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|home Finance A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.|
A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.
The emergence of Ukraine as an independent, sovereign power has pondered the need for the creation of a powerful penny system, and the Ukrainian government has a self-reliant penny turnover and a grocery market in Europe. Organizational and legal rights to ambush the establishment of the penny system of Ukraine have been laid down in the Law of Ukraine "On Bank" and Banking ", the Supreme Court of Ukraine has been praised on March 20, 1991. to ensure stability of pennies, to conduct one penny-credit policy too thinly. This meant that no more organizations in our country, and, moreover, no more people in Kyrgyzstan, were not less right to get involved in this field. Our Territory has become the first and foremost authority of the Ukrainian state.
First practical lessons on the implementation of the Vlasnaya penny system Bouli zrobleni pislya vykhodu Ukrainy zi warehouse SRSR, if 10 sichnya 1992 p. boules are repaired in Ukrainian coupon-carbohydrates of bagatorazovy coristuvanny as an addition to ruble pennies. Because two types of currencies immediately fell into circulation - forward rubles, the message went over the Union State to the Russian Federation, that coupon-carbovancy, the right to save some bullets was closed for the NBU. The entire bezgotovkovy turnover of having sold the servicing service is exceptionally forward, now it is already in Russia, in currency - in rubles.
Parallelne Victoria in 1992 two currencies - old і new - zumovlyuvalsya near the following:
- The Central Bank of the Russian Federation through spring 1991 p. having ceased supranaths to Ukraine, the ruble has evolved, which has prompted a significant acceleration in secured consumption in the turnover in goths;
- on between 1991-1992 pp. Ukraine all over Russia has become at the helm of a liberal price, it was more than tenfold that the average age of rivals was significantly better than before, since Ukraine could not have wandered away from Russia;
- Ukraine is not small at that time, the basis for the purchase of penniless signs, and the financial establishment of the state did not allow the zmogi to immediately grab an extra bag of pennies behind the cordon, so as to quickly replace them with the old pennies.
I will look at the whole interior of Ukraine, while being in the warehouse of the Union, I regained my sign of pennies. But the status of the Union Republic without allowing the third mother’s moisture pennies, and the pishov’s order on the way to letting in additional (to the ruble) signs - coupons, yakis, for the valued ones, can be used only with parallel pennies.
Acting, vivazhene, demanding new pennies for the old age, it was possible to unnecessarily overwhelm them in circulation, not to allow shy znetsіnennya, to protect imennyh competitive rivals apart from the ruble. In addition, coupon-karbovanets kotuvavsya navіtche vid ruble. The gain in circulation of the Ukrainian ruble as of the Russian currency provoked the accumulation of money and the victory of Russia on the Russian market for the purchase of the necessary Ukrainian and energy resources. They gave us room to think, that Ukrainian mother-in-law, and bagato, having forced us to tighten tighten the parallel ruble and coupon-carbohydrates.
Protele parallel ruble obg i coupon-carbovants not prinis Ukrainian ochіkuvanih positive positive insights. On the contrary, to finish shvidko the significant shortcomings of the two-currency system of a penny turnover appeared. Vaughn has accelerated the management of internal preparedness, the organization of internal preparedness and distribution, and the Russian Federation. In an unforgettable time, the coupon-karbovanets having lost his ears on the couch before the ruble and became shvidko znetsіnyuvatisya. Vinikli remembered interruptions in internal and external payments.
By specific officials, they accelerated the penniless camp on the cob of the coupon-carbovanship coup, boules:
1. The collapse of the decline of the law in the first place with a strong liberal price and the prevailing state support of the zv'yazkіv, the speed of sovereign confusion. Tilki for the sichen 1992 p. the oversight of industrial taxation rose by 19.8%, including the wide range of commodities — by 28.1%, and the products of kharchuvannya — by 41.2%. Rozdrіbny commodity exchange decreased by 61%. Mustache has quickly drunk on pennies, and the part of the pennies appearing in circulation has appeared in a dawn, provocatively growing price.
2. Vilnius, the Russian ruble on the domestic market of Ukraine, has driven a wide range of food products between Ukraine and the commodity basis of the domestic penny. In addition, the Ukrainian Ministry of Reprisals Buv will convert the entire Got_vkoviy Obig into the Carbovanets currency and the Viluchiti currency. Tsey Krok having secured the NBU’s full control over the sphere of goth_ turnover. Protein vіdkrivav broad grivliostі for vіkoristannya emіsyі pennies to cover financial consumer order, as at that hour overspread shvidko, scho became one of the top officials of the rose in Ukraine.
3. From the initiative of the Russian Federation in the middle of 1992 p. in the ruble zone of the bank, the system is interchangeable through correspondent rachunks and in the center in the Rosrakhunkov center under the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. Universality of the whole payment between the ruble-denominated areas of the country was taken by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. The ruble has lost its status as a single penny, the winnings are ruble - Russian, Ukrainian, thin. The course of the Ukrainian ruble is shodo rossiyskogo becoming very low. Ukraine has spent be-it-yourself overseas vid vikoristannya in bezgotvivkomu turnover іnshії currency-ruble.
