This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.

12.4. PASIVNI OPERATSІЇ BANKIV

Passive operations are operations, for another bank, form their own pennile resources for credit, investment and active operations. Resources of commercial banks - there are a lot of pennies to buy, you have to change your order and win for the sake of completing singing operations, it’s more important to learn more. The best capital to become even the third of us resources, the more and more - about 70%.

Prior to all resources, and even to bank capital, to establish statutory, reserve and important funds, as well as to secure financial steel, commercial and non-repayable bank, as well as small losses. The main capital of the commercial bank is the main function - insurance and interest depositor and creditors, as well as the protection of accurate payments from the bank of the bank. Functions and security of operational activities for the lofty capital є other row, to secure the main rank for the healing and position of health.

The best capital of a commercial bank is to subscribe to the main and additional bank. To the main capital to introduce the statutory and reserve funds, as well as unapproved by-pass of rock. Dodatkovy capital is stored from foreign reserves for active operations and current revenues.

The procedure for formulating the statutory fund to lay down the form of the organization bank. As soon as a commercial bank approves a form of joint-stock partnership (AT) of a certain type, then the statutory fund is shaped by the principle of an overdone payment of shares, and as a rule by a form of AT a closed type, it is possible to re-distribute a limited amount of funds in the middle. When the bank is approved, the partnership is separated by the statutory fund and the statutory fund will be divided into parts, the bank will be separated in the documents and the bank participants will be obligated to share the clauses between them.

The statutory fund of a commercial bank in the AT form takes advantage of the issue and sale of two types of regular shares - sound and private. Vlasniks of sound shares take a share in the management of the bank and earn income from it, the cryptocurrencies and riziki. Yakshcho commercial bank does not earn a profit, the owners of the shares do not deny dividends, nothing can be guaranteed from the bank to the bank. However, the clerks of the owners of loudly named shares can’t be much bigger, the first thing to do is to invest, and at the time of the bank’s activity, they can diminish their value, so that they can be used up.

Vlasniks zvychayinyh promo actions invest a capital for the whole hour of the function of the commercial bank. The stink, as a rule, cannot be sold back to the emitting bank. In vinyatkovyh falls, as a rule, take action to accept a quick number of participants in the bank, a lot of simple action can be bought up by the consumer. Zvichaynі aktsії vilno bathe and sell! on the secondary market of valuable folders (stocks).

Privileged shares give the right to the hair of the right to wreck the fixed rozmіru divіdendіv, so as not to lay down the form of the bank that the bank has handed over. Vlasniks have a privileged action, have a vipad of a liquid commercial bank and distribute a mine, may have redeemed with the owners of the sound of the shares, they will turn around the card. However, when a commercial bank is entitled to the bank owners the preferred shares will be revised if they are satisfied with the small creditor bank.

Vlasniks of privileged shares do not take part in the management of a commercial bank.

With the operation of commercial banks, as well as the need to satisfy the needs of the NBU for the minimum share of the statutory fund, the commercial bank of the winery has a problem with the total number of funds in the fund. All of the bells and whistles are carried out with a pre-date offer. As a rule, a pragna bank with extra money to let go to the house will receive privileges, and then, so that you can get an extended number of representatives in sound deals and an accelerated process of managing the bank.

The first VIP launch of an action bank is guilty of a chance of folding out of sound actions. Registration of sales by the issuing bank of the first edition of a special offer is indicated by paying a surcharge on operations with valuable folders.

Use the old copies of banks with the type of vidkritogo AT, irrelevantly, see the issue of the vipusku and the kіlkostі investorіv, pіdlyagayut state registration at the Ministry of finance of Ukraine. Meta pricing procedures - bank statements in advance of purchasers of lower prices and lower prices, which are associated with financial risks and machinations. Schob, deny the right to pre-emotion shares, the bank is not guilty of all zbitkov, mothers are stitching borgs to the budget and creditors.

For registration vipusku aktsii bank-issuing warehouse є prospectus ем emіsії. The "prospectus" of the offer is prepared by the bankers as the founders (with the first notice) and the Rules of the bank (with the latest notice). At the prospectus there is a bank account, a financial establishment, and a bank account about the May issue of the old folders. The prospectus is guilty of the assurance of the independence of the audit firm.

The form of promotion is the same as that of the statutory fund of a commercial bank is governed by the Laws of Ukraine: "On state partnerships" (dated 19 Sunday, 1991) and "On price shares and stock exchange" (24 days of 1991).

