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|home Banking Books Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.|
Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.
Until 1917 p. The credit system of Russia was developed for capital laws. Behind the structure, functions and operations, she came close to the model of the credit system and that of the current major capital of the country. The Russian інперії іперії існувала трирівнева the credit system, which was stored in the following forms:
• State Bank;
• Banking sector, which has developed in the first place with commercial and profitable banks;
• Specialized credit institutes (insurance companies, credit partnerships, etc.).
On the other side of the country near Russia, there are two different regions: the State Bank and the private banking sector. The third row of incentives was weak, but it was explained by the low level of linking capital and valuable folders. At that time, Russia practically didn’t have a blame for it, it was special to specialize in operations with valuable partners, and on the third market there were less than three funds. In addition, the acumulative-mobile functions for the capital market were redeemed for the best commercial banks.
Until the middle of the XVII century Rosіyska іmpperіya is practically not small credit installations. Persian bank operations in 1729-1733 commemorated hello Monetna office. Vaughn gave insignificant short-line poems to the outpost of gold and medium. Commercial and industrial development of the gostro region by demanding a credit institution.
At 1754 p. The State Bank for Nobility and the Kupetsky Bank was set up in Russia. First pushing poses to the nobility for 6% of the average price of the outpost of gold, middle, matkiv, and the other - giving the goods for the same price.
At 1758 p. the bank branch of bill right was secured for securing double bank pennies ("middle banks"). With the help of ix the boulder healed up to the skarnbnitsy coins
Persian banks in Russia didn’t have enough, but it was too big for a small cob capital, a low level of development of internal operations, the ability to put on poses was shifted to short lines, as well as a weak interest in the side. However, a robot with a credit facility was opened at a new project opening a first bank in the country.
At 1769 p. two asignatsionny power banks with a 500 coin coin fund each have been established. rub. in skin and in a new issue of an alarm for 1 million rubles. At 1786 p. asignatsiin banks were angry at one, the functions were supposedly reduced exclusively to emissary paper pennies to cover the sovereign vidatkiv.
At 1757 p. When adopting the Law on Bill of Rights Entry between the Great Ministers, it seemed like a great deal of renegotiation of operations for the relief of metal coins through the replacement of promissory notes. Contributions and credit operations were also increased.
It seemed that the first private banking houses - Solovyova, Rugovikova, Ponomaryova - were shutting down. As a result, we had our own agencies, who serviced the official sales department and the official operations department. The stink wasn’t engaged in credit for commercial turnover.
At 1797 p. At the Signal Bank, regional offices were formed for the purpose of developing and developing crafts and trading: from the region of bills, from commodity and insurance operations. The stench, by the day, became the first banks of the twisted commercial type.
At 1786 p. in Russia there was a reorganization of the credit system: the State Pozichkovy Bank was established, to which they transferred the capital of the liquidated bank in 1785 p. Noble Bank and Part of the Bank of the Signal Bank. Pozichkovy Bank having denied the right to see poses of p_d mayno and mіsku non-ruffles on lines up to 20 rokіv. For deposits, the bank will pay up to 5%.
At 1817 p. financial reforms were carried out: a quick start of the signaling was completed and the State Commercial Bank with a nominal capital of 30 million rubles was established. (abo 8 million rubles. average). Wanting a bank and taking money from a depositor with significant credit resources, for credit operations, by directly having a small part of it. In fact, the State Commercial Bank has pretended to be an auxiliary deposit bank, which can be used to mobilize funds in the interests of the state skarbnitsі i pomіshchіv.
At the period, after having pouted the lawsuit of criminal law, Rosiya was going through a difficult economic and financial crisis. Groshovy obig bouv steal of misconduct, the state went to bankruptcy. The threat of financial crisis threatened the imperial detachment to reorganize the credit system. The law vid 10 lipnya 1859 p. Uryadov lіkvіduvav dіyuchі kreditnі install.
2 limes 1860 p. Having functioned the State Bank. The assets and assets of the Commercial Bank were transferred to the balance sheet, and the bank’s Pozichkovy bank was transferred to it. The United State Bank with all the national interests in terms of banking functions and taking on new functions: the most important thing that became important was the introduction of virology and trade. In particular, the following functions were paid to the Bank statute:
• region of bills of exchange and strings;
• purchase and sale of gold and gold;
• the removal of payments for bills and the string of paper letters for the receipt of funds;
• accepting contributions to zberigannya and at the sightseeing stream rakhunkіv;
• video player;
• Buying and selling powerhouses for rahunov razvitelіv і for power rahlunok at the intersection of the capital capitals.
