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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.

ROZDIL 5. INFLATSIA TA GROSHOVI REFORM

5.1. SUTNITY, SEE THAT LAW, PROFITABILITY OF INFLATION

Сутність інфляції. Інфляція - the whole trivale and shvidke znetsіnennya pennies from the heights of the worldly growth of masai in circulation. At the same time, the growth of the groshovo masi can be absolutely absolute, so it is one-sided. For example, a 15% increase in the amount of pennies per month is two-three-fold long, almost the same as the introduction of the pennies, the loss of the economy of the country does not mean the loss of goods and services. The same will be the result, as long as the groshov’s mas is slightly indemnified and insignificantly insignificant, the extra charge is 5% on the average, then the physical liabilities of the viral goods and the service will be shorter by 10-15%, but it’s always possible natural virazі.

Independent of the obviousness of the sound of inflation and the pennies of the pennies, the dayliness of this apparition did not know an unambiguous interpretation in economic literature.

Naichastishe її treat yak znetsіnennya pennies through zrostannya price but simply yak processes zrostannya price.

Also, such a declaration of inflation does not allow for the supply of power:

- Chi є zrostannya tsin оз a single sign іnflyatsії?

- Chi for all kinds of temp zrostannya tsin vinikaє іnflyatsіya?

- Chi, for all sorts of reasons, the growth of prices is possible?

It’s already the supply of supplies that I’m talking about those who don’t need to rightfully don’t need to forgive them, but because of the more social and economic potential. To tell the story that scholarship is possible and without any price, that is, the znachenie znetsinennya pennies nabu your form of chronic commodity deficit with the fiscal state price. At one time, Groshov’s single don’t formally need to know more, but then get a whole lot of money through economical sub-projects through the so-called “Primary” regards, because they won’t be able to buy more goods. If you so earnestly nabuvayut the great rozmіrіv, winikaє so ranks "інфляційний наіс", під with the clutches of a kind of power planned to pіdvishchuє price, as well as the one-time bullet in SRSR. With the most radical approach against the "inflationary navigation" є the liberalization of prices without indexation is for your benefit, the success of which stinks simply "burns" the inflationary period, since 1992 in Ukraine.

From now on, and without obvious increase in price, we can survive the obvious manifestations and serious difficulties of inflating, as well as rush in the market more and more cheaply and without any loss.

It is impossible to unequivocally and on the supply of food. As a matter of fact, the price is short, for the seasonal one, and for the coming low season, then the inflation is not at all.

It is not a matter of correct recognition of the inflation and the process of a trivial increase in price, a little better maintenance, a little increase in suspension and the fact that it is easy to compensate for the low cost of the event. All the more for your economic and social experience. Unfortunately, the literary won’t know how good a specific name and a better name are to look at as a special kind of inflation.

We’ll add and disagree є third є power supply. Some economics are important, but only those who can pay more attention to things like inflating, because they are not worthy of the supreme release of pennies. Viznachayuchi dayliness of inflation, stink of shouting over voices on repetitive channels in the deal with papermov’s pennies, on the first roshuhanni, and zrostannya price look at the same way as manifestation of the manifestation of inflation. Representatives of monetarist theory are most likely to receive prior information on the daily basis of inflation. Zokrema, M. Fridman without any barriers, I said, "Inflate yourself everywhere and everywhere with a terrible phenomenon." Sutnist іnflatsії vіn othotozhnyu є with a high pace of growing propositional pennies, as well as provocatively growing food and price, and in growing price ubacha її manifest. Fridman vvazhaє, which, with a smaller proposition of pennies, can stifle inflation and navigate vicarious reflections.

Acting economically, you don’t want to bring up the proposition of pennies before the inflation, and joking about the greater reasons, such as, for example, the growth of the virology. Dzherela іnflatsії stench change the angle of economics, and the sale of pennies of pennies for the reason overturn at іnlіdok іnflyatsії. To enter this way, the right amount of the virobitnitva is nibble without any reason the reason is the higher price, and the remaining amount is the larger number of pennies in circulation and the repetition of its channel in circulation. The economy itself will be ignored by inflation, and the increase in price and inflation should be made by the inevitable, non-volatile types of monetary policy of the state. This is called an inflationary vitality and is given the independent status of being manifest and progressive, and by the day it is more important that it is more detailed 5.2.

