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International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.

2.3. Purchasing by banks of foreign currency for international rozraunkun

The fateless fate of the international rose-runners is to take commercial banks. Stink on vimogu their own klіntiv buy and sell foreign currency. For example, importers should be given the price of foreign currency for adding goods. For the sake of stench, I get involved in banks with stupid people to buy the necessary amount of foreign currency in exchange for the wage of their own currency of the country. At your own house, exporters also accept payments in foreign currencies. Stink Mayuyut:

  • trimi qi koshti on a currency bank in a bank (as a rule permissible currency legislation of the country);
  • convert foreign currency into national currency;
  • convert foreign currency into foreign currency.

Ukrainian legislation allows you to save a portion of foreign currency reserves (50% of the currency virus exporting money for sale at the bank’s market) on rakhunahs at commercial banks. Ale zberigannya koshtіv on the currency rahunka є dotsіlnim, yakshcho:

a) an exporter of rozrahovu to those who regularly pay healthy payments and will be indebted to themselves in all currencies;

b) the exporter will be able to, in the near future may devalue national currencies, as a result of a significant reduction in income from export. For example, in 1993-1996 pp. Rivne of devaluation of Ukrainian currency buve higher. All the same, the exporters ’exporters received currency currency, the Ukrainian legislation transferred the exchange conversion of export taxes to Ukraine. I navpaki, stability of the hryvnia incentive exporters before the sale of even 80% of the currency virus.

Neobkhіdnіst sale of currency by exporters may be explained by such reasons:

  • I will pay the most part of the payment and payment (purchase of money for high-tech products, payment of transport expenses to the territory of the country, taxes are small).
  • The company for domestic consumption does not need to have a working capital, and the same should be paid for the conversion of foreign currency into the national currency.

The need to buy currencies with importers is worth considering that they should pay foreign currencies for the goods, a kind of stink to bring in for the cordon. For the sake of stench, I’m hanging around the bank with the stupid women to buy the necessary amount of foreign currency in exchange for the currency of their country.

From now on, in the participants of international economic vidnosin vіnnіcno vinikaє need to buy or sell foreign currency. Look at the operation through your bank.

Banks buy and sell foreign currency on foreign exchange markets: national, regional, private. For the forms of their own organization of foreign exchange markets, buy and sell abroad (midbank).

Currency currencies - the whole organization of markets, which are represented by currency currencies. Currency exchange - say no business, osklyki of the main meta-pole aren’t in the off-balance sheet, but in the organization of trading in currencies and in the mobile currency of hourly foreign currency resources. In some countries (for example, in Japan, Nimechchin, France, Russia, Ukraine and the other), the role of foreign exchange rates is in the established official exchange rate, which is practically not possible to see the same rate.

Levov’s part of the foreign exchange land is available for unorganized, overseas, as well as for the interbank, foreign exchange market, for any dealer to conduct operations without interruption from all over the country on electronic or satellite communications.

The main functions of the currency markets є:

  • Happily greet the international roses;
  • exchange rate regulation;
  • diversification of foreign exchange reserves;
  • insurance of currency rizikіv;
  • denied a profit to the foreign exchange market participant;
  • the conduct of monetary policy, directly regulated by the state, the regulation of the national economy, and that of the political policy within the boundaries of the state gratitude.

The purchases and sales of foreign currency for the international banking system are issued by the banks, as a rule, in non-repayable form, to the foreign exchange market. The second part in foreign currency transactions is to become approximately 95%. On foreign exchange markets, grades of dozens of trillions of dollars are stacked.

Currency operations bankers are not liable without exchange of currencies and quotation. Quotation of currencies means the exchange rate of the national penny odnitsі to foreign. Quotation of currencies in the market for healthy commercial and state-owned banks. At the same time, the course of the national penny unit can be seen in the direct quotation form, if the unit is taken in foreign currency. For example, $ 1 = 5.53 UAH (hryvnia code) in Ukraine, or $ 1 = 132.08 JPY in Japan.

As a rule, the us currency (behind the vignette of the British pound sterling and the cat currency) is equal to the American dollar (USD). Victoria Dolar as the basic currency of the image of the role of the American currency as the most important rozrahunkova odnitsy, scho vikoristovitsya in the international trade.

