneficiaries of the bank shall have the necessary documents transferred to the minds of the letter of credit;
2) виконуючий банк ретельно перевіряє подані бенефіціаром документи щодо дотримання всіх умов акредитива і надсилає повідомлення банку-емітенту, щоб отримати згоду на виконання акредитива;
3) здійснюються виплати бенефіціару за акредитивом, депонованим у виконуючому банку;
4) кошти з цього рахунка виконуючий банк списує на підставі реєстру документів за акредитивом та інших документів, що відповідають умовам акредитива:
5) при використанні акредитива, депонованого у банку-емітенті, цей банк списує кошти та перераховує їх на рахунок бенефіціара;
6) банк бенефіціара, у свою чергу, після отримання коштів від бан-ку-емітента списує суму за акредитивом з позабалансового рахунка.
а) за заявою постачальника про припинення дії відкличного акредитива до закінчення його терміну. Банку-емітенту надсилає повідомлення виконуючий банк. Невикористана сума перераховується банку платника на рахунок, з якого депонували кошти;
б) після закінчення обумовленого терміну акредитива. Про закриття акредитива банк-емітент повідомляє виконуючий банк;
в) за заявою покупця за відкличним акредитивом про відмову акредитива повністю чи частково акредитив закривається або зменшується в день одержання повідомлення від банку-емітента. Про закриття акредитива виконуючий банк надсилає повідомлення банку-емітенту.
Розрахунки акредитивами широко використовуються в міжнародних економічних відносинах.
Акредитивна форма розрахунків , з одного боку, гарантує вчасність і повноту платежу постачальникові за відвантажені товари чи надані послуги; з іншого боку, вона сповільнює обіг (рух) коштів, тому що потребує депонування покупцем певної грошової суми ще до того, як відбувся акт купівлі-продажу товарно-матеріальних цінностей. Форма розрахунків за акредитивами в наших умовах є засобом адаптації системи безготівкових розрахунків до нових ринкових відносин в умовах кризової економіки. На жаль, акредитивна форма розрахунків у господарському обороті України обмежена і не дає належного економічного ефекту.