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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

Bourgeois criticism

Representatives of the Russian bourgeoisie and the ideologists of Russia took an active part in fighting the idea of ​​agrarian reform. The stinks of boulee by the insane henchs of liquidation. However, the piddid to the problem of problems is not unambiguous. So, for example, V. Kokorov, having met with capitalist perebudova of the blessing of the state, gave great new methods of great importance to the processing of land and land acquisition technology, which, at his own mercy, became a postage for development.

Win, prote, visa, the need to deprive the whole earth, navit community, in the hands of help. The villagers, at a thought, could have been able to vidrobleyat for the land, yak won vid pomіshchіv. Rozumіyuchi, where settlement is not worth paying large, large payments, Kokor’s visunov project, which was transferred to the merchants and the nobility merchants and manufacturers for the ability to lease land to the villagers. Trochs in the city of Kokor’s allowance to navigate the power of a shipment-free transfer of parts of such land to the villagers, as well as merchants’s matrimony is a worthy memorial. Yak Bachimo, Kokorova’s turbuvalo isn’t a source of food for the villagers of the land, there is a problem of a large purchase of land by the commercial and industrial bourgeoisie. Really, in Russia, the merchant’s factory does not have the right to buy dolls from the villagers, and Kokoryev’s shop was overtaken. “People of the earth, - having written win, - now we can buy one more noble camp ... Why not all, what can be done without sacrifices? .. Usually you have the right to free land in the world of your own good” * 6.

* 6: {St. Petersburg Gazette. - 1859. - No. 6. - Jan 9. - S. 22.}

D. Strukov, on the way to see Kokorova, the food of the awakening of the Sylskogospodarsky virobnitsva is not ringing up with technology and agricultural technology, but hanging on the first plan, suspend it.

Yak bourgeois ideologist Strukov vistupa protiv monopoly pomіshchitsky zemlevolodіnnya. Vin vislovlyu spodіvannya, what is the freedom of land moisture to secure the help of progressive forms of earthmoving, but nobility will not be noblemen either. Win hanging out on the sum of the most economical abilities of the nobles and the most gospodarskih health care. For awakening new ambushes to the state thanks to the bestowals of capital, there are no noblemen. At the show of the noblemen’s liberals, who wanted to be able to redeem the money and donations from the villagers, Strukov was to blame for that. Winnings of praise, scho vіlny peasant, a kind of matime dilyanu land, a large amount of capital.

Strukov to enter for what scale of statehood will not be seen as rozmіramy zemlevolodіnnya. Winning writing, you can be but big and strong like little, so the middle and great statehood. Strukov є with the help of the spirits of the winners over the rozmiry gospodarstvov, who effectively function for the minds of strong competition and cherish "special vigodoyu".

Strukov Buv against a communal zemlevolodіnnya, who looked at one of the passcodes for the hat of the rural development of the Selyansky statehood.

Criticism of the Church by O. Herzen and M. Ogaryovim. In discussing the problems, the fate of the people took the same fate as the people who were in the liberals. As ideologists of the countryside, they started revolutionary democrats, who drew up a fair anti-government program.

Already in the 40s pp. to the zakhist of the interests of the countryside, he went ahead with V. Bєlinsky, who, like the nourishment of the villages, had the power of the autocracy to become independent of the revolution. The same period of designations of the petitioner Petrashevtsy, the desire of M. Butashevich-Petrashevsky. Petrashevtsy criticized criticism, and they acted against the revolution for the sake of ruining the autocracy and forgiving the revolution. Maybutnii Kraini stinks called for the realization of socialist ideas.

Oleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (1812-1870), Mikola Platonovich Ogaryov (1813-1877). Herzen bouv with the beloved blue of a bagaty assistant, having gone to the Moscow University. 1834 p. Buv zareshtovaniya for the revolution dyalnіst і having interrupted at the request. Z 1847 p. і until kіntsya life Herzen lives behind the cordon. 1853 p. win at London «Vilnu rosijsk drukarnyu’, 1855 p. After seeing the magazine "Polar Star". 1856 p. before he arrived in London Ogaryov. At all hours хhnya is suspended and political dyalnіst vіdbuvalasya іsіlno: z 1857 p. the stench came from the vision of “The Bell,” a rossiysky, democratically censored magazine.

The basis of Herzen and Ogaryov’s economical glances was the struggle against personal interests, the development of revolutionary programs for the villagers. There are problems with Herzen in prazach: “Russia” (1849), “On the Development of Revolutionary Ideas in Russia” (1851), “Russian People” (1853) and that. Ogaryov’s bulo is written such praci, as “Scho zrobёnny for the most important people” (1857), “Another about the village peasants” (1858), “What is necessary for the people” (1861) that. In these creators, gostro criticized criticism. Criticism of criticism, as a whole and in two eyes of two prominent ministers, did not lose their sights. The stinks passed the folding evolucy of the position of the noble revolutionaries until revolutionary democracy.

