Cataract - eye disease characterized by clouding of the lens.
Congenital cataracts can be hereditary or occur in the prenatal period as a result of exposure to the fetus of various infectious (for example, rubella virus) or toxic factors. The most common acquired senile cataract, the mechanism of development of which is not completely understood. It is assumed that in case of senile cataract, the violation of tissue respiration and oxidative processes, as well as the depletion of tissues with vitamins C, B2, cysteine, are important. Causes of acquired cataracts can also be chemical or mechanical, including contusion, eye injury; exposure to the eye of ionizing radiation, for example, during radiation therapy, due to occupational exposure or emergency situations; poisoning with naphthalene, dinitrophenol, thallium, mercury, ergot, etc., endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders. Complicated cataracts that develop as a result of eye diseases, such as myopia, uveitis, are distinguished from acquired ones.
The main manifestation of cataracts is the reduction of visual acuity. When the lens opacities are located in the pupil, visual disturbance appears very early. If the process begins in the equatorial region of the lens, visual acuity may remain normal for a long time.
In the clinical course of senile cataract there are four stages: initial, immature (swelling), mature and overripe cataracts. In the initial stage of cataract with cortical form, patients do not show complaints. In some cases, they begin to see worse, “flying flies” appear before my eyes. In the nuclear form of senile cataract, central vision is impaired early, and far-distance vision suffers, temporary myopia may occur. The duration of this stage is different: in some patients it is calculated over the years, in others the process progresses rapidly, and in 2–3 years the stage of immature cataract begins. At the same time, the phenomenon of lens swelling increases, clouding captures a significant part of the lens cortex, reduced vision. The stage of immature cataract can last for years. Gradually, the lens loses water, becomes more homogeneous and darker, the anterior chamber - deeper. In the stage of mature cataract, intense opacification is noted in the area of the lens sutures. The objective vision disappears, only the light sensation is determined with the correct projection of light. In the stage of overripe cataract, the altered lens fibers undergo dystrophy, complete disintegration and homogenization. Cortical substance turns into a liquefied mass of milky color, which gradually undergoes resorption.
Treatment . Conservative treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis, it is shown only in the initial stages of the disease to prevent the progression of the process. Vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavin), amino acids (glutathione, cysteine), enzymes (cytochromes, etc.) are prescribed. All of the listed substances in various combinations are part of the drops (Vice, Vitodurol, Vitafacol, etc.).
An indication for surgical treatment is a decrease in visual acuity to such an extent that the patient’s ability to work is impaired. It consists in extracting (extracting) from the eye of the clouded lens. After surgery for a cataract, a condition called apakia occurs, characterized by hyperopia and accommodation failure. Optical correction of aphakia is performed using glasses, contact lenses, keratophakia surgery, and implantation of an artificial lens (intraocular lens).