SEBOREA - a pathological condition of the skin, characterized by increased secretion of the sebaceous glands and a change in the normal composition of sebum. It is observed in 50 - 60% of boys and girls. The reason for the development of seborrhea is functional nervous and endocrine disorders characteristic of puberty, hereditary predisposition. Primary disorders with seborrhea appear, apparently, in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Its manifestations are amplified in the presence of foci of chronic infection, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, hypovitaminosis A and C, as well as with skin contamination.
The first signs of seborrhea are observed at the age of 12-14 years, reaching maximum severity by 16-20 years. From a large amount of sebum, the skin of the face glistens, hair becomes oily, stick together in locks. The mouths of the excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands are dilated (skin porosity) and often clogged with sebum-horn plugs (comedones).
Depending on the degree of sebum secretion, the nature of changes in the composition and consistency of sebum, liquid, thick and mixed seborrhea are distinguished. Liquid seborrhea is more common in women; it is characterized by the free release by the sebaceous glands of a large amount of liquid sebum onto the surface of the skin. In such people, comedones and atheromas are absent, acne is possible.
With thick seborrhea, the removal of sealed sebum from the sebaceous glands is slowed down; it accumulates in the excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands, forming numerous comedones, atheromas. With mixed seborrhea, symptoms of liquid seborrhea usually appear on the face, and with a thick comedone and atheroma, on the chest and back.
Seborrhea is often complicated by the usual acne, boils, folliculitis, dry diffuse streptoderma, seborrheic eczema, and baldness. Due to the decrease in the sterilizing properties of sebum in patients with seborrhea, dandruff is especially common. Its formation is associated with exposure to yeast-like microorganisms. Dandruff (grayish-white greasy scales) appears in the form of diffuse peeling on the skin of the scalp, with no inflammatory effects.
With liquid seborrhea, sebum secretion normalizes to 20-24 years. Menstrual disorders delay recovery. In patients with thick seborrhea, the formation of comedones, atheromas, blackheads can be observed up to 30-35 years, and the roughness and porosity of the facial skin remain for life.
Treatment . Outwardly, with uncomplicated seborrhea, washing with 1-2% aqueous solutions of sodium thiosulfate or tetraborate, aluminum-potassium alum, rubbing with 1-2% alcohol solutions of salicylic, boric or citric acids, estrone is indicated; powders with sulfur or dermatol are recommended at night, as well as agitated suspensions with sulfur. Prescribe vitamins A, C, group B. Conduct treatment of concomitant diseases, rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection. Showing solar and ultraviolet radiation, water procedures. In some cases, drugs that normalize the functions of the nervous system are also recommended - sedatives, tranquilizers, nootropic drugs; with violations of the endocrine system - estrogens or antiandrogens.
Prevention consists in carefully following personal hygiene rules and caring for skin, especially oily. To prevent exacerbation of the process, periodic intake of vitamin A, ultraviolet irradiation, treatment of concomitant diseases, and the elimination of abuse of cosmetics (for example, oily creams and ointments, hair dyes) are recommended.