The strength of the socially-economical and politic view of Herzen and Ogaryov did not mean the lack of indivisibility. Meaning, scho in literature, like pre-revolution, so glad, the role of Ogaryov in particular was underestimated. Madly, Herzen should have a palm of paranormality in a galaxy of literally creative works, absolutely economic problems, then Ogaryov in bagatokh nourishment has appeared to be far-sighted for Herzen.

The settlement of the villagers, the crisis of the state thanks to the turbulents of Ogaryov and the like of the helper, and the way I progress, revived the people. Win it up to economic literature, de shuka vidovidі on maloobennі nourishment. For the small wikup Ogaryov zvilnyє svoyh krypakіv, I will be tsukrovі backwaters, guralnі, from vіkoristannyam vіlnonaymano pracі. Then, having become available for the use of agrarian programs.

Ogaryov Buv with an eclipse zvіlnennya villagers from the earth. Projected by Maybutn’s pomіshchikiv, Ogaryov glad that I’m joining at the promo list. Rozumiyuchi, who will need capital, winnings for wikups of the villagers.

Similarly virіshuє problem Herzen. Vin tezh sticky hunger of the villagers from the earth, securing all the lands behind them, who had spent time in the old corridor. Prote Herzen, aka Ogaryov, without infringing anything unfair to him, who would help the singer to compensate for the loss of the right to be corrupted by "the consequences of the last glaring injustice" * 7.

* 7: {Herzen A.I. Sobr. Op. and letters. - Petrograd, 1919. - T. 7. - S. 368.}

In literature, such a position of Herzen and Ogaryov was called out by them for their compromise with the nobility. Tse so. Ale slіd vrahovuvati y іnshi factors. I Herzen, I Ogaryov themselves were nobles. And in front of reform, a part of the suspension is progressive, and such a revolutionary democrat, Yak Chernishevsky, has been cherished until the wikupu lands. Among them, Riznitsya was less likely to have a greater value for the value of the wikup.

The nutrition of the villagers Herzen and Ogaryov manifested a tendency to liberalism. The stench was appealed і to the nobility, like to the rooted and blessed class, and to the order. “We thought,” wrote Herzen in 1860, “autocracy is possible in Russia, a feat for the exile of the villagers from the land” * 8. The codias have manifested themselves with marmis, and the reform of Herzen and Ogaryov has taken the position of the revolutionary reform of the village catering.

* 8: {Herzen A.I. Sobr. Op. and letters. - Petrograd, 1919. - T. 7. - S. 318.}

The stench of gostro criticized the reform of 1861, calling it обман deceit, им new krіpatstvom ’, osklki won won’t give the villagers any land, no will. Vidraobrazuyuchi interests of the village, as I struggled against the help of the land zolodovolodіnya and the help of the moisture, Herzen and Ogaryov voted and obgruntovuyu went out "Earth and the will." Tse died away, writing Herzen, not vidumane, yogo pіdkazav himself people. A new platform for the “Bells” type of land has been transferred to the agricultural land supply, transferring all land to the villagers. Virishennya tsієї problems and began to be called iz selyanskoy revolution.

Herzen and Ogaryov were criticized not less than fraud, but capitalism, as a new form of exploitation, "a new form of slavery." Particularly economical processes, such as being redeemed at the reform of Russia, with an economical retrieval of the Sunset, Herzen, having stepped out of the grapevine of a special - non-capitalist hat, are developing Rosii. The basis of the whole development in Ny Bul is a community, a communal peasant. “Lyudin Maybutynogo in Russia is a man, so frankly is a robot in France” * 9, - wrote Herzen. Win is not an ideal community. Not only that, before the reform, Herzen, like Ogaryov, having lost in the community the "ulama of a big deal". At the period of reform, look at the community. Itself in the community stink reeked of a lock of socialism. Guaranteed by the community rivality selyanskogo zemlevolodіnnya, on the thought of Herzen and Ogaryova, it is small vidvernuti nezbezpeku proletarianization of the village.

* 9: {Itself, v. 6. p.450.}

Herzen became the founder of "Selyansky socialism", a kind of thought, formed in three ambushes: 1) skin right to land; 2) community-wide land; 3) the volume of management. Licher on these ambushes, writing Herzen, "you may rosybut Maybutnya Rosіya."