The reserve fund of the commercial bank of designations for the protection of bank loans in the banking sector, as well as for the payment of dividends for preferred shares, if there is not enough profit for them. Granting money to the reserve fund is safe for the commercial bank, and changing the bankruptcy rate.

The reserve fund of a commercial bank is settled in accordance with the order marked by share fees, and the rozmir is established, as a rule, at 50% of the rozmir statutory fund. Vin formulyatsya for rahunok vidrahuvan from a side, as a whole, dearly, no less than 5% of the total sum of a surrendered side.

In addition to the reserve fund, special funds are being established in commercial banks, which are designated for the protection of active transactions and for the social and social development of the bank, the form is similar to the one in circulation.

Sidewalk є a resource of internal resemblance. Win the money for the extra money by paying the fee and the credit to the bank. Dividends to shareholders are rallying for yogo rakhunok. As a rule, if you pay dividends for the rate, it is set up by shareholder fees, there is a surplus to win, then the sum of money can be straightened out to replenish the statutory fund to the bank. Such an operation (amendment of the statutory fund) may be more beneficial and without payment of dividends to shareholders, but also for the benefits, and then take up with the indoor fences of shareholders.

Claims to the bank - there are more purchases of cash on current, deposit and most important banknotes of banks (legal and physical grounds), on banknote of large organizations, there are a lot of active funds available, The main amount of accumulated costs is to become hourly large grocery and capital, to blame on the basis of the turnover of commercial and commercial capital, small grocery power, and especially small grocery population.

Healed to form, I will transfer part of the resources, so that I can get more active transactions from the bank. Yak is the main element of groshy masi earned money of banks in which to play an important role in the economy, that’s the way it’s about the sovereign regulation, as it is in the forms of exclusion

new wine districts (percent), the establishment of norms for the provision of reserves and certain standards for the regulation of bank banking (plateau, liquidity). Bank accounts are earned on deposit and non-deposit.

Banks can earn the most money with the highest rank, with the hat of the weekend, of the deposit operations, in the case of some victorious reznі see the bank rakhunіv. Deposits will be charged until they are paid and lines. Deposits before meals are taken out at the bank to the customer’s in-line grocery store. The stinks of being victorious by the hairworms for the most accurate flow of experience with our gospodar partners. For a certain client's cash flow at a certain hour, you may be able to get your hands on some kind of ready-made clothes, the end of the payment order assignment, and payment of the check for all bills.

Contribute to those who are unstable; I will mix them up with a bank for postal and investment operations. In the minds of everyday life (as a rule), pay for deposits until powered up. Banks get reckoned to get the benefits and incentives to increase the accuracy of working hours for completing additional services and paying for servicing. Tse, secrema, credit from a flowing rakhunka, loans to depositors in a borrowed loan, vikoristannya of handicap for a client of forms of razrahunkіv: credit cards, checks, rozrahunkovo-advisory services to thin. Prior to depositing, to maintain credit, also credit surpluses for the current account or over-the-counter rachunk. For the protection of operational vitrats, due to the knowledge of the current rakhunkіv, a bank with a banner from the client's office in the city. The commission can be used with deposit interest. Deaky banks do not constrain commissions for maintaining accurate workflows for thinking that they have a stable surplus no lower than the established level.

String deposits (deposits) - all the money, at the same time at the bank for the song lines no less than one month and can be used by noble people when they sign the term and the next time the bank is signed. Viluchennya stringovyh v_dbuvaє to be a gentry to re-ordering pennies to the rosrahunk (stream) rahunok abo goth_vkoy zasi bank. Deposits є for bankers, we shorten the type of deposits, oskilki in the stable and in hands in the bank plan. They are rallied by a high deposit interest, the difference is differently determined by the term, the type of extra time, the period from the previous week about the foreign dynamics of the penny market rates and the most interesting minds. Contribute є Dzherelom’s possession of new owners ’hairs, the stink is made out by means of a depositor and a bank. Line deposits do not have to be payable for healthy payments. As a contributor to the bargain, I’m willing to pay extra money - change or change, then you can choose to deposit and re-arrange your string contribution on new minds. In case of pre-term loans with such a deposit, the hairman, as a rule, will have the pleasure of transferring interest. In tsimu, the percentage drop is reduced to the level that was transferred on deposits until the supply.