When currency holdings are stacked, you can stiffly indirectly quote, if the unit (base currency) is taken nationally, the groshova unit. Indirectly quoted are victorious in Great Britain, de all currencies are pound sterling. For example, 1 p. Art. = 1.45 dollars USA. The indirect indirect exchange allows me to fix the exchange rate of national currency with foreign currencies for any currency market. And getting direct and indirect quotation gives you the ability to exchange foreign exchange rates without additional fees.

Purchases and sales of currencies by banks are welcome for higher rates, they are also referred to as buyer courses and seller courses, or, for bank terminology bid and offer.

Buying rate is the rate, for some improvements the bank will buy foreign currency for the national market.

The seller’s rate is the same as the rate for which a bank sells currency for the market. Banks sell foreign currency at a higher national cost, lower buy at a seller’s rate. Rіznitsya middle course seller and buyer called margin . Margin pokriva vitrati bank і form і formogo yyutok іd foreign exchange operations.

Purchase and sale of foreign currency by banks for international purchases at the leather goods of the Republic of Korea is subject to official law. In Ukraine, the transaction for the sale and purchase of currency is regulated by the Rules for the Operation of the National Bank of Ukraine's Currency Exchange, adopted by the National Bank of Ukraine 18 birch 1999 p. Number 127.

The rules designate the structure of the Ukrainian foreign exchange market, as well as the order that you can understand how to trade currency in new. Obviously, with the rules of the NBU, operations on the interbank foreign exchange market of Ukraine may be more limited than the previous subtype, to contain:

  • National Bank of Ukraine;
  • Upgraded banks (commercial banks, which canceled the NBU’s license for the right to operate with foreign exchange values);
  • Establish financial and credit installments (they canceled the NBU’s license for the right to operate with foreign exchange values);
  • currency exchange.

Neobkhidnuyu udovoy robots of banks in the foreign exchange market of Ukraine є the recognition of the general and third-party licenses, of the kind of NBU. General licenses are seen by commercial banks for the implementation of foreign exchange operations for the entire period of the foreign exchange regulation regime.

Residential and non-resident licenses are seen by residents and non-residents for a one-time one-time foreign currency transaction for a period, which is necessary for a one-time such operation. Such operations may include:

  • Visits, reservations and transfers beyond Ukraine between residents and non-residents of international sums of foreign currency;
  • import, re-ordering, transferring to Ukraine of public currency;
  • donation and gain by residents of loans in foreign currency;
  • victoria of foreign currency in the territory of Ukraine as I want to pay for it, otherwise I’m forced to;
  • the exchange of foreign exchange values ​​on rachahnas and deposits at the borders of Ukraine;
  • Zdіsnennya investment for the cordon, in addition to the number through dandy of valuable folders.

The order and terms of licensing, the transfer of documents, the necessary for obtaining the license, and also the provision of the license for the licensed are recognized by the National Bank of Ukraine.

Upgraded banks and financial and credit institutions establish healthy transactions for the sale and purchase of foreign currencies at international currency markets are subject to the rules established on these markets and the regulatory legal framework of the National Bank of Ukraine, which regulate the Ukrainian currency.

In accordance with the current rules of health operations in the Ukrainian foreign exchange market of Ukraine, significant access to the purchase of foreign currency by the banks will be significantly separated from the bank in case of a state-of-the-art situation in the state. Purchases and sales of currencies of the first class of the Classifier (American dollar, Euro, national brand, Russian ruble) for UAH hryvnias by upgraded banks of Ukraine are carried out in bank days less at a singular time. (It is necessary to pay NBU on the 25th quarter of 2000, the trading session is three years old: from 12.30 to 14.30.) Buying and selling currency to banks for the hryvnia position between the trading sessions is pickled.

At the operating hour before the cob of the sesium commercial banks, you will have the opportunity to reassure applications that you have assigned your customers for sales and buy foreign currency. Unsatisfied with the application and the fact that the client banks are grouped at the newly established net-buy-and-net net sale and give to NBU.

Upgrades the bank can take part in the trading session as a seller or as a buyer (exchanging part of the bank by speculating speculative operations on the foreign exchange market). One-day submission of applications for purchase and sale of foreign currency, total amount of application; however, overdue applications claimed for business transactions must not be allowed.