Herzen, having acted as a guest with criticism of capitalism, one by one with criticism of the bourgeois political economy, as much as science, who are privately held, to stand guard over capitalism. Shchodo Rossii, the bourgeois political economy with private property, appeared in the role of a henchman of the land of the land, there was a capital development of the country, but the price was cut off. I’m analogous to the position of borrowing and Ogaryov. Criticism of the bourgeois political economy, Herzen and Ogaryov voted for the need for the development of new economic science, as I had done against the basics of capitalism, for obgruntuvannya socialism.

Mikola Gavrilovich Chernishevsky (1828-1889) - was divorced in the city of Saratov as a priest, studying at the seminary, graduating from the history and philology faculty of St. Petersburg University. 1862 roku yogo bulo zashestovanno for organizing the revolution p_dpіll і 1864 p. Sent to penal servitude in Transbaikall, and by the town of Vilyuisky prison. At the request of 20 provіv rokіv.

In the history of the Russian economy, Chernishevsky uvishov, a representative of the revolutionary democratic rukh. The magazine "Contemporary", a kind of sweethearted, having spent a great thirst on the whirlwind of a whole generation of revolutionaries in Russia. Chernishevsky, having replaced not only literacy, but the great scientific recession, which was not properly assessed. The greater praise of the critics is attributed to criticism: “About new ideas for the power of the city” (1857), “About the land for power” (1857), “Leaves without an address” (1861), “Pansky peasants see the old church” 18.

Criticism of criticism, an increase in the need for protection was grounded at the Chernyshevsky University on the most basic analysis of the principle system of primitive praxis. Obov'yazkova praci, writing Chernishevsky, є nevertheless not out of place for the villagers, and для for helpers, won є the main reason for the removal of the state as a whole.

Characterized by the principle of economic development, the Chernyshevsky University program. For the sake of the program, I will not disregard the potential of primitive praxis, a special zvilnenny villagers. The basis of the program is to become a nutrition about the earth. Chernishevsky district for liquidation of land to land without a wickup, transfer of land to the state government with communal government.

By the ideal of Chernishevsky є such is the form of land moisture, like the last hairline, thanks to the first robber in “... one person. State power іz community volodіnnyam with usіh forms of power naybіlsh pіdhodit to tsogo іdeala "* 10.

* 10: {Chernyshevsky N.G. Poln. Sobr. Op. - M., 1948. - T. IV. - S. 434.}

Zdavalosa b, scho tsіy vimozі naybіlsh v_dpovіdaє selyanske privately gospodarstvo, not the community. Right, selyanskoe gospodarstvo Chernishevsky ogoloshu vishyu v ushih іsnuyuchih forms of virobnitstva, ale tіlki for changing minds. The tendency of further development of the motherhood in the progressive expansion of the sphere of the control of the sovereign power with the community volodyynnyam and the speed of the sphere of the privately owned virobnitz. Tse coax the cob progressive transition to socialist forms of statehood.

Chernishevsky nakoluvuv on the bank did not allow capitalism in Russia, kotri, at one thought, є not obyovyazkovim, that th not bazhanimu ekonomіchnogo development of hat. After the feudal feudalism of the country, beyond Chernishevsky, progress through the “transitional camp” to the pan-collection of collective forms of virology. "Crossroads" Chernyshevsky rosumіak yak perіod spіvіsnuvannya sectorsіv - community, collective and private. Moreover, the community sector is private.

Suspended power is the only way to come to the place of private power. It is fair, as such, I need to meet the needs of the working people and it’s called for suspension. Peremoga socialism in Chernishevsky є nevidvorotnoy. Socialism has become a legitimate result of the development of social and material virology. First of all, the idea of ​​socialism of the vinicle on the Sunset, then the best way to stay in front of Russia is because only the form of collective moisture was saved here - the community. At Sunset, it has long been marked by the development of capitalism.

Proteus community in Chernishevsky is not a ready-made socialist form of virobnitstva. Such a won in Maybutnomu, after the transition to collective practice and highly excluded technology. Having captured the community, Chernyshevsky, as it was, sat down to the classroom rosary of the village, but it was already remembered. “I’m among the community members,” wrote Vin, “it’s a duty to serve as a hirelings for the last homeowners, not of the greatest gratitude ...” * 11 Transition the whole process, the hell, to protect the community, to the thought of Chernishevsky, you may be a lesser power. Vin saw three steps at community development: communal Volodinny, community virobnitstvo community living. Ostananny etap vin vnidnosiv to a distant communist maybutynogo.

* 11: {Chernyshevsky N.G. Poln. Sobr. Op. - T. IV. - S. 386.}

Chernishevsky, having come forward as a critic of capitalism and bourgeois political economy in the science world: “Molinar. The course of political economy ”(1857),“ The Principles of the National Gratitude of V. Rocher ”(1858),“ Capital and Prazia ”(1860),“ Notes to the “Fundamentals of Political Economy (beyond Mill)” (1860-1861) and that.

