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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

4. Liberal Narodnitsvo

Liberal-Narodnitsky direct suspension of economic thought Winikaє in Ukraine as early as 70 pp. Representatives of the boulevard called for a revolutionary people, they taught you, they didn’t put food on the village revolution. Criticism of capitalism, the liberal populists protested the yomu dybne virobnitsvo of the villagers and remisnikiv. Of great importance in the wholesale and commercial production of stinks, they stole from the various forms of cooperation.

A typical representative of the liberal people of the 70s pp. in Ukraine bouv P.A. Chervinsky (1849 - 1931). In the years 1876-1890. vin ocholuyav statistical office of the Chernigiv provincial zemstvo. Yak populists as a whole, wining themselves to download the self-sacrificing hat of economical development of Russia. Proteas most of the populists disobey the power of conquest of K. Marx before the Russian period, then P. Chervinsky wanted to convey the power. Look at P. Chervinsky Bulo in articles, published in The Week (1875-1876). These stats corroborated among the rockers due to their great popularity, they read young ones with interest, and there were lively discussions about them.

Tsey nteres buv zumovleniya tim, scho in the 70-80's pp. nutrition about the share of the people’s gift of Rosії Bulo nazlozobodenіshim. Vaughnly more and more hardened, I turned up respect for the huge volume with the appearance of K. Marx’s “Capital”.

P. Chervinsky tractє the process of historical development, and the problem of Maybut Rosii, revolve around the position of historical materialism. At the development of human suspension vіn vidіlі chotiri tipi people's statehood: patriarchal, slavish, essential goods. Pіdstavoyu zmіni typeіv public gospodarstva є, pіdkreslyuvіv vіn, ekonomіchnі yavishcha. Tsey vnovnovok, writing P. Chervinsky, “the foundation for one theory, as I have recently appeared and my mother is not so rich” * 28. P. Chervinsky, madly, maw on the respect of the theory of K. Marx.

* 28: {Week. - 1875. - No. 11. - S. 352.}

There are three types of state thanks for the one term - especially statehood, in which you cannot enter a product beyond the middle (since natural statehood). P. Chervinsky Idealization is a natural statehood that protects the commodity, which is the power of interest and interest and the seller and the seller.

The economy of Russia, at the thought of P. Chervinsky, interchange in the interchange of natural to commodity distribution. As a typical populist, you don’t have to bother in Russia to develop capitalism and esteem, since there is great industrialism, you can’t get away with it, “there’s a little more of it, obviously, 29%. As a rule, at the Sunset proletariat, having appeared as a hell out of the landlessness of the villagers, then in Russia there is the landlessness, at first thought, the community. Vidtak P. Chervinsky vistupaє to the zahist community, more привед з з ен привед привед lead to the approval of the proletariat, and later, the bourgeois.

* 29: {There, p. 357.}

As a rule at Sunset capital, written by P. Chervinsky, is the result of a historical process of development, then in Russia you can piece by piece, even if you need to fix it. “What’s wrong with those who came to Zakhodi there was a certain historical process and why would you want to reckon with such terrible ghosts?” * 30 - put the food P. Chervinsky. Himself to stand up for those who want to acquire the capital development of Rosії.

* 30: {Week. - 1875. - No. 31. - S. 1016.}

Proteus P. Chervinsky rosumi overtakes the great virobnitztva before others, overcame, as a matter of technical progress. Win is meant, that you need to go over the roof with suspension to grow and see them inevitably, but in the future it will simply be impotent. But the progressive development of the Vin’s suspension didn’t sound like capitalism, but rather a new “svoridny type” of people's statehood. The basis of such a statehood is the community of makuti, yak vikoristovє sochasna technika, ale zberіgaє more natural virobnitstvo. “Such a combination of special statehood with technical ancestors,” wrote P. Chervinsky, “є the most convenient way to create a state one” * 31. I won’t secure the special hats of Rosy’s development.

* 31: {There by itself, p. 1017.}

Look at P. Chervinsky’s. It is characteristic of a liberal populist of the 70th pp. Rice - a star with revolutionary ruch, the power of the Bula and P. Chervinsky. Win, still a student of the St. Petersburg Institute of Earthmoving, taking an active part in the revolutionary Russia and for his part in the student overseas by submitting an order to the Arkhangelsk governorate.

Liberal populists of the 70th pp. I wanted to preach peaceful hatches, I’ll arrange about the suspension of winter. However, it’s already for the time being that the 70s rr. stink with revolutionary collapse, get close to bourgeois liberals, and repair propaganda of the theory of “malikh dil”, a solution to the most intimate problems. The very same virshhennyam of the closest practical and practical nourishment by the sound of P. Chervinsky, who are the first and foremost populists in the whole, before the last hours.

