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Mechanical injury to the ear

Mechanical ear injury is the most common type of ear damage. The nature of the damage depends on the intensity of the injury. Not only the outer ear can be damaged, but also the middle, and even the inner ear (fracture of the base of the skull).

Symptoms, course. Bruises of the auricle are often complicated by a hematoma. More severe injuries may be accompanied by separation and crushing of the auricle. With severe trauma, both longitudinal (more often) and transverse fracture of the pyramid are observed. A longitudinal fracture of the pyramid, in addition to common symptoms, is accompanied by rupture of the eardrum, skin of the upper wall of the external auditory canal, bleeding from the ear, and often liquorrhea; the facial nerve, as a rule, is not damaged in this case, the function of the vestibular apparatus is preserved, the hearing decreases (sound conduction is impaired). A transverse fracture of the temporal bone pyramid is accompanied by damage to the labyrinth and, as a rule, the facial nerve. In this case, the auditory and vestibular functions almost always completely disappear. The eardrum usually remains intact, no bleeding from the external auditory meatus. The nature of the bone lesions is established by X-ray examination of the skull.

Treatment. For minor abrasions and bruising of the auricle - lubrication with 5% tincture of iodine and an aseptic dressing. Treatment of hematoma. When crushing and detachment of the auricle - gentle primary surgical treatment, sutures on the edges of the wound, bandage. They administer tetanus tetanus toxoid and toxoid, prescribe antibiotics, sulfonamide drugs, physiotherapeutic treatment - ultraviolet radiation, UHF currents according to indications. In case of bleeding from the external auditory canal (fractures of the base of the skull), a lump of sterile cotton should be inserted into the auditory canal and a sterile dressing should be applied. The cleaning of the external auditory canal and especially its washing are contraindicated. The patient is prescribed complete rest. If purulent otitis media develops, then it is treated according to general rules (see Otitis).

Surgical intervention is performed with appropriate indications (non-stop bleeding from the ear, symptoms of intracranial complications).