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Secrets of the Ocean
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METHOD OF MANUFACTURING WATER SIGNS ON PAPER
Earlier, at what time the paper was made by the master, he scooped up a liquid rag crumb boiled in an alkaline solution from a tank with a flat mesh form. The image of the watermark was embroidered on the grid with a thin wire. When the water flowed, less fibers settled on its embossed surface and the paper also thinned, repeating the image of embroidery. Thus, it was possible to act images not only convex, but also indented as filigree. On paper, the image will not be thicker, only thinner than a sheet or embossed.
In the case of machine production, the embroidered bottoms of the screens were replaced with light cylinders also with rollers with a patterned surface - they leave their marks on the still very wet paper web located on the casting grid of the paper machine. They also act in a different way - they moisten the finished, dry paper is also pressed into it with the help of dies or a patterned rubber roller. Such a watermark, in contrast to the actual, is called artificial or monetary.