Idea populists knew the image in the praxis of zemstvo statistics.

Significant interest is becoming to look at such representatives of zemstvo statistics, such as O. Shlikevich (1849-1909), V. Varzar (1851-1940), O. Rusov (1847-1915) and that. The stinks played a significant role in the development of Zemstvo statistics, having taken the so-called Chernigiv type titles. Having interrupted the flow of populace’s ideas, the stench couldn’t help but be amazed at the processes that they had beaten up the development of capitalistic vidnosin.

Statistical statistics provided magnificent material for differentiating villagers, growing kurkulism from one side, and that of proletarization from the west. About tse, zokrema, writing O. Shlіkevich at the "Zemsky zbirnik Chernigivsky provinces" (1890). Analyzed the material of the latest statistical status of the village governors by zemstvo statisticians, O. Shlіkevich to rob the gowns, to give me better ones, and more bagaty ones. Moreover, as it meant vin, "b_dnі became bіdnіshy and absolutely іvnostno" * 32.

* 32: {Zemsky collection of the Chernigov province. - 1890. - No. 11-12. - S. 165.}

Great respect in the results of the Chernihiv statistics was given to the analysis of the site of the estate of the village and rural residents, the manifestations of the survivals were significant, and the settlement of the village was significantly worse. One of these survivals is the Vidrobitkov system. Significant amount of land was provided on a monthly basis. Umovi vidrobіtku boules to finish heavy, scho shuvshuvalo village settlement. Proteus through gostre malozemelya villagers zmusheni bouli pogoguzhuvatsya on tse. Especially a grave bank in the middle of a rent. Having written to O. Shlikevich, the villagers were most unlikely to be able to transfer land to landlords-intermediaries.

I appreciate the problem by breaking down and the economic economist V. Varzar . Vin reportedly analyzing the problem of rent in the Chernigiv province, de broke the rent in the middle. V. Varzar is not deprived of the victorious, robbery character of such a rent, as long as the board reread over an hour more income, and I will describe the mechanism of a contract. Merchants, liqvaris, who acted like sub-calendar, negotiating agreements, often singing villagers, so that they could get the most of their minds. Describing the problem in the journal "Domestic Notes" (1878), V. Varzar porіvnyuє processes the exchange of money for the peasant and the exchange of "sworn namista for the gold of American dikunіv" * 33.

* 33: {Varzar V. Jews - tenants in the Chernihiv province // Domestic notes. - 1878. - T. 240. - S. 196.}

Great respect to V. Varzar pridylєzhenіdnyu development of artisanal virobnitstva. Protein is not idealistic, not respectful to the people. Describing crafts at the Chernigiv governorate, a constant statement on the manifestity of the most economical units, the main base of artisans. From now on, how much and more are there are black statistics, to set up the power about the need for more economic types of state thanks, and not with more than average characteristics.

Tsey pogdlyad pіdtrimuvav and O. Rusov - vіdomiy ukrainskiy gogudsky dіyach, economist-statistician. Take advantage of the programs of statistical and economic revenues of the Chernigiv Governorate, the win, the first and the second author programs, since there are no permissions in the middle digits. O. Rusov himself wrote without a word about the need for “nobility and gratitude of state thanks, they are called“ bagatimi ”,“ middle ”,“ middle ”* 34. Win boulevard is the litter of a private, not communal, land-cultivation and land-cultivation. Tse is not vipadkovo. This position was explained in a significant way to the Tim, the community is not small in Ukraine, such a significance, as in Russia. Win criticism of the congregation of the communal form of land-rejuvenation, so that, for the sake of words, the villagers have been tempted to amuse the rights to "dispose of oneself with that mine."

* 34: {Proceedings of the statistical department under the Chernihiv Zemstvo administration. - Issue 1. - Chernigov, 1877. - P.121.}

O. Rusov, having spared the word, won’t be able to take advantage of the various forms of earth drought in advance of the development of capital goods. Protein characterizes this process not as differentiation, but as a "democratization" of power, so as to live in secluded villages by the land. Tsey visnovok O. Rusov tezh spryamovaє against zahisnikіv community, to complete the transfer of underground zemlovolodіnnya. The provision on the "democratization" of land moisture in development in the article "Description of the Chernigiv province". Qiu Dumka podilyav і Zemsky Liberal dіyach M. Rklitsky.

