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|home Economy Books Political economy - Krivenko K.T.|
Political economy - Krivenko K.T.
Organizational form of financial capital, which was included in topic 21, includes financial -monopolistic (financial-industrial) groups (FIGs) - a complex of industry, trading, banking, transport and other companies.
The building of the financial and industrial group is known in many ways. Naybilsh rozpovsyujenim є voluntary ob'єdnannya kapіtalіv okremich uchasnikіv ustan. In another way є voluntary transfer by the participants of the transferred FPG packages of their shares to the managing bank to the credit and financial institute. In the third way, one of the participants in the group of packages is the participation in the organization and organization, as a result of which I become participants in the FIG. Do not expect such a dunce є voluntary and pov'yazane iz zlittyam and obscenities of some companies іnshimi.
Vertically kombіnovanі FIGs yavlyayutsya of companies themselves ob'єdnannya єdinim pid control scho zdіysnyuyut rіznі stadії virobnitstva addition chi іnshogo product tobto funktsіonuyuchih the principle of closed tehnologіchnogo lantsyuga - od vidobutku sirovini to Key infrastructure gotovoї produktsії, adjusted to її spozhivacha through Vlasnyi torgovelnu i zbutovu trammel.
Horizontally combining FPGs - both of them are unified by two or more controls, which can be used to cycle through the technological cycle at once in small galleys.
FPGs of a conglomerate type of winery are dependent on diversification of virology and are based on the basis of technological diversity, not technologically associated with any of the other industrial enterprises.
Three major warehouses are seen in the structures of the FPG: financial and economic, industrial and commercial and commercial. Moreover, the main principle of goal-making and functional FPG is the principle of equal rights to all institutions and institutes (the principle of "equal trickster"). In fact, such a principle will be violated, so as to go about a bank holding and a number of industrial companies controlling it, but about a group of virology companies.
The financial and industrial groups take up the most significant positions in the economy, may have the quietest sounds with the state, and suttly vplyuyayuyu to the internal and external politics. Winning and intensive development of FPG є one of the three forms of the law of adequacy of virological vidnosin and the nature of the development of productive forces. To realize that it’s important to significantly appreciate the concentration and centralization processes, take advantage of the overflow in advanced science and technology, and beyond this, expand the scale of planned development.
In addition, in the process of building the FPG, the great investment is a little antitrust to the legislation, as in the baggage of the hardships I’ll speed up the protection of the bank’s capital. Credit and bank establish often often rigidly between the form of the portfolio, the contribution and the ability to control corporations.
Two major tipi FPGs were rejected during the United States this year, as if they were the center of their own, as the whole group was vibrating. The first one has a congestion with the consolidated core of the FPG Vistupa Banking Holding, the other has a virobiotic-technological complex.
Prior to the most prominent US financial and industrial groups, the basis of such institutions is to become more financially stable and to establish the Chase, Morgan, Limen-Goldman, Sax and Ta groups. Zdebilshogo Dani group Mayayut I go іstorіy ustorennya that development, the same structure. One can see the type of FPG at the Chase group’s application.
The financial warehouse of the Chase group, including the commercial bank Chase Manhattan Corp (closed on the 1st of 1996 as a result of the updated Chase Manhattan Bank and the Kemikel Bank) and the two insurance and life insurance companies, Metropol Insurance life. " “Chase Manhattan Bank”, as the next successor to “Chase National Bank”, having been in charge of Rockefeller s 20 pp. Z 1962 p. D. Rockefeller, having borrowed from the president’s office a new head for the sake of directors.
Promislova warehouse group - there are 21 non-financial corporations, leather companies to leave to the number of 100 largest companies in the United States, including five transport companies (three airlines, two halls); two automobile companies, two chemical companies, two companies of retail trading. The company’s efforts are controlled by the group “Chase” and the bank Chase Manhattan Corp as well as a financial institution. Syodny Chase Manhattan Corp є a pro-US bank and a total of $ 300 billion worth of assets.
Dalі, in the USA, bagato industrial companies were settled by the need for financial and investment structures: General Electric - General Electric Capital Services, General Motors - General Motors Acceptance Corp., Ford Motor - Ford Motor Credit Corp., IBM Credit Corp. And so on. At the same time, there are no “guts” in banks, so you can get the most out of your account functions and you can use the tool to get cheap loans. For the great, self-appointed, establish with interests, so go far beyond the inter-Vlasian group. For example, General Electric Capital Services has more than 20 business activities in the field of services, which in some cases accounts for up to 35% of the consolidated income of all corporations General Electric, and part of the income is transferred to the group post operations. General Motors Acceptance Corp. has found the largest merchant loan provider in the United States and Volodin bankers in the United States.
The name of the corporation may be transnational. For example, the General Motors group has more than 200 factories in the USA, 12 - in Canada, and there are 32 more enterprises in foreign countries, which account for about 20% of the total number of cars.
With characteristic rice, this group is a vertical displacement of warehouse over horizontal. The basis of the General Motors group is the largest automotive concern in the world. It’s irrelevant to take hundreds of thousands of people. The head company of the concern є mother’s company is lucky to have thousands of company groups and control є with a share in capital and virology and financial dіyalnіst.
