KYPHOZIS - curvature of the spine, convex posteriorly.
Normally, in adults there is physiological thoracic and sacral kyphosis, in children in the first months of life there is a total curvature of the spine posteriorly along its entire length. Pathological kyphosis, i.e., going beyond physiological bends, can be angular, for example due to tuberculosis of one or several vertebrae or a spinal injury, or arcuate if many vertebrae are involved in the process, for example, with rickets, flaccid paralysis. Depending on the severity of spinal deformity and the degree of elimination, they speak of posture defects - stoop (curvature of the entire spine) or round back (curvature of the mainly upper spine). With the prolonged existence of vicious posture, kyphosis becomes more and more fixed, not amenable to elimination. Persistent kyphosis, in particular, develops in violation of the process of ossification of the vertebrae - juvenile kyphosis.
As a result of disturbances in posture, work in a hunched position, the muscles of the back weaken, which helps to fix the wrong posture. With angular kyphosis, the spine is grossly deformed and a hump forms. Secondary changes are characteristic of rickets of lumbar-thoracic and thoracic kyphosis: flattening and retraction of the chest, deepening of the lumbar lordosis, sagging abdomen, lowering the shoulders down and anteriorly. (With persistent kyphosis, chest breathing excursions are limited, vital capacity of the lungs decreases, back muscles weaken, body flexibility decreases, fatigue, back pain are noted, which reduces working capacity.
The treatment of posture defects is aimed at correcting the curvature of the spine, primarily with the help of exercises that strengthen the muscles of the back. Therapeutic exercises should include exercises that contribute to the extension of the spine, its mobility in the thoracic region, stretching: crawling and breathing exercises are also recommended. The use of corrective and unloading corsets is combined with therapeutic exercises, massage and physiotherapy are carried out. For therapeutic purposes, lay the patient on the stomach with a wedge-shaped stand under the chest or on a solid bench with arms outstretched. The child’s incorrect posture should be systematically corrected during school hours. In those cases when it is associated with visual defects, selection of glasses and treatment of myopia are necessary. From sports activities swimming, water polo, volleyball, skiing are especially useful. Cycling, skating, weightlifting, various jumps, wrestling are contraindicated. In cases where kyphosis is caused by a destructive process (tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, tumor, etc.), there is a need for prompt correction of deformation.