One of the forms of string contributions є certificate. Certificate of deposit and interest. Deposit certificates are rewarded by legal entities, and those who spare are granted to individuals.

Certificate - a price tag, so you can become a vocal person as a payee for money and stock exchange. Certificate of may overturn over string deposits, which are executed by deposit agreements. Zavdyaki to the secondary market of valuable servers a certificate (except for a regular one) can be sold in advance for a long sale by an individual who is more than an hour in advance, and if I have a great deal of money, I’m also in good condition for a second in waste of part resources.

Commercial banks can get legal and physical benefits for an additional bank bill. Bank promissory note to deposit nature, and similar to certificate. Protein, on certificate of certification, a bank bill can be used for acquisitions of a yogurt attorney as a payee for comrades and servants, and a new promissory note holder can transfer it to a third person with an endorsement. Schob to pay a bank bill, a buyer of small pennies to a bank seller’s bank note, after which there is a remaining bank note to a bank bill on a bank’s bill and the date of the pennies. Redemption of bank bills of exchange to become a whip of a wikupu For bank bills, the value shall be indicated for the percentage of interest to the nominal value, which is covered by the promissory note holder. This means that the bills are sold for the nominal, and the bank is bought for the sale.

Non-depositary (positive) cost of the bank - with the leading rank of positions for a penny market, you can get loans from a form of bank loans and a central bank (NBU), operating with valuable folders for a secondary stock market, as well as a second position. For the sake of importance, it is important to pay attention to in-line bank liquidity and to that, commercial banks of Ukraine are actively victorious.

Coshties, which are ripped off by a commercial bank for another region, cannot be respected by their own capital, because regional regions will be allowed to go to the singing lines, because if they are closed, they will be sent to investors. Look at the news about the announcement by the owners of the region of the value of the order in the issue of the property at the form of the pre-holiday pose.

As a rule, the commercial bank and the third one want to take over their own money, earned for another region, they should go to refinance ahead of time. All the same, you must be a Wikupu slut earlier than the vipuscheniysh region for the cobblestones, and let us see the launch of new non-birch goiter goiters. Obligations, as a rule transmitted by minds, can be converted into simple actions. In this case, it’s necessary to pass from the capital of the commercial bank to the authorities. Converting the region so that I can protect myself from the number of purchasers, the remnants of the rest can add a bank to the bank at the most moment. Vlasniki oblizatsiyy rizikuyut less, nizhnyh valsniks aktsіy, more than once bankruptcy of a commercial bank to creditors koshti turn around earlier, nizhich zvychaynimym shareholders. Necessarily vidrіznati koshti, scho mobilizirovanny commerzіynym bank for the other oblіgatsіy, vіd outside and і deposit_v. As a rule, Persians are called bankers in practice as posicists, as well as friends, then others as healers. In case of a vipusk regional bank vidigra, an active role is played, an initiative vipus to lay down a yoma, while in the case of a learned role, the bank is passive.

Prior to joint-stock banks, where to let go of provincial banks, they are also locked in the same vimogi, as if at the start-up action. The region is governed by the laws of Ukraine on 10 September 1991 "About gospodarskі partnership" I vid 24 chervnya 1991 r. “About the price of the stock and stock exchange”, by the same legislative acts themselves, which is the first issue of shares.

A commercial bank may be able to offer regional offers for the benefit of more than realizing realizing their interest. Realization of regional sales can be made on the basis of sale for contracts with purchasers, as well as a sale of goods on the basis of previous sale and price documents. We repay the regional poses by commercial banks after the completion of the term for the official nomination. Banking regions in Ukraine did not gain development. The reasons for such a ища неза неза неза неза станов станов станов б,,,,,,,,,, неза неза неза б неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза неза.

One іz dzherel popnovnennya resources of a commercial bank є mіzhbankіvsky credit. Credit resources are traded in financial and commercial banks, and in any case, an excess of resources. Tsі banks for gaining a profit at a glance to rozmіstiti vіlnі resources in іshih banks. Cream of financial vigodi, creditor banks, you can install the established partner partnerships.

In principle, banks have a clear need to lend more resources in their banks in the same time as sub-banks of state subsidiaries, exceptionally good loans, as a rule, there is a higher demand. Prote in Ukraine from the other half of 1994 p. the banking system was in a crisis situation, but for one reason there was a certain disagreement with the okrimim banks of the mid-bank loans. Tomorrow, commercial banks should be careful to get to the main supply about the type of bank loan.

