HIERSINIOSIS (syn .: intestinal yersiniosis) is an infectious disease characterized by lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and often a tendency to generalize and damage various organs and tissues.
The causative agent of Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative movable bacillus that does not have a spore, it has the ability to multiply at low temperatures, it can last for a long time and multiply in the environment, it quickly dies during boiling and exposure to disinfectants.
Sources of the pathogen are mouse-like rodents, farm animals (pigs, cattle), domestic animals (dogs), which secrete pathogens with feces; in some cases, people with yersiniosis. Factors of transmission of pathogens are food products - milk, meat, vegetables, seeded with Yersinia. The main ways of transmission of pathogens - food, as well as contact-household (in families, dormitories). The disease in humans occurs in all age groups, but more often in children. Yersiniosis is recorded in the form of sporadic cases and outbreaks, mainly in organized teams. There are cases of nosocomial infection. The disease is recorded throughout the year, but more often in the fall.
Clinical picture . Asymptomatic carriage and mild forms are possible, as well as severe generalized (sepsis), which is observed in young children and weakened individuals. The incubation period is from 15 hours to 6 days. With the development of gastroenterocolitis, colicy pains in the abdomen, vomiting , stool from 2 to 3 to 15 times a day are noted, the stool contains mucus, sometimes blood, body temperature rises. In severe cases, develop toxicosis, dehydration. Symptoms of appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis may occur. With the generalization of the process, fever lasts from 5 to 20 days or more, intoxication is expressed, rashes of a different nature, catarrhal phenomena, polyadenitis, enlargement of the liver, spleen are often observed. Polyarthritis, hepatitis (sometimes with jaundice), myocarditis , meningitis , urethritis, exacerbations and relapses of the disease are possible.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of the clinical picture and specified according to the results of laboratory studies: identification of the pathogen in feces, blood, urine, increase in antibody titer in blood serum.
Patients are hospitalized for clinical reasons. Levomycetin , pefloxacin , tetracycline preparations, aminoglycosides, biseptol , furazolidone are administered in medium doses for 1-2 weeks, symptomatic agents; in severe cases, detoxification and rehydration therapy is performed.
The forecast is usually favorable, when the process is generalized, it is serious. Prevention includes veterinary and sanitary supervision of the slaughter of livestock, strict sanitary control of cooking, eliminating the possibility of contamination of ready-made food, dishes, meeting the deadlines for the sale of milk, meat and vegetable dishes, thorough washing of fruits and vegetables, the fight against rodents, flies. In the outbreak, patients are identified and isolated, current and final disinfection is carried out.