For the purchase of foreign currency on the Ukrainian currency market of Ukraine, when trading with non-residents, trading operations are subject to the following documents:

  • an agreement with a non-resident, formalities of the final legislation of Ukraine, or the other document, which is explicitly applicable to the legislation of Ukraine, the force of the agreement;
  • vantazhna mitna declaration;
  • act of welcome-priymannya, act of vicananich robit (nadanikh servant) or else the most important document, what to say about nadannya servant, viconanny robit;
  • documents transferred in case of documentary form of roses (letter of credit, insurance);
  • dovіdka State podatkovoї admіnіstratsії (іnspektsії) in yakіy resident zareєstrovany yak paysite podatkіv, іz zaznachennyam information The basic threading rakhunok resident in UAH that more precisely rakhunok in іnozemnіy valyutі scho viznacheny resident yak rakhunok, of yakogo zdіysnyuyutsya OAO All pererahuvannya of metoyu vikonannya zobov'yazan resident to non-residents in foreign currency, at one time for foreign currency of the first group of Classifier (lines for 90 days). A credit is assigned to be given to a customer with a pre-approved bank as well as an hour of purchase and re-payment of non-resident foreign currency, such as non-resident zones in offshore zones.

Foreign currency purchases from correspondent banks and non-resident banks in hryvnia are subject to separate laws and regulations in respect of banks and international banks and banks and banks and banks. Number 118

International rozrakhunki zdіsnyuyutsya not only for export and import operations (the mahogany of trading operations of the balance of payments of the state). In the country, there may be more charity songs for capital operations (ruch of investment capital), and for currency, there is also a need for foreign currency.

In Ukraine, the purchase of foreign currency on the interbank market by residents using the method of payment of zobov'yazan for capital operations, please follow these rules, the first purchase of currency for servicing export and import operations. For the purchase of currency є such documents:

a) the original of the loan agreement (please take a look), a certain amount of information about the need for resident residents (sub-accounts of the official business) of zobov'yazan in foreign currency;

  • the original of registration of a loan is subject to a NBU for a loan obtained by a resident, posits in a foreign currency of a type of creditor, a type of NBU with a certified loan of a bank, and a serviced loan is granted to a third party;
  • additional payment to the bank of outstanding amounts for the amount of the loan actually obtained by the resident, payment of the loan for repayment of the loan (payment for the main loan and payment of the loan);
  • Documents (copies), transmitted by the law of the law, on the legal representation of such goiters (the obligatory license of the NBU and the supplements to them, the guarantee of the Cabinet of Ministers);

b) an agreement on investment duality, a document on actual investment, on the right to re-order for a cordon a gain (income), which was made by a non-resident at lawful representative offices in Ukraine; documents from the State Power Inspectorate;

c) a vypiska with a bank account about the security of foreign currency (with a copy of a payment document that was canceled through the SWIFT system) and that of the conversion of currency in hryvnias;

d) deposit agreement, deposit (deposit) certificate, as a rule, need to be redeemed by the bank by upgrading the goiter’s bank in foreign currency to the foreman deposit (deposit);

e) see the agreement about the care of the vicar of the goiters in foreign currency.

Please, be sure that banks are in possession of the purchase of currency, є with the maximum amount of money, if you have better banks and financial and credit installment of your credit card within one week from the date of arrival through the “International currency system”.

Currency operations for the share of residents and non-residents, due to international rozrakhunok, to control currency control from the side of the sovereign management bodies. The main body of foreign exchange control is the National Bank of Ukraine. The water hour of the functional exchange control may also be held by the State Power Inspectorate, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and the State Mitniy Committee.

Self-control power

  • With what method are correspondent rahunks in banks?
  • How can you see the correspondent rahunks you know?
  • What is a SWIFT system?
  • By what rank will I speed up the performance of the rozrahunkіv banks?
  • De kupuyut banks foreign currency for the conduct of international razrahunkіv?
  • What is the currency market and how do you see the currency market you know?
  • What are currencies quoted?
  • What is the exchange rate for the sale rate for the purchase rate of foreign currency?
  • What documents do you need to pre-present for credit reporting and currency exchange rates in Ukraine?
  • What are the currency exchange rates of foreign currency exchange rates?
  • What is the best way to buy banks of foreign currency in the Ukrainian bank?