Termi mіzhbankіvskih credits can be but three days one day up to three or six months. The interest rate for bank loans, as a rule, is lower for loans granted to state grantors, and is due to the NBU regional rate.

Pozichniki banks to get a bank loan for expanding their credit loans with customers, as well as with a need for necessary regulation of bank loans. In Ukraine, I have a request for electronic payment management, a bank loan, and a straight contact with a creditor bank and a bank principal. Credit to health on agreed minds for clear terminology. To actively earn less bank loans for one day, meta cards from a pay-as-you-go bank.

У договорі на міжбанківське кредитування, крім терміну, обумовлюється сума кредиту, рівень процентної ставки, порядок погашення. Звичайно при порушенні терміну погашення міжбан-ківського кредиту банк-кредитор передбачає своє право на без-спірне списання боргу. Якщо банк, що позичив кредитні ресурси, не може їх повернути в установлений термін, то він купує гроші в іншому банку.

При укладанні договору на міжбанківський кредит банк-позичальник повинен повідомити банку-кредитору значення своїх економічних нормативів (платоспроможності, ліквідності).

Купувати і продавати кредитні ресурси можуть не тільки комерційні банки, а й їх відділення та філії. Проте це право реалізується тільки в системі одного банку, що має філійну мережу.

НБУ застосовує механізм рефінансування комерційних банків через операції РЕПО та ломбардне кредитування, а також надання кредитів під заставу конверсійних облігацій внутрішньої державної позики (КОВДП) та стабілізаційних кредитів.

Основною формою рефінансування комерційних банків є ломбардне кредитування та операції РЕПО. їх частка в загальних кредитах НБУ комерційним банкам становить більш як 76%, у тому числі на операції РЕПО припадає по над 54%, а на ломбардне кредитування - понад 21%. На інші механізми рефінансування (кредити під заставу КОВДП та стабілізаційні) припадає близько 24%.

Ломбардний кредит надається на строк до 30 днів у межах лімітів, установлених на квартал НБУ для своїх регіональних управлінь.

У зв'язку з фінансовою кризою, що мала місце в Україні у вересні 1998р., уряд змушений був здійснити конверсію ОВДП, тобто перенести строки погашення своїх зобов'язань за раніше випущеними ОВДП на пізніший термін. У зв'язку з цим були випущені конверсійні облігації внутрішньої державної позики (КОВДП).

Комерційні банки, які беруть участь у процесі конверсії ОВДП в КОВДП, можуть звертатися до НБУ для підкріплення своєї поточної ліквідності за рефінансуванням під забезпечення КОВДП. Це рефінансування здійснюється в розмірах до 50% обсягу замінених ОВДП. Строк кредитування - до 60 днів, процентна ставка - на рівні дохідності КОВДП.

Операції РЕПО - це операції з цінними паперами, які складаються з двох частин. Для їх здійснення укладається єдина генеральна угода між учасниками ринку (НБУ і комерційними банками) про продаж-купівлю державних цінних паперів на певний строк із зобов'язанням зворотного продажу-купівлі у визначений термін або на вимогу однієї зі сторін за заздалегідь обумовленою ціною.

Використання НБУ державних цінних паперів для операцій РЕПО здійснюється через "пряме РЕПО" - купівлю у комерційного банку державних цінних паперів та "зворотне РЕПО" - обов'язковий продаж державних цінних паперів. У ситуації, коли в межах визначених основних монетарних параметрів існує потреба підвищення ліквідності комерційних банків, НБУ здійснює операції "прямого РЕПО" і на підставі генеральної угоди купує у комерційного банку державні цінні папери на відповідний період з обов'язковою умовою зворотного їх викупу цим комерційним банком у встановлений строк. У разі накопичення надлишкової ліквідності в банківській системі, зростання грошової маси значно вищими темпами, ніж передбачалося, НБУ може продати комерційним банкам через механізм "зворотного РЕПО" державні цінні папери, які є в його портфелі, на певний період, за умови викупу їх у комерційного банку в установлений строк.

Національний банк може здійснювати операції РЕПО купівлі-продажу державних цінних паперів як через безпосередню домовленість із комерційними банками, так і проведенням тендера заявок комерційних банків на участь в операціях РЕПО. У разі проведення тендера Національний банк через свої регіональні управління не пізніш як за тиждень надсилає повідомлення про проведення такого тендера з зазначенням терміну-операцій РЕПО та умов його проведення.