CROP is a disease characterized by the rapid appearance on the skin of more or less common pruritic eruptions, usually blisters. Often combined with allergic angioedema.
Urticaria most often occurs between the ages of 21 and 60 years, mainly in women. It can cause drugs, food, cosmetics, insect bites.
Clinical picture . Acute urticaria begins suddenly with severe itching of the skin of various parts of the body, sometimes its entire surface. May be accompanied by malaise, headache, often a rise in body temperature of up to 38–39 ° C. Soon on the itchy areas appear hyperemic rash, protruding above the skin surface - blisters. As the swelling increases, the capillaries are compressed and the blister turns pale. In the center of the edema, a bubble with detachment of the epidermis is possible. The exudate may become hemorrhagic in nature, and later, as a result of the breakdown of red blood cells, pigment spots are formed. Elements of the rash can have different sizes - from small ones (as big as a pinhead) to giant ones. They are located separately or merge, forming fancy figures with scalloped edges. Rashes that appear, then disappear, remaining in one place for several hours and then reappearing in another area. The duration of the acute period is from several hours to several days, after which they speak about the subacute form of the urticaria. If the total duration of the urticaria exceeds 3 weeks, then the disease becomes chronic.
Chronic recurrent urticaria flows in waves, sometimes over a very long time (up to 20 - 30 years) with periods of remission. This form is accompanied by a particularly painful itching. Patients comb their skin to the blood. As a result of scratching infections, pustules and other elements appear.
Treatment depends on the form of the urticaria. When food allergies from the diet eliminate the "guilty" allergen and all products containing it. In case of medicinal genesis of urticaria, the patient is for life prohibited from prescribing causally important drugs and other substances with cross properties with them. Drugs of other groups are prescribed strictly for health reasons. They prescribe antihistamines - blockers of H2-histamine receptors of the first (suprastin, tavegil), and better than the second generation (astemizole, terfenadine, zyrtec, claritin).
Corticosteroids are used only in severe cases of the disease, when laryngeal edema threatening asphyxiation is observed, the combination of urticaria with severe asthma and anaphylactic shock, or with H2-histamine blockers ineffective. At the same time carry out the treatment of associated diseases.
Symptomatic therapy is reduced to measures aimed at eliminating individual symptoms - itching, swelling. So, with severe edema of the larynx, threatening asphyxia, tracheostomy is shown. At urticaria, accompanied by collapse, 0.5 ml of 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride is injected subcutaneously, Corticosteroids (intravenous hydrocortisone hemisuccinate 75–125 mg or prednisone 30–60 mg). The measures aimed at reducing itching include: hot showers, rubbing the skin with a half-alcohol solution, table vinegar diluted 2 times with water, fresh lemon juice, 1% solution of Dimedrol. In some cases, there is improvement after bathing with nettles or a string, taking powder or decoction of licorice root.
The prognosis of allergic urticaria favorable, removal of the allergen leads to a cure. Prevention comes down to preventing contact with the allergen or conducting supportive courses of desensitization.