Інфляція - I’ve got to show up in a fold for the form of Ії I will show that for the success of officials, which I need to reason. Call for a change in prices for comrades and tariffs for services, at the current exchange rate of national pennies, at a damped commodity deficit. Usі tsі yavyshcha є manifesting a znetsnennya pennies, regardless of the cause and effect of the sound of the pennies between the pennies and goods on the market. Yak vidomo, advances in price to stand up for a stretch of the development of marketable product and market. In the era of functional funnels of repeated pennies, it was zoomed out to the coins of the coins, but to the lower varieties of gold that we bought and others at once. In this series of incidents, the self-interest of the coin changed, which zoomed out in large part with the law of self-determination of commodity prices. The proto-vidbuvalos outwardly supranationally and steadily, unfortunately, was an indefinable stretch of one human life. Moreover, the period of decline was marked by periods of decline. To such an end, the pennies didn’t come out of sight of the most economical perturbations and the social shocks and the self-evident economy.

A memorable suspension “sounding” of price increased in the minds of the remuneration of unreasonable papermoney pennies, if the mechanism of automatic securing of pennies was stopped for two minutes. Yakraz at the period of the vinicals of the vernacular price and the fall of the vartosti pennies, which led up to the next social welfare. The processes began to bring to you a great deal of respect for science and practice, as a follow-up in a new warehouse, they were called “inflation” (from Latin: inflatio - hello).

Upher termіn "інфляція" having once got accustomed to 70 rock of the XIX century One hundred percent to a penny obigu in Pivnichniy America, reinstated with papermony signs, as if let out for the enormous mass of viniyas. From that hour onwards, there is a wide range of scientific and practical vocabulary. Especially the collapse of the gold standard. Yogo often vzhivayut to characterize trumpery obіgu i bіlsh rannіh Epoch - dokapіtalіstichnoї i domonopolіstichnogo kapіtalіzmu, with the Same in perіodi, if vstanovlyuvavsya obіg nerozmіnnih banknotes chi just paperovih pennies (obіg asignatіv perіodu Frantsuzkoї revolyutsії kіntsya XVIII century that napoleonіvskih vіyn, obіg asignatsіy Russie kіntsya XVIII. - the cob of the XIX century and that.). As a rule, all the period and internal political and social shocks.

I will manifest the forms of progressive change in the world of developing pennile systems and the pennile forms themselves. On the cob there are winnings of paper pennies, if they’re stony, they’ve seen red roses on gold banknotes, and on the hands of the sub-banknote there are more coins, there are more than one wound gold coins, there’s a lot of gold It is torn apart from the nominal nomination.

Vidpovidno to grow up I get along having agreed on the process of changing the real wartosts of a groovy one, with a golden nominee in gold, which is called a disazhio.

In ordinary minds, if there is a lot of gold and pink tearing in sight, the visible sound of penniless signs in it, poor and disagreement, the indicators of the inflation process have lost their meaning.

The main form of manifestation of inflation has become a znachennennya groshih signs in one of the most vartosti of the most important goods, middle of the kind of gold-tinned gold, so that the fall of the highest price of buying goods. As a rule, the process is of a lingering nature, then you’ll drown by diluting your middle price on the domestic market of the country and the markets of the old country and the whole market. Vinikaне znetsіnennya national pennies osnozhno foreign currency. Allow you to bring down the exchange rate of national pennies to a lower exchange rate, which may be a manifestation of inflation. Yakshcho power to introduce omezhennya on zrostannya price, so that you can adjust the regulation of the market, then for the manifestations of the supreme world of inflation is not a sign, but nabuva form a large-scale commodity deficit, as a whole in the SRSR.

Pislya zagalno demonetizatsіі gold gold inflation and sporadic apparitions has overturned in the chronicle, power, by the day, all over the country. Vіdmіnnostі sposterigayutsya less than in rivnі інфляції, її reasons and heirlooms. In some kraїnah Won Got Neznachny rіven, її perebіg kerovany i Got Positive vpliv on ekonomіku, and іnshih Tsey perebіg nekerovany, dosyagaє gіpervisokih rіvnіv i will only be sold to the grave in ruynuvan ekonomіtsі that sotsіalnіy sferі.