When it comes to power, it’s possible that the bank has been able to redeem more money on the operation, permitted by the statute.
The order of the sovereign bank private. The Sovereign Bank was in possession of a large number of paid offers, as well as commercial structures, regular business funds and commercial banks. Until 1885 p. Skarbnitsya and the budget listened with credit resources to the bank to complete the milking.
Koshti Skarbnitsі in the bank until 1885 p. boule insignificantly, and the power borg kept the bank richly overturned the official resources, and they got into it. Nadalі stavische rіzko zmіnilosya. At Derzhbank, they thought that budgetary surpluses of money were piled up.
The Treasury has pooled great koshti and zerigalo ikh on the malls at Derzhbank. At 1914 p. Treasury contributions surpassed 950 million rubles. For Іх rakhunok bank mіg zdііsniti 90% of regional-posichkovyh operations. Such a situation was explained by the fact that the Russian government was getting ready for a penny reform, having pooled penniless resources and giving them a bank. Derzhbank zberіgav znachennі vіlnі resources of commercial banks.
For example, XIX century The process of concentrating bank management is active.
At 1864 p. Derzhbank having borrowed a monopoly stavische at the Bank of Russia. Ale step by step the monopoly relaxed, reckoning with the process of building the great joint-stock commercial banks.
At 1864 p. having approved the St. Petersburg Private Commercial Bank. Through the river of acquisitions Moskovsky merchant bank. 37 banks were established for six rock bulo. Commercial loan center in Russia, St. Petersburg. Here at 1914 p. nalichuvalosa 16 joint-stock banks, scho mali 574 filії. Moscow has 8 shareholder banks. The cream of St. Petersburg and Moscow stole functionally from 27 places. Akcіonernі komertsіynі banks placed 49 vіddilen. Pobupovo Derzhbank was reorienting itself to the bank’s bank, thus becoming the reserve center of the bank’s system. Derzhbank, having sensed the seizure of the sovereign fortuitous cas, yak zberіgala іstotnu part of the pennies for the population. The pennies were invested in the regions of the sovereign poses and were directly allocated to the financial powers.
On the cob of XX century. Joint-stock commercial banks have provided a good position in the banking system of Russia. On the cob 1914 p. about 50 joint-stock commercial banks and 778 registered banks received a commercial loan from 1108 loan companies and 317 bank banks.
The process of concentration of bank capital was especially active on the occasion of XIX - on the cob of XX century. Z 1893 to 1911 p. Banking volumes have passed, and the balance sheet currency has grown even more closely.
In Russia, the water hours with commercial banks cynicized and soared as the so-called partnership for a mutual loan (TCE) . Establish a credit rating for the principle of mutual materiality of membership for the partnership. The leather participant robbed the contribution to the werewolf capital of the partnership and taking upon himself the opportunity for the operation in a 10-fold rozmiri sumi of introductory extra-curriculum vitae. Від sumi of the introductory off-skin of a skin participant is the value of credits. The gain of the operation of the partnerships is the following: the reserves and reserves are in proportion to the share of the capital.
Mutual credit partnerships were registered in the region and in the form of loans and bills, as well as various commodity operations. Pasivi them formulated for raskunok vneskіv, flow rachunkіv contribution.
The orders of the TCEs at Mistakh were so called by the huge banks. On the cob 1916 p. stink funktsionuvali yak y 340 340 mіstakh.
In Russia there were banks with a mortgage loan. Prior to the mortgage loan system in Russia in 1914 included two state land banks - Dvoryanskiy and Selyansky, 10 joint-stock land banks, 36 credit partnerships, and cash credit to the land. You must establish a credible role in the development of pre-Revolutionary Russian statehood.
The particularity of the banking system in Russia was that it was concentrated in the hands of a small number of credit banks with the one-day development of credit non-bank (subsidiary) establishments - credit cooperative loan and out-of-pocket partnerships and partnership partnerships.