Capitalism Chernishevsky rozglyadє as an exploiter, ale progressively divided with feudalism mode. Schodo politically economically, then Chernishevsky zrobiv, for days, is a critical analysis of historical bourgeois politically economical utopian socialism. Win in analyzing the main basic ideas of economic thought, repairing mercantile ones. Chernishevsky is highly appreciated by the classical political economy and the most important theoretical theoretical achievements "... the bosom, but be appreciated to be priced" * 12.

* 12: {Chernyshevsky N.G. Poln. Sobr. Op. - T. VII. - S. 37.}

Chernishevsky called the bourgeois economies of the new period “routine economists”, unscrupulous development of science. Prior to this, you need to bring Say, Bastia, Malthus, Keri, Rocher, McCulloch and the last of them. Theory of economically-named economies Chernishevsky called “political economy” and protest especially “political economy of workers”. Завї zavdannya vin bachiv at the zhistі interests of the workers, and the foremost villagers.

Having scrutinized his "theory of the working people", Chernyshevsky analysis even all the basic problems of political economy. Especially special in the "theory of working people" is to establish theories of labor wartosti. Chernishevsky nazivє praцyu є a single material substance арт vartostі. Vihodyachi z tsogogo win to rob the gown about the fair rose. Most likely, the theory of stabjuval, which means "everything is fixed on the prince," is new, but "all the principles". The very same position is the Chernyshevsky analysis, as well as economic categories, the principle of virology, the minimum value, the internal value.

Capitalist gratitude is governed by the principle of virology and ministry. And in the Maybuty social statehood, there will be a number of internal values. Yak Chernishevsky rosumіє category and category? Valuation of virology on the image of vitality on virology of goods. Minimum value (price) I regulate the exchange of goods. Krim vidshkoduvannya vitrat virobnitztva, won’t be safe є gained by capitalists a little extra.

Kapіtalіstichna system Gospodarstwa of її forms rozpodіlu not spriyaє neobhіdnomu th mozhlivomu zrostannyu virobnitstva scho proyavlyaєtsya in nevіdpovіdnostі mіnovoї tsіnnostі vnutrіshnіy tsіnnostі. I want my inner value (like my new one) є prac, protect your understanding of the past. The mind of the platosplosomnyh osb is consumed with the mind’s function of new values. The internal value of the transfer of the assessment of the subject to the good deeds of all working people. All of this is achieved by the plan of the new requirements of the real needs and the real capacities of the new pleasure in the May socialist social system.

In socialist slavstvilstvo by the method of virology є secure benevolence of the working people. Vіdpovіdno vnutrіshnyu value to reduce the need for more products, as a matter of contentment, consume the working people. Chernishevsky Health Classification, Consumer and Product, I’m pleased. Produce vin podilya on items of first need, items of comfort and items of roses. Поки не задоволено потреб у предметах першої необхідності, предмети комфорту, а тим більше розкошів, не можуть мати внутрішньої цінності.

Капітал Чернишевський не обмежує лише речами. Капітал у нього — продукт праці, який служить виробництву. Відтак капіталом стають і продукти харчування робітника, зайнятого у виробництві. Предмети розкошів — не капітал. Отже, капітал здобув у Чернишевського соціальну характеристику як суспільний фонд виробництва, тобто та частина суспільного продукту, що її суспільство виділяє для вигідного виробництва й вигідного споживання.

Капітал у Чернишевського — вічна категорія. Проте за умов капіталізму він не забезпечує необхідного зростання виробництва, тому що капіталісти витрачають великі кошти на предмети розкошів.

Чернишевський чітко формулює обернену залежність між прибутком і заробітною платою. Підкреслюючи експлуататорську природу прибутку, він зазначає, що в майбутньому, соціалістичному суспільстві, коли трудящі будуть власниками засобів виробництва, прибуток зіллється із заробітною платою і всі результати праці належатимуть робітникам.

Ренту Чернишевський розглядає як надприбуток. Він, у цілому, поділяє теорію диференційної ренти за родючістю землі, теорію розроблену Рікардо, але категорично заперечує її зв'язок із законом спадної родючості грунту. У його працях висловлено думку про утворення ренти і на гірших ділянках, тобто абсолютної ренти.

Велику увагу приділяє Чернишевський характеристиці конкуренції і закону вартості, поділу праці за умов капіталізму, проблемам продуктивної праці тощо.

Нищівно критикуючи кріпосництво й капіталізм, Чернишевський протиставляє їм соціалізм. Його вчення про соціалізм займає переважну частину в «Політичній економії трудящих». Чернишевський розглядає питання організації соціалістичного виробництва, його переваги перед капіталізмом, аналізує матеріальні передумови соціалізму. Його настання зв'язує з революційною боротьбою.