Severity of hemolytic disease
SEVERITY OF HEMOLITIC DISEASE Light form - anemia without jaundice and edema. It is characterized by pale skin, a slight increase in the liver and spleen. Children often recover without treatment.
The moderate form is the most common form of hemolytic disease. It is characterized, in addition to jaundice and puffiness, by an increase in the liver and signs of central nervous system damage (bilirubin encephalopathy). Convulsions , oculomotor disturbances, stiff neck are noted.
Severe form: anemia, generalized edema, enlarged liver, spleen, heart failure ; the placenta is swollen; increased. In the blood of newborns, in addition to anemia , a large number of young forms of red blood cells are detected. Children are born in serious condition and often die soon after birth.
The main method of treatment of hemolytic disease of the newborn is replacement blood transfusion. Indications for this procedure are hemoglobin below 90 g / l, bilirubin above 68 μmol / l, and the presence of Rh-positive blood in a child. Transfusion should be carried out as soon as possible after the birth of the baby. Use a single-group Rh-negative blood, which is transfused into the umbilical cord vein. Start with the withdrawal of 20 ml of blood, then slowly inject the same amount of transfused blood. The amount of transfused blood and monitoring the condition of the child is carried out by a doctor. Rhesus antibodies may be present in breast milk. Therefore, the baby should be fed with expressed milk from other mothers. Antibodies in mother’s milk disappear by the 10th-12th day after the birth and from then on you can switch to feeding the baby with mother’s milk.
Children who have had hemolytic disease should undergo a monthly medical examination.
Prevention Pregnant women with Rh-negative blood are registered. At the same time, they find out whether he had previously received a blood transfusion, if children with hemolytic disease were not born, and cases of stillbirth and abortion were revealed. Regularly conduct blood tests for Rh antibodies. With a rapid increase in antibodies in the blood of pregnant women sent for treatment. Women with rhesus negative blood are not recommended to have an abortion during their first pregnancy.