Credit banks have been operating operations with loans for defense gadgets and with valuable folders, they have been provided with cats for skarnbnitsa.
The hour of the first private banking, the banks were well-informed about the pennies, the treasury was serviced by the state. The herald of the fall of the virological and foreign economic collapse of the state is going down. The Derzhbank had little time for business operations, loans for short-term lines of loans and treasury loans were oversized, for the middle of the bank there were different positions and a wide range of budgetary pennies for covering
On the cob of XX century. In Russia, commercial banks were welcomed as a whole in operation, which is typical for leading capital markets. Proteas in okremich vipadka have spoken song singularities.
At the Russian imperium, oblast bank operations were developing. Tse bulo viklikano for reasons of an ignorant nature - an economical way, "I am afraid" of bills in dear merchant kolka, overwork of advance payments pid may be born before bills, so this fact is rightly so far away. It was unpleasantly designated at the regional operations as well as those Russian bills of exchange prominently overtown. At that time, yak at the entrance to the bank portfolios did not have bills of exchange with rows of 3 ms, and without rows of bills of exchange without 1 month, in Russia the average lines of the bill became 3-6, or even 9-12. Before the oblast, promissory notes were received, no less than two benevolent signatures were required, and there were no more bargains, as well as promissory notes that could be grounded on merchandising terms for commercial and industrial purposes. The rosmere of a regional bank account is established by banks at 0.5-1% higher than the bank of a regional bank account.
Lombard operations of Russian banks include the following positions:
a) poses pid solo-bills іz zabechechennyam. The State Bank was granted the right to credit and debit credit cards, secured by a safe lane, civil servants of the factory, guaranteed by the company for a refund. All credits and pointers of guilt were given to me by appointment, as if having ordered an order, I pushed on the bank exclusively for the protection of villagers and promises of working capital and necessary remanent. Rozmir poziki one promislovnom pіdprimstvo not mіg perevischuvati 500 yew. rub., and for other commercial traders - 600 rub.
Private banks were allowed by law to go to the bank to the ministry of finance to call in poses of solo bills, secured outposts, due to the risk of bankruptcy, and I have not been able to pay much money;
b) the poses of the outposts of important servers are more important, although I would like to keep the operation in the left bank of all the banks.
A rozmir posik, who saw the right price, was not guilty of re-issuance for the sovereign and guaranteed by the detachment of papers, 90%;
c) poses of documents and documents on them (warranties, duplicates, bills of lading) were more widely available, lower than in the rest of the country, which was clearly explained by the nature of export trade, the subject of which was mainly the product of the big city of Kazakhstan,
Vidacha Bank Posik i Vidkrittya credit і pіd comrade і commodity documents Allowed by law with up to 80% vartosti care for remembering this posh i credit on lines not more than two months.
Russian banks have also seen the same commercial and commercial diyalnist. A hodgepodge of stinks was sold at the hands of private property and trading houses of a proper comrade. However, the banks were allowed to buy bulletins for purchasing goods for assignment and for third-party purchases for singing fee. Therewith, Vitrati bank for such an operation doesn’t blame reinserving for a 20% skin can jar, before the Ministry of Finance has reinstated a dealership for skin dealerships, of which there are absolutely no significant bank transactions.
Private banks were also providing blank credit. Behind the established rules such bank loans for customers didn’t blame them for transferring 10% of the primary (deposited) and reserve capital to the bank and couldn’t see the lines for 30 days.
Active contractual operation in a clean viglyad rosijskі banks practiced a little through rizikovanist. Particularly, they celebrated an outpost of valuable documents, goods and bills with letters, and with a pawnshop and bill of credit. I will call such an operation ma он onkolny rakhunka. Zbіlshennya kіlkostі operations in Russia with significant significance will be explained by the development of speculation in banks.
The form of the contractor is the special on-line outfit which is unidirectional, and the form of simple pawnshop operation is the uninterrupted poses and unintentional poses, so the subject matter. The one-sided nature of the on-line transaction is to ensure that the balance is brought in to the bank, the bank, see the bank in the role of the creditor, and the client is only in the role of the debtor. Lack of string poses can be seen in the fact that one can get behind a special on-board rachun at a certain time at the request of a bank customer. The insignificance of the poses and subject matter is maintained before the point of compulsion; )