Law of the process of inflation. Не Inflation is not a winery п rapto, but a progressive development like a trials process, which can be divided into a stage. The price of the rate is increased. The number of pennies and the rate is increased.

At the first stage, the growth of the proposition of pennies increases the number of pennies, and, consequently, the steps progressively change, approaching the amount of pennies. Also, there is a tendency to increase the number of causes.

One of them lies in the fact that the supranational proposition of pennies is sworn by the turnover of the bells and whistles of improvement. Sub'єkti rinku singing hour do not vidchuvayut supramirnostі in obigu pennies and vikoristovuyuth ikh for rewarding chi zhereberezhennya. All in all, you’ll be penniless, I’ll relax the inflationary grip on commodity prices, and for the first time I will be able to get hold of the last few, more and less money.

Indicate the process of zooming in on one official who is relaxed in the inflation of the world. Zrostannya penny nagromadzhen i zberezhen in perіod, if not viyavilasya tendentsіya to znetsіnennya pennies posilyuє stimulated aktivіzatsії pіdpriєmnitstva, commodity-penny-vіdnosin, pіdvischennya produktivnostі pratsі scho will only be sold to rozshirennya virobnitstva that realіzatsії tovarіv i polіpshennya spіvvіdnoshennya mіzh popitom i propozitsієyu on commodity Rink.

At another stage of inflation, the rate of pennies is higher than the rate of growth of the proposition. Tse zumovlyuyutsya such officials:

- at the singing moment, the hair growers of the groshov’s prams fix the rosum іх supramirnіst and prednavlyayut on the market for the purchase of goods. I’ll speed up shvidkіst ruhu of pennies at the stream obigu that zbіlshuє plospromozhniy will drink apart from the flow emisyu;

- instantly change the supply of piles of new propositions of pennies, the inheritance of which is greater than the size of the pennies, and the appearance of all pennies;

- Winning and expanding barter operations, sounding the commodity basis of the groshovoy masi obigu;

- znetsennennya pennies to bring up to business the need to work in the sphere of speculative exchange, to zoom in on the sale of goods and turnover, through which change is consumed by pennies.

Universally recognized officials are so called inflated, if they have to repair subunits, improve the unanimity of the official price. Schob to uncover the need for him Maybutnh vrath, stink fix it by chance buying a comrade, not only for continuous living, but for Maybutny. For the whole market, "wikidate" not only whole income, but the most important periodically. An unavoidable long-standing, old-fashioned growth of prices and prices for growing prices and the reduction of the monetization of gross domestic product.

Vimіryuvannya інфляції. Similarly, you can vidkrit tsinovu іnflatyatsіy possible for the additional іndeksu іsn for singing period - ryk, quarter, month. In practice, it’s possible to have a bagato of winter gifts. Protein for vimіryuvannya іnflyatsії naichastіsh zasosovuetsya three of them see:

- Yandex price of good goods (Yandex price of good);

- Yandex price on the list of virobility (Yandex price on the list);

- Yandex price GDP, or a GDP deflator.

The index of living prices (ІЦЦ) is characterized by winter in the hours of the secret rival price for comrades and servants, like buying a population for a special living. This indicator is often used to characterize the inflation, to find the exact amount not just the economy, but the social aspect of the economy, the livelihood of the population, and that’s more. ІСЦ is widely committed to the practice of regulation of the sovereign financial and social policies, analysis and forecasting of the new processes, regulation of the exchange rate of the national currency, and the selection of legal disputes.

To be recognized as the ICC for the vocal performance of the legislative legislator of a fixed set of goods and services (a “live cat”), which is marked at the base price and the flow period. Rosrahuvati ІЦЦ is possible for such a formula:

small 35

Formula of index of living prices

de Rp and P1 - the price of one item (service) of the base and return period;

go-kіlkіst goods і in the "live cat" base period.

Independently on the widespread congestion of the ICC, it’s impossible to achieve the exact turn of the inflation process and the impact on the wart of life. Reach at that, ISC will need to buy a fixed set of goods, and some will be indefinitely stretched out for a trivial hour. In the minds of the population, the population is often replaced by a living comrade, but they have become more expensive, cheaper. The yak is located, the structure is completely constant, the yak of the bull is fixed with the designated "cat". In the minds of high inflation, the structure of a “living cat” is often necessary.

