KYPOZ - curvature of the spine, curved backwards.
Normally, adults have physiological thoracic and sacral kyphosis, in children in the first months of life there is a total curvature of the spine posteriorly throughout its length. Pathological kyphosis, i.e., going beyond physiological curves, may be angular, for example due to tuberculosis of one or several vertebrae or spinal cord injury, or arcuate, if many vertebrae are involved in the process, for example, with rickets or flaccid paralysis. Depending on the severity of the spinal deformity and the degree of elimination, they speak of defects in posture — stoop (curvature of the entire spine) or a round back (curvature mainly of the upper spine). With the long existence of a flawed posture, kyphosis becomes more and more fixed, not amenable to elimination. Persistent kyphosis, in particular, develops when the vertebral ossification process is impaired - the juvenile kyphosis.
As a result of violations of posture, working in a hunched position, the back muscles weaken, which contributes to the consolidation of incorrect posture. With angular kyphosis, the spine is roughly deformed and a hump forms. Secondary changes are characteristic of a rachitic lumbar-thoracic and upper thoracic kyphosis: flattening and retraction of the chest, deepening of the lumbar lordosis, sagging of the abdomen, lowering of the shoulders down and anterior. (In case of persistent kyphosis, respiratory excursions of the chest are limited, the vital capacity of the lungs is reduced, the back muscles weaken, the body becomes less flexible, fast fatigue and back pain are noted, which decreases the ability to work.
Treatment of defects in posture is aimed at correcting the curvature of the spine, primarily with the help of exercises that strengthen the back muscles. Therapeutic gymnastics should include exercises that contribute to the extension of the spine, its mobility in the thoracic region, stretching: they also recommend crawling and breathing exercises. With therapeutic exercises combine the use of correcting and relieving corsets, massage and physiotherapy. For the purpose of treatment, the patient is placed on the abdomen with a wedge-shaped support under the chest or on a hard bench with his hands apart. It should systematically correct the wrong posture of the child during school hours. In cases where it is associated with defects of vision, the selection of glasses and treatment of myopia are necessary. From sports activities swimming, water polo, volleyball, skiing are especially useful. Bike rides, skating, weightlifting, various jumps, wrestling are contraindicated. In cases where kyphosis is caused by a destructive process (tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, a tumor, etc.), it becomes necessary to promptly correct the deformity.