O. Rusov, aka P. Chervinsky, boulevard of knowledge to the scholars of K. Marx. Protein was an adversary to Marxism, calling it “frivolous” collapse, and theories themselves - abstracts, meaning that life is real. O. Rusov, being an adversary of the revolution, the rebellion of the sovereign fret and great nadii was laid on the zemstvo.

In the 90's pp. typical representatives of the liberal people in Ukraine boulevards M. Levitsky, B. Grіnchenko, M. Bikov, T. Osadchy and іnshі.

Mikola Vasilovich Levitsky (1859-1936) - the most prominent representative of the liberal people in Ukraine. 1885 Roku Vin graduated from the Faculty of Law of Kharkiv University. As a student, M. Levitsky, taking an active part in the jacket of young Ukrainophiles. Ale vzhe on the cob of the 90s pp. residually formed a yiberal-populist look.

Yak and liberal populists as a whole, M. Levitsky criticized capitalism, ale zdebilshogo lopsided on top, not rozumіyuchy yistoristically progressive role. Levitsky, as I populists zagagіl, having forbidden the possibility of developing capitalism in Russia. One of the proofs for the glimpse of one’s glance was for M. Levitsky the theory of the creation of Sismondi, and the populists sprouted yak.

Let’s look at a couple of capitalism in Russia as a part of the market, M. Levitsky Vistupa iz with the call of spiniti, with the help of the rosette. Capitalism is protivavlє dibne virobnitstvo, on the natural state thanks to the villagers and remisnikіv. Samu yomu vin provіshchє is great maybutn.

M. Levitsky uvishov in the history of the suspension of thought is no less than a theoretician of the liberal people, but a yak practitioner who is able to scrutinize the numerical design of the development of the other virology, and he has learned to live with it. Win є with an eclipse for the creation of small forms of cooperation, artillery, social and hospitality shows, giving a cheap loan to other viral companions. I’m not forgetting about the community, I’m calling it “the closure of the Maybut good deed” * 35, so I won’t go over to the suspension of gratitude of the whole community, the whole village.

* 35: {Proceedings of the Free Economic Society. - 1896. - No. 2. - S. 164.}

Naibilsh vidimim theoretical theory of M. Levitsky becoming "Artillery Treaty (for digging artillery)", a kind of bulo shifted bagatma єEuropean movi. M. Levitsky taking a lot from the bagatokh international cooperative congresses. He hastily spent his time with the living and living “Artillery agreement”. The extension of 1894-1896 pp. 85 artworks were organized in Oleksandrіyskomu and сlisavetgradskiy provites. I want M. Levitsky and following my dyalnostyu spiniti rozvitok capitalism, a prote functioonvorennim him artіliy svіdchilo the very same about the capital development of the state gratitude.

Tikhin Ivanovich Osadchiy (1866-1945) - economist, zemsky statistician, and a huge diyach. Winning as an ideologist of the other bourgeoisie, I want to say nothing to the idea of ​​more convenient, more economical minds “for more than one thing, I’m more powerful, but for all” * 36.

* 36: {Osadchy T.I. Public life and projects for its improvement in the 19th century. - M., 1902. - S. 5.}

At the main main nutrition - we are talking directly about the popular people’s development of the country T. Osadchiy having taken over his position. Yak, a summarized statistician of winnings, having taken advantage of the magnificent factual material about the camp of the Selyansky statehood, scho is communicative about the intensive development of capitalistic articles. I have a clear vision for my homeworkers to develop capitalism in the Pivdenno-Zakhidnoy Territory, so this is the process of capitalization of the process itself. Win bach unminuity tsogo development and navіznav knowing yogo song progression. Ale, a right-wing populist, T. Osadchy nazivayets the process of "steal unlawful." Rosvitku kapitalizmu vin protistavlya dribne virobnitstvo villagers and remisnikіv.

Navigate the constant processes of differentiation of villagers, the rosy god of non-independence, T. Osadchy proponu nadannya help the other state thanks to the side of the state. Schodo polіpshennya settlement of the village of Vin є with the eclipse "malih dil", "cultural prazі". Polіpshiti settlement settlement T. Osadchy succeeded in cultivating the culture of earthmoving, giving the villagers cheap loans, leaning in pre-gostroynoy rent.

The main voice T. Osadchiy to rob at the need for an average self-sufficient, natural, statehood. Being overwhelmed by the power of effective function, we’ll especially appreciate the organization of such a statehood. Protei stinks didn’t justify the utopian companions of T. Osadchy.