Index price for the place of virobnitstva (price of the place for viral) characterizes winter in the part of the zagalny rvnya price for the place of virobnitty, to buy legal entities for the place of living. You have the right to see the change of wholesale prices, the temperament is not to be expected to increase the speed of distribution of prices; The index price of the virobnik is sensitive to the winter vitrat on the virobility, lower to the winter. That is why it is often victorious with the characteristic of vitality, especially if the wholesale prices are increased in the hour ahead of the growth of prices. Tsey заст Yandex zasosovuetsya bіlsh obmeshёn, nіzh ІЦЦ.

Become familiar with the index price of the virobnik for the formula of the aggregate index price of Laspeyres:

small 36

formula of aggregate index price Laspeyres

de Р1 і Po - в і ень ц ц од single goods (services) in-line and basic per_ period і відповідно;

go - the number of goods (vipadkv nadannya servant) at the base period, which is taken in the rosary.

The GDP deflator is characterized by winter in the hour of the secret price for all comrades and servants, which are realized by the residents of Kintsev. The price is a broad indicator, which is a characteristic of the inflation rate of all prices. In addition, the GDP deflator can be seen in various forms of ICP and ICC, if the exact same is true, the real structure of the special and viral life is lower, lower than the previous index. The deflator of GDP can be identified by the formula for the aggregate index price Laspeyres.

See the inflation. Do literary dozens of dozens of different forms of education. When tsyomu author do not wait to touch the singing criteria for viznachneniya that Chi виду nshogo mind. That order can be implanted in such a way that understanding of inflation, such as inflation, import of inflation, inflation of income, inflation of water, and inflation of vitality is thin. With such a classification of infor- mation as a doctor, I will be able to recognize and understand that there will be a slight acceleration in recognition of the daily situation.

The most correct one оре the classification of the inflation type for three criteria: I will show the forms, the rate of the familiarity of the pennies, the officials of the inflation mark.

For the forms I will show ля ля ф ф мож мож вид it is possible to see:

- to the price of inflation, which is manifested in the form of growth of price;

- Inflation for profit, if the loss of pennies is manifested in the community and for the protection of the state at a fixed price and income;

- devaluation, for such a large amount of pennies appear at the lower exchange rate to foreign currencies.

The main view of inflation in the economy of economy is that of innovation, the fragments in the minds of the liberalized market are much more impotent, and the devaluation is clearly seen.

Behind the pace of the introduction of pennies, three kinds of infinitively sound are seen:

- As a result, we will be characterized by an accelerated growth of mash of pennies in circulation without a noticeable increase of prices with insignificant growth of prices - up to 5% per rick;

- Remember, vidkritu, yak manifested in accelerated znachenny pennies in form zrostannya price, scho in the range of 5-20% on rik. This is one of the old days for economical sub-sites, and it’s worth repairing adaptations. Найбільше це вдається підприємствам монополізованих секторів економіки, особливо "природним монополістам". Зайняті тут підприємці починають прискорено підвищувати ціни на свої товари у відповідь на зростання попиту, їх покупці починають нести додаткові витрати, а тому підвищують ціни на свої товари. Поступово інфляція поширюється на всі сектори економіки, порушуючи рівновагу всього ринку;

- галопуюча інфляція, коли зростання цін 20-50%, а інколи 100% на рік. Для цього виду інфляції характерне стрибкоподібне, вкрай нерівномірне зростання цін, яке важко передбачити і яке не піддається регулюванню. Від такої інфляції важко захиститися, і вплив її на економіку різко негативний;

- гіперінфляція, що характеризується надзвичайно високими темпами зростання цін - більш як 100% на рік. На цій стадії гроші починають втрачати свої функції, купюри низьких номіналів та розмінна монета зникають з обігу, падає роль грошей в економіці, поширюється бартер. Порушується кредитний механізм, посилюються стихійні процеси в економіці тощо.