On the other hand, the provision of carbohydrates to the Gotovka sphere during servicing bezvotovkova turnover exceptionally ruble, called up to a mechanical shred of a single penny turnover on a two-wheeled unit. Crossing pennies from one part to the next year after exchange rate. The situation has been created for the exchange rate of pennies in case of victorious and non-ready revolutions. Tse asked for the development of major financial speculations, for transferring pennies from one form to turnover, for refueling for small capitals from Ukraine for a cordon, secrecy to Russia.
Schob, weaken the negative effects of parallel exchange of two currencies, President of Ukraine by decree "On the reform of the penny system of Ukraine" vid 12 leaf fall 1992 p. having sold a coupon-carbovanets to the sphere of bezgotovkova turnover and a profitable ruble pennies. New pennies were named "Ukrainian Carbovanets", the status of national hourly pennies was removed, and they became the only payment order in Ukraine. Ukrainian karvanovets yak timshovі pennies taking on themselves the left part of the financial negarazdі v perehidnogo period and vikonav tsim his historical-zhertovnuyu mіsіyu. On a new method of sampling and forgiveness, the national groshov system of Ukraine appeared. I have learned from the irregular circulation of Ukrainian carbovans, which completed the first stage of the formation of the national penny system of Ukraine.
On the other hand, there is the National Bank of Ukraine, revolving around the norms of the Law of Ukraine “On Banks and Banking” (1991 p.), Providing information and organizing functions of a grocery system. Prior to the main steps and the best results, the development of a penny system for the whole process can be carried out:
1. Rozbudov vlasny emіsіynogo mechanism, which includes:
- the establishment of the NBU Banknote and Mint, which has the largest cycle of high-visibility papermoney and coins;
- fragmentation of the design, installed nominal number, payment signs, secure system and the preservation of penniless signs and coins;
- the fragmentation of the rules for VIPs in obig, zbirigannya, inkasatsії, viluchennya ob obigu gotіvki, vosdennya kasovih operations toscho.
2. The form of the mechanism of regulation of the NBU propositional pennies, zavadanny yakoy є:
- відпрацювання the mechanism of centralized regulation of bank reserves;
- Provision of a mechanism for refinancing of commercial banks;
- Development of operations on vidkritomu market.
3. Separation of the methodology and methodology of the penny-credit policy of the National Bank of Ukraine, accumulation of more practical practical tools, tools of the penny-credit policy, separation of the areas of financial-budgetary and pennant-credit policies.
4. Rozbudov national payment system, which I will save: - the establishment of electronic payment systems in banks;
to whom rіvnі;
- a fragmentation of methodological and instructive documents for the organization of ready-to-go rozrakhunіv on mizhgospodarskomu rivnі;
- a fragmentation of methodological and organizational ambushes of the targeting electronic system of mass payments.
5. Form of the mechanism of currency regulation, including including:
- the development of the infrastructure of the currency market and the form of methodical and organizational ambushes for the operation of the operator;
- the procedure for regulating the exchange rate;
- development of the mechanism of form and vikoristannya gold and foreign exchange reserves;
- Formulation of the benefits of the balance of payments of the territory, a realistic analysis and forecast.
6. Razroblennya and vyprobuvannya on practical special visits with a podolannya hyperinflation and regulation of inflation.
Crossings came in gave the opportunity to form with a stretch of 1993 - 1996 pp. legal and organizational basis of the national penny system of the market type, it’s easy to securely manage the penny turnover one by one until the economy of the country.
A new situation, which has taken shape in the management of a penny turnover, without having seen the status of the hourly currency, has won over for the Ukrainian Karbovanets. Timothy pennies cannot be the sole order of viconuvati one of the most respectable functions - the function of awards. All the interests of the economy sub-sectors to the accumulation of pennies are like Jerela Investment, the stream of economic growth, the decrease in the effectiveness of the anti-inflation policy, and the lack of power. At zvjazku zim of special hospitality, there was ample supply of food for the circulation of a permanent penny - hryvnia. 25 sickle 1996 p. President of Ukraine, having signed the Decree “About the Groshova Reform in Ukraine”, which was written on October 2-16, 1996 p. From the turnover of buv volucheniy ukrainian karbanovets i introduced the post of groshova odinitsya - hryvnia that с ї ії honeycomb partin - kopіyka.
Tsim ends with another stage of rozbudovi penny system of Ukraine and the third.
On the third stage, "go ahead and go further to the mechanical mechanisms and tools of the penny system, which we heard were divided into the front step. An important and important point here was the adoption of the Supreme Law of Ukraine" nowhere, the functions of the National Bank of Ukraine, to become the basis of the penny system, were widely known. Price, credit, part IV "Pennant policy", part V "Managing the right part," Part I I have a good bank operating with foreign exchange values. ”They have clear rights and obligations to the NBU.