A number of peculiarities of the form and organization of financial-industrial groups ними characteristic of Japan. In the case of the national financial and industrial complex, it is now possible to actually establish a six-large complex - financial and industrial group (Japanese version - shudani): Mitsubishi, Mitsu, Sumyom, Yes, Kanga on singing zagalny principles.
In the course of official duties, the sale of six groups of giants should become approximately 14-15% of the country's GNP. Most likely, the total foreign circulation of saga is about 4 trillion dollars, then there are 500 billion rubles for the whole group. The stakes control (urakhovychi companies, they must be included in them) approximately 50%, and for the dear estimates 75% of industrial assets of the country.
There are more than half of the export and import operations at the trading company, which accounts for 90% of the export and import operations. Commercial and trust banks of the group control close to 40% of the foreign capital of the entire banking system of the country, and insurance companies 55% of the total insurance capital.
Syudani - self-sufficient, universal, bagatogaluzevi economic complexes, as well as include in your organization financial structure (banks, insurance and trust companies), trade companies, as well as a wide range of public goods,
The upper level of the syudan is to assert horizontal horizons, which are stored in the middle of the 21st (“Sumitomo” group) - 50 (of the “Yes” group) of the most equal numbers of the most important reasons єdnan.
With a consolidated core of syudy, at the time of your arrival, write a message for Other Svitovoy Viniy (that is for the two advanced rivals - “zaibatsu”) and until the fifth day є company important and industrial promises.
The widespread stumbling by corporations of the acquired cost is one of the factors of Japanese economic reach. Tom is obov'yazkovim a member of the group, and for the bug otsіnkami іїї shearing, є a great bank. Vin control контрол rozgaluzhenu bank і least measure і і filіalіv і daughіrnіkh pіdpriєmstv. At the complex with him / her control, there are also insurance policies and investment companies, trust banks. Use the stink for the company given to the д ї own people ’and assert the financial foundation.
Logging in to financial and credit financial institutions to get access to strategic options, first and foremost, to mobility and realizing the technological potential of the whole group. Shvidkost technological innovation of virobnitztva, temp nachivuvannya vipusku vysoko-profitable and competitive products in which you can lie in addition to the fact that you can invest in financial corporations to swear the oversight of finance.
Obov'yazkovim a member of the shudan є unіversalnaya trading company. Behind the scale of its trading and information measures and the obligations of its business operations, trading companies should play an important role in the financial and industrial groups to the highest level in terms of trade and video. Look at the func- tional versatile zbutovik and the “post-graduate” func- tions, as well as the independent “department of zvіznіkh zvіzkіv” in the process of developing new areas of activity, in some kind of companies, you can practically pay for them.
Promislovy ob'єdnannya, shcho enter before the FIG, as a rule, inspired by the principle of vertical integration (the Japanese version is called "keiretsu"). Pіd egіdoyu head іn fіrmi - great kіlkіst pіdkontrolnogo іy "daughter". At the same time, stink uproot your inner tier of vertically integrated, you can get to the bottom, fragments of bagato "daughter" (apparently the main) company also have their own control, including a few of them. Variation of interest rate in the subsidiaries can be more accurate - from 10 to 50%. Є varianti, if the share capital is zagali_ nemaє, tobutto payday capital.
From now on, the system of secondary monitoring of the formation of vertical pyramids, which can at once include thousands of companies (legal entities).
For the sake of understanding, the principle is not competition, but rather directly organized internal specialization, as long as the sphere of business does not obfuscate. In addition to the “postochnik-sogozhachach” vidnosina, a mutual monopoly was established here. In this way, an economical middle-house is all-in-one syudan є not at all. And in fact, in the Japanese industrial organization, the structure should lead to the closure of a clear oligopolistic system to the market of Kintsev products. Tim is no less intense competition for the participants to secure a stable process of development at a galaxy.
Japanese financial-industrial groups are small and may have a great deal of energy for the development of new and industrialized countries as well as the emergence of a large corporate structure, as well as the uninterrupted participation of financial-industrial groups in their economic life. Dosvid Japanese FPGs today becoming the basis for rethinking the principles of nutrition, and we must agree on the optimal organization of state-sponsored turnover in the future in the country and in the economy.
On the basis of the provisional dignity of FPG in the most recent regions of the world, it is possible to make such a trip.
1. Suchasnі fіnansovo-promislovі groupies yavlyayutsya him diversifіkovanі bagatofunktsіonalnі structure stvorenі in rezultatі ob'єdnannya kapіtalіv of companies, credit fіnansovih that іnvestitsіynih іnstitutіv and takozh іnshih organіzatsіy of metoyu maksimіzatsії pributku, posilennya konkurentospromozhnostі on vnutrіshnomu that zovnіshnomu Rink, pіdvischennya efektivnostі virobnichih i financial operations, the strengthening of technological and cooperative sounds, the potential economic potential of participants.
2. The characteristic rice of the present stage of the development of FPG баг баг баг баг баг баг баг баг баг сп баг сп ря мов мов мов мов мов ря ря мов, allowing you to quickly respond to snakes in the marketplace. Ale slіd mean, scho є put the door and function FPG with the right special type of specialization.
3. Tendencies of the form of the FPG to introduce the law of development of the development of virology:
Integration of financial and industrial capital;
concentration and international capitalization;
Victory of the most informative technologies;
rozpovsyujennya of international standards of regulation of national markets (capital, goods, services, services);
globalization of goods (distribution of goods and services for the most profitable foreign markets).