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|home Economy Books International trade - Dakhno І.І.|
International trade - Dakhno І.І.
Understanding the " balance sheet " the bulo was booked at 1767 p. J. Stuart (James Steuart, 1712-1780) - Scottish economist, one of the most representative representatives of the new mercantilism.
The statutes of the balance of payments are due to the image of all foreign trade operations of the Republic of Belarus. Tsі stattі okhoplyuyut export of goods and services, vitrati tourists for the cordon is thin. Balance of payments of the country є the balance of the required state of the country of the foregoing and that payments to you.
The balance sheet is stored in three main components:
1. Foreign trade balance. Be aware of export and import of goods, pay attention to the statistics of the goods and the liability of the goods, and at the real time, pull the mitten cordon of the country. Paying the same balance to the insurance payment and the need for the sphere of the new trade turnover, you may not be able to drop by the hour after the goods.
2. Balance of payments for one-way transfer services. Remaining є non-commercial payments. Balance of payments for services - the need for transport and insurance, mail, telegraph, telephone, business operations, cultural exchange, tourism, resignation (salary, drop-down rate, scholarships, pensions, and diplomatic missions) on investment, licensed payments.
Assigned two balances to approve at once the balance of payments for accurate transactions, but the current balance. Vin visnacha the oath of net income (nadhodzhen) or pure vitrates of a particular country at the call for international trade in goods, services, and transfers.
3. The balance of ruhu capital and credit. Vin є spivvidnoshennyam import and vivozu as a private, so and sovereign capital, as well as acquired and above all international loans. Yogo can rosumi i yak spіvvіdnoshennya sale that kupіvlі asset_v.
Foreign trade balance є retail trade by commodity export and import. As a matter of fact, export is greater for import, then it is only a positive balance to the trade balance, as well as export I re-export export - negatively. From now on, the first one has a more active trade balance, while the other has a passive one. At the time of the passive trade balance, at the foreign trade trade of the Vinik region, deficiency.
Slide mean, current balance and balance rukhu cap_talіv and credit tisno povyazanі mіzh with myself. Deficit to the balance sheet for streamline operations - it’s straightforward to apply to those who live outside the country because exporting is not enough to pay for importing. Financial need for such a time I will need, as far as the acquisition of foreign poses, as well as the sale of foreign assets of singing assets. In case of remaining variance, there is a deficit in the balance of payments to be deflected by the influx of capital to the edge. As a matter of fact, the payable balance is more active (that is, the balance is more important), then you often get paid in capital for the article “Rukh capital”.
At the time of the negative balance of payments, the country was in a position to "possess" the borgs and sell their assets to foreigners (the memory of the Borges is great, the injustice is great - you must be worse and worse than ever). for the purpose of adding foreign non-property and assets (a number of countries have such methods to manage their other (economical) economies) and pushing poses to the other powers.
Territories with non-administrative administrators are rewarded with the mothers of so-called official reserves (to sum foreign currency) to regulate the balance of their own balance payments. The amount of such reserves is indicated by the indicator of the deficit in the balance of payments of the country. Navpaki, zrostannya ofitsіynih reserves to inform about zbіlshennya oath of a surplus.
Reserve assets with the highest international assets of the singing region. All assets control the bank and Vladivostok of the country і ikh they can be vikoristovuvati be-for financial balance of payment balance, as well as for regulating the national currency rate. The following international assets should be included: monetary gold (my sample is no lower than 995); special rights reserved (SDR or English - SDR) - a piece asset, which can be distributed between the IMF member countries in full and up to quotas and may be reimbursed for international currency payments; reserve position in the IMF, by the sum of the reserve tranche of the country; foreign currency assets (foreign currency, bank deposits, government deposits, financial derivatives, private equity transactions, vimogs, which are reflected in the results of the transactions with national and local authorities).
In the process of preparation of the balance of payments of the country, one will have to pay one roshrahunkova, and to stand still at the internal roshrakhunok. For a re-race at Dolari, the national currency exchange rate to Dolar is fixed, and now we set about an hour of folding the balance of payments. As a rule, for foreign exchange operations, there are only a few currency exchange rates, then for the redundancy of the given balance of payments, the dolar has a middle exchange rate.
In Ukraine, the National Bank and the State Statistics Committee are in charge of folding the balance of payments. Schokvartalu put together two balances - with the lands of the colossal Soviet Socialist Republic and social welfare and those of the capitalist world. The main problems є lack of information base, lack of accuracy, lack of access.
Behind the camp for 2002 p. In fact, Bula is in charge of delivering information about export-import services, direct investment, payment of benefits to non-residents, and unsuccessful incomes from other enterprises.
The style of the most important theory of balance of payments.
Theory of automatic self-regulation of balance of payments. Rosroblen at the XVIII century. D. Hume and D. Ricardo. The main principle of theory is that the balance of payments can be regulated without a sovereign hand.
The theory of internal and external competences, was divided by R. Harod, T. Scipovsky, R. Mandel.
Theory of the instrumental-total method of regulating the balance of payments. Авториї author - J. Mead, J. Tinbergen. For the sake of theory, indicators are shown on tools and sovereign economic policies and on-demand models in economic models.
Theory of regulatory regulation. Авториї author J. Williamson and R. Miller have taken an anti-cyclical and anti-inflation regulation with regulation of international roses.
Monetary theory is fragmented by neoclassics stretching 50-70s rock XX century. The main warehouses of the theory: theory of economy; Minimum payment for international goods, services, capital and praxivnik; security of freedom of the market mechanism, both on the national and the international level.
The theory of international balance-of-payments balance paid the basic provisions of Keynesianism, neo-Keynesianism and monetarism.
The Bretton-Woods currency system transferred systematically the regulation of the balance of payments, but it is not so much to see the balance at all due to the type of the balance of payments (passive or active). The Jamaican currency system is stagnant; the principle of symmetric virivnyuvannya.
A small deficit in the balance of payments is obviously not insecure, as it is necessary to overwrite offensive rock with an active trade balance. It is not possible to deficit the excess in the distant Maybutn.
Significant deficit in the balance of payments, especially a slight tendency to constant growth, in return for those products of the second-largest business territory, competitiveness in the retail market. Officials may be defective, both internal and external (social and economic disasters, low energy prices).
The trivale is sharpened by the deficit of the balance of payments at the expense of the fixed reserves of the country. All rights reserved before the delivery of the trade bar єрів (meeting of high orders / wide quotas, often coming to see them a bit; there is no need to let them go).