За чинниками, що спричинюють інфляційний процес, можна виділити багато видів інфляції. Проте на практиці всі ці чинники часто діють одночасно, накладаючись один на одного. Тому чітко вичленити такі види інфляції практично неможливо, і в літературі за цим критерієм заведено виділяти лише два види інфляції:

- інфляцію витрат;

- інфляцію попиту.

Ці два види інфляції, по суті, виділені залежно від того, з якого боку здійснюється тиск на ціни - з боку пропозиції чи з боку попиту. Такий тиск на ціни з кожного боку може провокуватися багатьма чинниками, а відтак інфляція витрат і інфляція попиту є багатоскладовими її видами. Проте для розуміння суті інфляції та розроблення ефективної антиінфляційної політики такої узагальненої класифікації видів інфляції достатньо.

Інфляція витрат спричинюється тиском на ціни з боку зростання виробничих витрат. Це передусім зростання заробітної

плати, витрат на енергетичні й сировинні ресурси, а також падіння продуктивності праці, посилення монополізації виробництва і ринку, зростання в структурі виробництва галузей з уповільненими темпами підвищення продуктивності праці (наприклад, послуг), з високою часткою витрат на заробітну плату та низькою питомою вагою виробництва предметів споживання тощо. В усіх цих випадках, щоб зберегти обсяги виробництва і пропозиції на попередньому рівні, необхідно збільшувати грошові виплати, що призведе до зростання попиту, а отже і цін. Якщо грошові виплати не збільшувати, то вказані чинники призведуть до скорочення виробництва і пропозиції, що при попередньому попиті теж підштовхуватиме ціни вверх. Тут теж виникне "зайвий" попит, що провокуватиме зростання цін.

В умовах України в період гіперінфляції 1992-1994 pp. найбільш відчутними витратними чинниками тиску на ціни були:

- зростання цін на енергоносії, насамперед імпортні. У четвертому кварталі 1994 р. ціни на природний газ були вищими від цін четвертого кварталу 1992 р. у 1237 разів, на нафту - в 467 разів, на топковий мазут - в 313 разів. Таке зростання цін на енергоносії було пов'язане з переведенням на світові ціни імпортованих з Росії енергоносіїв;

- посилення страйкової боротьби окремих груп працівників (шахтарі, працівники електротранспорту та ін.) за підвищення заробітної плати. Вимоги страйкуючих підтримувалися профспілками, й уряд змушений був піти на задоволення вимог страйкарів;

- розрив усталених господарських зв'язків, падіння рівня організації виробництва, погіршення технологічної, трудової та фінансової дисципліни призвели до "шокового" скорочення реальних обсягів виробництва та товарної пропозиції: в 1992 р. - майже на 10%, у 1993 - більш ніж на 14%, у 1994 - майже на 23%, а за три роки в цілому - на 40,4%.

Інфляція попиту спонукається тиском на ціни з боку грошей унаслідок зростання їх пропозиції банківською системою і зумовленого цим збільшення платоспроможного попиту на товарних ринках. Визначальним чинником цієї інфляції є зростання пропозиції грошей, тому її ще називають монетарною інфляцією. Саме зростання пропозиції грошей може бути викликане використанням сеньйоражу для покриття бюджетного дефіциту чи переходом до ліберальної монетарної політики або обома чинниками одночасно.

На перший погляд, складається враження, що інфляція попиту розвивається цілком самостійно відносно інфляції витрат. Насправді вони між собою тісно пов'язані, по суті є двома проявами одного й того ж самого явища інфляції як глибокої і тривалої розбалансованості економіки. Адже бюджетний дефіцит спричинюється в кінцевому підсумку тими ж чинниками, що й зростання затратності виробництва, а лібералізація монетарної політики - спробами уряду та центрального банку підтримати неефективну, затратну економіку за рахунок "емісійного податку", що стягується з усього суспільства. Більше того, лібералізація монетарної політики ще більше провокує економічних суб'єктів до затратного господарювання, посилення вимог щодо підвищення заробітної плати, до нарощування доходів за рахунок підвищення цін при скороченні обсягів виробництва тощо. Тому поділ інфляції на два види - інфляцію витрат і інфляцію попиту - це скоріше прийом наукового аналізу, ніж реальність. Однозначно оцінити ту чи іншу інфляцію як інфляцію витрат чи інфляцію попиту надзвичайно складно, а то й просто неможливо.